List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita

Three lists of countries below calculate gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.

As of 2017, the average GDP per capita (PPP) of all of the countries of the world is USD $17,300.[1]

Methodology

The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita figures on this page are derived from PPP calculations. Such calculations are prepared by various organizations, including the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. As estimates and assumptions have to be made, the results produced by different organizations for the same country are not hard facts and tend to differ, sometimes substantially, so they should be used with caution.

Comparisons of national wealth are frequently made on the basis of nominal GDP and savings (not just income), which do not reflect differences in the cost of living in different countries (see List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita); hence, using a PPP basis is arguably more useful when comparing generalized differences in living standards between nations because PPP takes into account the relative cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries, rather than using only exchange rates, which may distort the real differences in income. This is why GDP (PPP) per capita is often considered one of the indicators of a country's standard of living,[2][3] although this can be problematic because GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income. (See Standard of living and GDP.)

Note that the Irish GDP data below is subject to material distortion by the tax planning activities of foreign multinationals in Ireland. 2015 Irish GDP was over 150% of 2015 Irish GNI. To address this, in 2017 the Central Bank of Ireland created "modified GNI" (or GNI*) as a more appropriate statistic, and the OECD and IMF have adopted it for Ireland. 2015 Irish GDP is 143% of 2015 Irish GNI*.

Lists of countries and dependencies

All figures are in current Geary–Khamis dollars (also known as international dollars), and rounded up or down to the nearest whole number.

Several economies that are not considered to be sovereign states (such as various dependent territories) are included because they appear in the sources. These non-sovereign entities, former countries and other special groupings are in italics. They are listed in dollar order, but are not given a numerical rank.

