List of countries by Human Development Index

This is a full list of all the countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report. The latest report was released on 21 March 2017 and compiled on the basis of estimates for 2015.[1]

In the 2010 Human Development Report a further Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) was introduced. While the HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development (accounting for inequality)" and "the HDI can be viewed as an index of "potential" human development (or the maximum IHDI that could be achieved if there were no inequality)".[2]


The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income per capita indicators. A country scores higher HDI when the life expectancy at birth is longer, the education period is longer, and the income per capita is higher. It is used to distinguish whether the country is a developed, a developing or an underdeveloped country. The index was developed in 1990 by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq[3][4] and Indian economist Amartya Sen. The UN report covers 185 member states of the United Nations (out of 193), along with Hong Kong and Palestine; 8 UN member states are not included because of lack of data. The average HDI of regions of the world and groups of countries are also included for comparison.

Countries fall into four broad human development categories: Very High Human Development, High Human Development, Medium Human Development and Low Human Development.

Because of the new methodology adopted since the 2010 Human Development Report, the new reported HDI figures appear lower than the HDI figures in previous reports.

From 2007 to 2010, the 1st category was referred to as developed countries, and the last 3 are all grouped in developing countries. The original "high human development" category has been split into two as above in the report for 2007.

Some older groupings (high/medium/low income countries) that were based on the gross domestic product (GDP) in purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita have been replaced by another index based on the gross national income (GNI) in purchasing power parity per capita.

Frequency of issuing the index

The first index was launched in 1990, and the only year without a Human Development Report since 1990 was 2012.

The latest index - covering 188 countries - was launched on 21 March 2017[1], and the next one - covering 189 countries - will be launched on 14 September 2018[5].

Complete list of countries

  • = increase.
  • = steady.
  • = decrease.

Very high human development

High human development

Medium human development

Low human development

List of countries by continent




North America and the Caribbean


South America

List of countries by intercontinental region

Arab League

Commonwealth of Nations

East Asia and the Pacific

European Union

HDI by regions and groups

Note: 2009 publication uses old HDI formula and classification standard. The ranges are 0–0.499 for low HDI, 0.500–0.799 for medium HDI, 0.800–0.899 for high HDI and greater than 0.900 for very high HDI.[16]

See also


  1. The UN does not calculate the HDI of Macau. The government of Macau calculates its own HDI.[11]
  2. The UN does not recognize the Republic of China (Taiwan) as a sovereign state. The HDI report does not include Taiwan as part of the People's Republic of China when calculating China's figures (see[12]). Taiwan's government calculated its HDI to be 0.885, based on 2010 new methodology of UNDP.[13]


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 "Human Development Report 2016 – "Human Development for Everyone"" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. pp. 198–201. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  2. Human Development Report, The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development (2010) p.87
  3. "The Human Development concept". UNDP. 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  4. "History of the Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on 3 April 2009. Retrieved 26 March 2009.
  5. "2011 Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. p. 151. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  6. "The 2013 Human Development Report – "The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World"". HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. pp. 144–147. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
  7. "Human Development Report 2014 – "Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience"". HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Filling Gaps in the Human Development Index, United Nations ESCAP, February 2009
  9. "About Kosovo". UNDP. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
  10. "DSEC - 統計資料".
  11. "- Human Development Reports" (PDF).
  12. "2017中華民國人類發展指數(HDI)" (Excel) (in Chinese). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2017. Retrieved 2017-04-21.
  13. Fuentes-Ramírez, Ricardo R. (2017). "Human Development Index Trends and Inequality in Puerto Rico 2010-2015" (PDF). Ceteris Paribus: Journal of Socio-Economic Research. 7. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Quel niveau de développement humain dans les outre-mer?, Agence Française de Developpment, 2012 (in French)
  15. Human Development Report 2009, UNDP, p. 15
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.