List of elected socialist mayors in the United States
|U.S. towns electing Socialist|
mayors or major officers,
|Source: James Weinstein, 1967|
In 1911 it was estimated there were twenty-eight such mayors and in 1913 thirty-four. In 1967, however, James Weinstein's table of "Cities and Towns Electing Socialist Mayors or Other Major Municipal Officers, 1911–1920" counted 74 such municipalities in 1911 and 32 in 1913, with smaller peaks in 1915 (22) and 1917 (18).
List of mayors
- I^ Barewald resigned from the Socialist Party during the first week of January 1921 and captured national headlines by declaring radicals "insane" and instructing local police to greet unwanted members of the Industrial Workers of the World with "hot lead." See: "Wants Town Rid of IWW: Mayor Barewald Advises Use of Riot Guns," Eugene Morning Register, Jan. 9, 1921, pg. 1.
- II^ Ran for the Rockford Progressive Party, which was formed by dissidents of the Rockford Labor Party in 1929.
- III^ Clavelle became a member of the Democratic Party in 2004.
- IV^ Chase and Coulter were both elected mayor for the Social Democratic Party, but the party later merged itself with a dissident faction of the Socialist Labor Party in 1901 and founded the Socialist Party of America.
- V^ His name is alternatively spelled Lewis J. Duncan.
- VI^ Was running for the Rockford Labor Legion from 1921–1927, in 1929 the Labor Party refused to nominate him on the grounds that he had moved from some of the party's principles. He ran as an independent from 1929-33.
- The Rockford Labor Legion was a coalition of local trade unions, socialist organizations and temperance societies.
- VII^ Lumumba was self-described as a socialist.
- VIII^ Sanders has declared himself to be a democratic socialist.
- IX^ Van Lear was expelled from the Socialist Party in 1918
- Weinstein, James (1967). The Decline of Socialism in America 1912–1925. New York: Monthly Review Press, reprinted in 1969 by Vintage Books (Random House), Table 2: "Cities and Towns Electing Socialist Mayors or Other Major Municipal Officers, 1911–1920", pp. 116–118.
- Hoxie, Robert F. "The Rising Tide of Socialism": A Study. The Journal of Political Economy. October 1911;19(8):609-631. doi:10.1086/251906.
- In: Ghent, W.J.. Socialism and Government: Working Programs and Records of Socialists in Office. Girard, KS: Appeal to Reason; 1916 [Retrieved 4 January 2010]. p. 46.
- "Socialists Elected," San Bernardino County Sun, April 4, 1920, pg. 3.
- Belgum, David Rudolph (1990). Memoirs of Iowa's Only Socialist Mayor. Iowa City: Rose of Sharon Publishing House.
- Ross, The Socialist Party of America, pg. 610.
- Hal Nelson 1968, pp. 102.
- Nelson 1968, pp. 102.
- Bengston 1999, pp. 209.
- "Socialist Mayor Assumes Office: The Inauguration of Mayor Born at Sheboygan Marks the First Municipal Victory for Socialism in Wisconsin," Social Democratic Herald [Milwaukee], April 25, 1903, pg. 1.
- Expelled by State Executive Board of the Social Democratic Party of Wisconsin on Jan. 16, 1904, for approving a private concession for a city trolley line. See: "The Expulsion of Mayor Born," Social Democratic Herald, Jan. 23, 1904, pg.5.
- Bedford 1966, pg. 90.
- Bedford 1966, pg. 117.
- John S. McCormick and John R. Sillito, A History of Utah Radicalism: Startling, Socialistic, and Decidedly Revolutionary. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 2011; pg. 192.
- Won election in November 1899 by a plurality of 1,564. See: Appeal to Reason, Dec. 16, 1899, pg. 4.
- Ross, The Socialist Party of America, pg. 612.
- "The Socialist Avalanche," Political Action [Milwaukee], whole no. 39 (April 15, 1911), pg. 1.
- "Butte Mayor and Sheriff Ousted". Herald Journal. October 7, 1914. Retrieved February 5, 2010.
- "Address of a Socialist Mayor," American Labor Union Journal, vol. 1, no. 26 (April 2, 1903), pg. 2
- Arrington 1922, pp. 487.
- Political Action [Milwaukee], whole no. 39 (April 15, 1911), pg. 1.
- "A Socialist Mayor: New Jersey Socialists Carry Rahway," The New Age (Buffalo), June 1, 1922, pg. 5.
- Socialists Sweep Norwalk Election; Party's Candidates for Mayor, Sheriff, Treasurer, and 11 for City Council Win. The New York Times. October 7, 1947 [Retrieved February 5, 2010].
- "Freese Quits Socialists In Norwalk: Mayor Heads Party of Independents for November Election," Hartford Courant, August 14, 1951. Freese ran again for office as an independent, winning additional two year terms in 1951, 1953, and 1957. See: Ross, The Socialist Party of America, pg. 612.
- "Elect Socialist Mayor" (PDF). The New York Times. November 5, 1919. Retrieved February 5, 2010.