International Monetary Fund (2017)[4] World Bank (2017)[5][6] Central Intelligence Agency (19932017)[7]
Rank Country/Territory Int$
1 Qatar124,927
 Macau114,430
2 Luxembourg109,192
3 Singapore90,531
4 Brunei76,743
5 Ireland72,632
6 Norway70,590
7 Kuwait69,669
8 United Arab Emirates68,245
9  Switzerland61,360
 Hong Kong61,016
10 San Marino60,359
11 United States59,495
12 Saudi Arabia55,263
13 Netherlands53,582
14 Iceland52,150
15 Bahrain51,846
16 Sweden51,264
17 Germany50,206
18 Australia49,882
19 Taiwan49,827
20 Denmark49,613
21 Austria49,247
22 Canada48,141
23 Belgium46,301
24 Oman45,464
25 Finland44,050
26 United Kingdom43,620
27 France43,550
28 Japan42,659
29 Malta42,532
30 South Korea39,387
31 New Zealand38,502
32 Spain38,171
33 Italy37,970
 Puerto Rico37,895
34 Cyprus36,557
35 Israel36,250
36 Czech Republic35,223
37 Equatorial Guinea34,865
38 Slovenia34,063
39 Slovakia32,895
40 Lithuania31,935
41 Estonia31,473
42 Trinidad and Tobago31,154
43 Portugal30,258
44 Poland29,251
45 Hungary28,910
46 Malaysia28,871
47 Seychelles28,712
48 Russia27,890
49 Greece27,776
50 Latvia27,291
51 Saint Kitts and Nevis26,849
52 Antigua and Barbuda26,198
53 Turkey26,453
54 Kazakhstan26,071
55 Bahamas, The25,080
56 Chile24,588
57 Panama24,262
58 Croatia24,095
59 Romania23,991
60 Uruguay22,445
61 Mauritius21,628
62 Bulgaria21,578
63 Argentina20,677
64 Iran20,030
65 Mexico19,480
66 Lebanon19,486
67 Gabon19,266
68 Maldives19,178
69 Turkmenistan18,680
70 Belarus18,616
71 Botswana18,146
72 Thailand17,786
73 Barbados17,508
74 Montenegro17,439
75 Azerbaijan17,433
76 Costa Rica17,149
77 Iraq17,004
78 Dominican Republic16,965
 World[n 1]16,779
79 China16,624
80 Palau16,472
81 Brazil15,500
82 Macedonia15,203
83 Serbia15,164
84 Algeria15,150
85 Grenada14,779
86 Colombia14,455
87 Suriname13,876
88 Saint Lucia13,579
89 South Africa13,403
90 Peru13,342
91 Sri Lanka13,001
92 Egypt12,994
93 Mongolia12,551
94 Jordan12,487
95 Albania12,472
96 Venezuela12,388
97 Indonesia12,378
98 Dominica12,035
 Kosovo12,003
99 Nauru11,995
100 Tunisia11,987
101 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines11,623
102 Namibia11,528
103 Bosnia and Herzegovina11,404
104 Ecuador11,234
105 Georgia10,644
106 Swaziland9,882
107 Fiji9,857
108 Libya9,792
109 Paraguay9,785
110 Jamaica9,212
111 Armenia9,098
112 El Salvador8,934
113 Bhutan8,720
114 Ukraine8,656
115 Morocco8,612
116 Belize8,341
117 Guyana8,266
118 Philippines8,229
119 Guatemala8,173
120 Bolivia7,543
121 Laos7,367
122 India7,174
123 Uzbekistan6,990
124 Cape Verde6,942
125 Vietnam6,876
126 Angola6,813
127 Congo, Rep.6,707
128 Myanmar6,285
129 Nigeria5,927
130 Nicaragua5,823
131 Samoa5,737
132 Moldova5,657
133 Tonga5,605
134 Honduras5,499
135 Pakistan5,354
136 Timor-Leste5,008
137 Ghana4,605
138 Sudan4,580
139 Bangladesh4,561
140 Mauritania4,474
141 Cambodia4,010
142 Zambia3,997
143 Lesotho3,869
144 Côte d'Ivoire3,857
145 Tuvalu3,804
146 Papua New Guinea3,803
147 Kyrgyzstan3,652
148 Djibouti3,567
149 Kenya3,496
150 Marshall Islands3,436
151 Micronesia3,392
152 Cameroon3,359
153 Tanzania3,283
154 São Tomé and Príncipe3,208
155 Tajikistan3,131
156 Vanuatu2,780
157   Nepal2,690
158 Senegal2,678
159 Chad2,433
160 Uganda2,352
161 Yemen2,300
162 Zimbabwe2,277
163 Benin2,219
164 Mali2,169
165 Solomon Islands2,145
166 Ethiopia2,113
167 Rwanda2,081
168 Guinea2,039
169 Kiribati1,958
170 Afghanistan1,889
171 Burkina Faso1,884
172 Haiti1,810
173 Guinea-Bissau1,806
174 Sierra Leone1,791
175 Gambia, The1,686
176 South Sudan1,503
177 Togo1,612
178 Comoros1,560
179 Madagascar1,554
180 Eritrea1,434
181 Mozambique1,266
182 Malawi1,172
183 Niger1,153
184 Liberia867
185 Burundi808
186 Congo, Dem. Rep.785
187 Central African Republic681
Rank Country/Territory Int$
1 Qatar128,378
 Macau115,123
2 Luxembourg103,662
3 Singapore93,905
4 Brunei78,836
5 Ireland76,305
6 United Arab Emirates73,879
7  Kuwait 71,943
8  Switzerland65,006
9  San Marino 62,425
 Hong Kong61,540
10 Norway60,978
11 United States59,532
12 Saudi Arabia53,845
13 Iceland53,518
14 Netherlands52,941
15 Austria52,558
16 Germany50,715
17 Denmark50,541
18 Sweden50,070
19 Belgium47,561
20  Bahrain 47,527
21 Australia47,047
22 Canada46,378
23 Finland45,192
24 United Kingdom43,877
25 Japan43,876
26 France42,779
27  Oman 41,675
28 New Zealand40,917
29 Italy39,817
30 Malta39,534
31 Israel38,413
32 South Korea38,260
33 Spain38,091
34 Czech Republic36,916
35 Slovenia34,802
35 Cyprus34,504
36 Portugal32,199
37 Slovakia32,111
38 Lithuania32,093
39 Estonia31,638
40 Trinidad and Tobago31,578
41 Bahamas, The30,430
42 Malaysia29,432
43 Poland29,291
44 Seychelles28,964
45 Hungary28,375
46 Turkey27,916
47 Greece27,809
48 Latvia27,598
49 Saint Kitts and Nevis27,067
50 Kazakhstan26,410
51 Romania25,841
52 Russia25,533
53 Croatia25,264
54 Equatorial Guinea24,817
55 Panama24,446
56 Chile24,085
57 Antigua and Barbuda23,594
58 Uruguay22,563
59 Mauritius22,279
60  Iran 20,950
61 Argentina20,787
62 Bulgaria20,329
63  Libya 19,631
64 Belarus18,848
65 Montenegro18,765
66 Barbados18,640
67 Gabon18,183
68 Mexico18,149
69 Turkmenistan17,993
70 Thailand17,871
71 Azerbaijan17,398
72 Botswana17,354
73 Iraq17,197
74 Costa Rica17,044
 World16,961
75 China16,807
76 Maldives16,669
77 Dominican Republic16,030
78 Brazil15,484
79 Algeria15,275
80 Macedonia15,231
81 Suriname15,114
82 Serbia15,090
83 Grenada14,924
84 Lebanon14,676
85 Colombia14,552
86 Palau14,536
87 Saint Lucia14,219
88 Nauru14,158
89 South Africa13,498
90 Peru13,434
91 Mongolia13,000
92 Bosnia and Herzegovina12,876
93 Sri Lanka12,811
94 Indonesia12,284
95 Albania12,021
96 Tunisia11,911
97 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines11,777
98 Ecuador11,617
99 Egypt11,583
 Kosovo10,754
100 Georgia10,699
101 Dominica10,620
102 Namibia10,476
103 Paraguay9,691
104 Armenia9,648
105 Bhutan9,561
106 Fiji9,555
107 Jordan9,153
108 Jamaica8,995
109 Ukraine8,667
110 Belize8,590
111 Swaziland8,496
112 Philippines8,342
113 Morocco8,218
114 Guyana8,163
115 Guatemala8,150
116 El Salvador8,006
117 Bolivia7,560
118  Timor-Leste 7,213
119 India7,056
120 Laos7,023
121 Uzbekistan6,865
122 Cape Verde6,832
123 Vietnam6,775
124 Samoa6,611
125 Angola6,389
126 Myanmar6,139
127 Tonga5,957
128 Nigeria5,861
129 Nicaragua5,842
130 Moldova5,698
131 Pakistan5,527
132 Congo, Rep.5,359
133 Honduras4,986
134 Sudan4,904
135 West Bank and Gaza4,885
136 Ghana4,641
137 Papua New Guinea4,197
138 Marshall Islands4,192
139 Zambia4,050
140 Cambodia4,002
141 Côte d'Ivoire3,953
142 Mauritania3,950
143 Tuvalu3,925
144 Bangladesh3,869
145 Kyrgyzstan3,726
146 Cameroon3,694
147 Micronesia3,622
148 São Tomé and Príncipe3,351
149 Kenya3,286
150 Vanuatu3,208
151 Tajikistan3,180
152 Lesotho3,130
153 Tanzania2,946
154 Senegal2,712
155   Nepal2,682
156 Solomon Islands2,422
157 Guinea2,285
158 Benin2,266
159 Mali2,211
160 Kiribati2,175
161 Zimbabwe2,086
162 Rwanda2,036