- Fry, Amy Lyons (2003). "Socialist Mayors". In John J. Duffy; Samuel B. Hand; Ralph H. Orth, editors. The Vermont Encyclopedia. University of Vermont Press. p. 274.
- "Socialist Mayor Frank B. Hamilton" was embroiled in a federal sedition case late in 1918. See: Ohio Socialist, whole no. 49 (Jan. 1, 1919), pp. 1, 4. He was elected in Nov. 1917, according to "Frank B. Hamilton," Miami County Genealogical Researchers, http://www.thetroyhistoricalsociety.org/
- Ann Arbor Call, whole no. 91 (August 17, 1912), pg. 2.
- Elected to two terms, 1911 and 1913. See: John S. McCormick and John R. Sillito, A History of Utah Radicalism, pg. 201.
- "Socialist Mayor Chosen" (PDF). The New York Times. September 18, 1912. Retrieved February 5, 2010.
- Ross, The Socialist Party of America, pg. 609.
- John S. McCormick and John R. Sillito, A History of Utah Radicalism, pg. 189.
- LeSueur was elected on a ballot which did not list party affiliation but he was a veteran Socialist nominated to run by Local Grand Forks. See: Mila Tupper Maynard, "A Socialist Mayor and an Almost Mayor," Social-Democratic Herald [Milwaukee], vol. 13, no. 35, whole no. 648 (Dec. 31, 1910), pg. 2.
- Love was elected by a margin of 164 votes in the April 1916 election. "About the Milwaukee Election: Socialists Elect Mayor and Two Socialist Aldermen in West Allis," St. Louis Labor, whole no. 794 (April 22, 1916), pg. 8.
- "Democrats Fail in Hunt for Candidate" (PDF). The New York Times. July 6, 1918. Retrieved February 5, 2010.
- "Socialst Mayor Defeated" (PDF). The New York Times. April 2, 1912. Retrieved February 5, 2010.
- John S. McCormick and John R. Sillito, A History of Utah Radicalism, pg. 190.
- "Brainerd, Minn., Elects Socialist Mayor," St. Louis Labor, vol. 6, whole no. 429 (April 24, 1909), pg. 5.
- "Socialst Mayor for Milwaukee" (PDF). The New York Times. April 6, 1910. Retrieved February 5, 2010.
- "Arkansas Socialist Mayor" (PDF). The New York Times. April 4, 1912. Retrieved February 5, 2010.
- "Socialist Mayor Defeated". The Los Angeles Times. April 9, 1914. Retrieved February 5, 2010. (pay-fee for article)
- Bengston 1999, pp. 182.
- "'Fruits of Victory' Suit Fruit-Selling Mayor-Elect". Milwaukee Sentinel. April 9, 1931. Retrieved May 9, 2013.
- "Socialst Mayor Resigns from Party". Reading Eagle. April 9, 1932. Retrieved February 5, 2010.
- "Socialist Mayor Talks for Hillquit" (PDF). The New York Times. November 5, 1917. Retrieved February 5, 2010.
- "Comrades Who Will Control the City Government of St. Marys Ohio for the Next Two Years," International Socialist Review, vol. 12, no. 6 (Dec. 1911), pp. 376-378.
- French 1914, pp. 917.
- "Elect Mayor as Socialist," Chicago Daily Socialist, vol. 4, no. 156 (April 27, 1910), pg. 4.
- Bedford 1966, pp. 122.
- "One Man is Killed in Rioting and Million Damage". The New York Times. June 24, 1914. Retrieved February 5, 2010.
- "Butte Mayor is Stabbed by Miner". The New York Times. July 6, 1914. Retrieved February 5, 2010.
- Sunkara, Bhaskar (2014-06-01). "Free the Land: An Interview with Chokwe Lumumba". Jacobin. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
But he was quick to portray his movement as an inclusive socialist one.
- Lerer, Lisa (2009-07-16). "Where's the outrage over AIG bonuses?". The Politico. Retrieved 2009-08-04.
Only a handful of members, including self-described democratic socialist Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.), criticized Goldman’s payments and questioned whether the company also received additional government assistance through the Federal Reserve.
- Benjamin F. Arrington, Municipal History of Essex County in Massachusetts. Chicago: Lewis Historical Publishing Company, 1922; pg. 976.
- Henry F. Bedford, Socialism and the Workers in Massachusetts, 1886-1912. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1966.
- Henry Bengston, On the Left in America: Memoirs of the Scandinavian-American Labor Movement. SIU Press, 1999; pg. 237.
- Hiram Taylor French, History of Idaho: A Narrative Account of Its Historical Progress, Its People and Its Principal Interests. New York: New York Public Library, 1914; pg. 976.
- C. Hal Nelson, Sinnissippi Saga: A History of Rockford and Winnebago County, Illinois. Winnebago County Illinois Sesquicentennial Committee, 1968; pg. 536.
- Jack Ross, The Socialist Party of America: A Complete History. Lincoln, NE: Potomac Books, 2015; pp. 609–638.
- James Weinstein, The Decline of Socialism in America 1912–1925. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1967; pp. 116–118.