163 Afghanistan1,981
164 Chad1,941
165 Ethiopia1,899
166 Burkina Faso1,870
167 Uganda1,864
168 Haiti1,815
169 Gambia, The1,715
170 Guinea-Bissau1,700
171 Togo1,570
172 Madagascar1,555
173 Comoros1,552
174 Sierra Leone1,526
175 Mozambique1,247
176 Malawi1,202
177 Niger1,017
178 Congo, Dem. Rep.887
179 Liberia827
180 Burundi771
181 Central African Republic726
Rank Country/Territory Int$ Year
1 Liechtenstein139,1002009 est.
2 Qatar124,9002017 est.
3 Monaco115,7002015 est.
 Macau114,4002017 est.
4 Luxembourg109,1002017 est.
 Falkland Islands96,2002012 est.
5 Singapore90,5002017 est.
 Bermuda85,7002013 est.
 Isle of Man84,6002014 est.
6 Brunei76,7002017 est.
7 Ireland72,6002017 est.
8 Norway70,6002017 est.
9 Kuwait69,7002017 est.
10 United Arab Emirates68,2002017 est.
 Sint Maarten66,8002014 est.
 Gibraltar61,7002014 est.
11  Switzerland61,4002017 est.
 Hong Kong61,0002017 est.
12 San Marino59,5002017 est.
13 United States59,5002017 est.
14 Saudi Arabia55,3002017 est.
15 Netherlands53,6002017 est.
 Guernsey52,5002014 est.
16 Iceland52,1002017 est.
17 Bahrain51,8002017 est.
18 Sweden51,3002017 est.
19 Germany50,2002017 est.
20 Australia49,9002017 est.
21 Andorra49,9002015 est.
22 Taiwan49,8002017 est.
23 Denmark49,6002017 est.
 Jersey49,5002015 est.
24 Austria49,2002017 est.
25 Canada48,1002017 est.
26 Belgium46,3002017 est.
27 Oman45,5002017 est.
28 Finland44,0002017 est.
 Cayman Islands43,8002004 est.
29 France43,6002017 est.
30 United Kingdom43,6002017 est.
31 Japan42,7002017 est.
32 Malta42,5002017 est.
 British Virgin Islands42,3002010 est.
 Faroe Islands40,0002014 est.
33 South Korea39,4002017 est.
34 New Zealand38,5002017 est.
35 Spain38,2002017 est.
36 Italy38,0002017 est.
 Puerto Rico37,9002017 est.
 Greenland37,6002015 est.
37 Cyprus36,6002017 est.
38 Israel36,2002017 est.
 US Virgin Islands36,1002013 est.
39 Czech Republic35,2002017 est.
40 Equatorial Guinea34,9002017 est.
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon34,9002006 est.
41 Slovenia34,1002017 est.
42 Slovakia32,9002017 est.
43 Lithuania31,9002017 est.
44 Estonia31,5002017 est.
45 Trinidad and Tobago31,2002017 est.
 New Caledonia31,1002015 est.
 Guam30,5002013 est.
46 Portugal30,3002017 est.
47 Poland29,3002017 est.
 Turks and Caicos Islands29,1002007 est.
48 Seychelles28,9002017 est.
49 Hungary28,9002017 est.
50 Malaysia28,9002017 est.
51 Russia27,9002017 est.
52 Greece27,8002017 est.
53 Latvia27,3002017 est.
54 Saint Kitts and Nevis26,8002017 est.
55 Turkey26,5002017 est.
56 Antigua and Barbuda26,3002017 est.
57 Kazakhstan26,1002017 est.
 Aruba25,3002011 est.
58 The Bahamas25,1002017 est.
59 Chile24,6002017 est.
60 Panama24,3002017 est.
61 Croatia24,1002017 est.
62 Romania24,0002017 est.
63 Uruguay22,4002017 est.
64 Bulgaria21,6002017 est.
65 Mauritius21,6002017 est.
66 Argentina20,7002017 est.
67 Iran20,0002017 est.
68 Mexico19,5002017 est.
69 Lebanon19,5002017 est.
70 Gabon19,3002017 est.
 Saint Martin19,3002005 est.
71 Maldives19,2002017 est.
72 Turkmenistan18,7002017 est.
73 Belarus18,6002017 est.
74 Botswana18,1002017 est.
75 Thailand17,8002017 est.
76 Barbados17,5002017 est.
77 Azerbaijan17,4002017 est.
78 Montenegro17,4002017 est.
79 Costa Rica17,2002017 est.
80 Iraq17,0002017 est.
 French Polynesia17,0002015 est.
81 Dominican Republic17,0002017 est.
82 Palau16,7002017 est.
83 China16,6002017 est.
84 Brazil15,5002017 est.
85 Serbia15,2002017 est.
86 Macedonia15,2002017 est.
87 Algeria15,1002017 est.
 Curaçao15,0002004 est.
88 Grenada14,7002017 est.
89 Colombia14,5002017 est.
90 Suriname13,9002017 est.
91 Saint Lucia13,5002017 est.
92 South Africa13,4002017 est.
 Northern Mariana Islands13,3002013 est.
93 Peru13,3002017 est.
94 Egypt13,0002017 est.
 American Samoa13,0002013 est.
95 Sri Lanka13,0002017 est.
96 Mongolia12,6002017 est.
97 Jordan12,5002017 est.
98 Albania12,5002017 est.
99 Indonesia12,4002017 est.
100 Venezuela12,4002017 est.
101 Cook Islands12,3002010 est.
102 Nauru12,2002017 est.
 Anguilla12,2002008 est.
103 Dominica12,0002017 est.
104 Tunisia12,0002017 est.
105 Cuba11,9002016 est.
106 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines11,6002017 est.
107 Namibia11,5002017 est.
108 Bosnia and Herzegovina11,4002017 est.
109 Ecuador11,2002017 est.
110 Georgia10,6002017 est.
 Kosovo10,4002017 est.
111 Fiji9,9002017 est.
112 Swaziland9,9002017 est.
113 Paraguay9,8002017 est.
114 Libya9,8002017 est.
115 Jamaica9,2002017 est.
116 Armenia9,1002017 est.
117 El Salvador8,9002017 est.
118 Ukraine8,7002017 est.
119 Bhutan8,7002017 est.
120 Morocco8,6002017 est.
 Montserrat8,5002006 est.
121 Guyana8,3002017 est.
122 Belize8,3002017 est.
123 Guatemala8,2002017 est.
124 Philippines8,2002017 est.
 Saint Helena, Ascension
and Tristan da Cunha
7,8002010 est.
125 Bolivia7,5002017 est.
126 Laos7,4002017 est.
127 India7,2002017 est.
128 Uzbekistan7,0002017 est.
129 Vietnam6,9002017 est.
130 Cape Verde6,9002017 est.
131 Angola6,8002017 est.
132 Congo, Rep.6,7002017 est.
133 Myanmar6,3002017 est.
134 Nigeria5,9002017 est.
135 Nicaragua5,8002015 est.
136 Niue5,8002003 est.
137 Moldova5,7002017 est.
138 Samoa5,7002017 est.
139 Tonga5,6002017 est.
140 Honduras5,5002017 est.
141 Pakistan5,4002017 est.
142 Timor-Leste5,0002017 est.
143 Ghana4,6002017 est.
144 Sudan4,6002017 est.
145 Mauritania4,5002017 est.
146 State of Palestine4,3002014 est.
147 Bangladesh4,2002017 est.
148 Cambodia4,0002017 est.
149 Zambia4,0002017 est.
150 Lesotho3,9002017 est.
151 Côte d'Ivoire3,9002017 est.
152 Tuvalu3,8002017 est.
153 Papua New Guinea3,8002017 est.
 Wallis and Futuna3,8002004 est.
154 Kyrgyzstan3,7002017 est.
155 Djibouti3,6002017 est.
156 Kenya3,5002017 est.
157 Cameroon3,4002017 est.
158 Marshall Islands3,4002017 est.
160 Micronesia3,4002017 est.
161 Tanzania3,3002017 est.
162 São Tomé and Príncipe3,2002017 est.
163 Tajikistan3,1002017 est.
164 Syria2,9002015 est.
165 Vanuatu2,8002017 est.
166   Nepal2,7002017 est.
167 Senegal2,7002017 est.
 Western Sahara2,5002007 est.
168 Chad2,4002017 est.
169 Uganda2,4002017 est.
170 Zimbabwe2,3002017 est.
171 Yemen2,3002017 est.
172 Mali2,2002017 est.
173 Benin2,2002017 est.
174 Rwanda2,1002017 est.
175 Ethiopia2,1002017 est.
176 Solomon Islands2,1002017 est.
177 Guinea2,0002017 est.
178 Burkina Faso1,9002017 est.
179 Kiribati1,9002017 est.
180 Afghanistan1,9002017 est.
181 Sierra Leone1,8002017 est.
182 Guinea-Bissau1,8002017 est.
183 Haiti1,8002017 est.
184 North Korea1,7002015 est.
185 The Gambia1,7002017 est.
186 Togo1,6002017 est.
187 Madagascar1,6002017 est.
188 Comoros1,6002017 est.
189 South Sudan1,5002017 est.
190 Eritrea1,4002017 est.
191 Mozambique1,3002017 est.
192 Niger1,2002017 est.
193 Malawi1,2002017 est.
 Tokelau1,0001993 est.
194 Liberia9002017 est.
195 Congo, Dem. Rep.8002017 est.
196 Burundi8002017 est.
197 Central African Republic7002017 est.
198 SomaliaN/A2017 est.

Distorted GDP-per-capita for tax havens

There are many natural economic reasons for GDP-per-capita to vary between jurisdictions (e.g. places rich in Oil & Gas reserves tend to have high GDP-per-capita figures). However, it is increasingly being recognized that tax havens, or corporate tax havens, have distorted economic data which produces artificially high, or inflated, GDP-per-capita figures.[8] It is estimated that over 15% of global jurisdictions are tax havens (see tax haven lists).[9] An IMF investigation estimates that circa 40% of global FDI flows, which heavily influence the GDP of various jurisdictions, are described as "phantom" transactions.[10]

A stunning $12 trillion—almost 40 percent of all foreign direct investment positions globally—is completely artificial: it consists of financial investment passing through empty corporate shells with no real activity. These investments in empty corporate shells almost always pass through well-known tax havens. The eight major pass-through economies—the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Hong Kong SAR, the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Ireland, and Singapore—host more than 85 percent of the world’s investment in special purpose entities, which are often set up for tax reasons.

"Piercing the Veil", International Monetary Fund, June 2018[10]

In 2017, Ireland's economic data became so distorted by U.S. multinational tax avoidance strategies (see leprechaun economics), also known as BEPS actions, that Ireland effectively abandoned GDP (and GNP) statistics as credible measures of its economy, and created a replacement statistic called Modified gross national income (or GNI*). Ireland is one of the world's largest corporate tax havens.

Ireland has, more or less, stopped using GDP to measure its own economy. And on current trends [because Irish GDP is distorting EU-28 aggregate data], the eurozone taken as a whole may need to consider something similar.

Brad Setser, Council on Foreign Relations, "Ireland exports its Leprechaun", 25 April 2018[11]

The statistical distortions created by the impact on the Irish National Accounts of the global assets and activities of a handful of large multinational corporations have now become so large as to make a mockery of conventional uses of Irish GDP.

Patrick Honohan, ex-Governor of the Central Bank of Ireland, 13 July 2016[12]

A list of the top 15 GDP-per-capita countries from 2016-2017, contains most of the major global tax havens (see GDP-per-capita tax haven proxy for more detail):

International Monetary Fund (2017) World Bank (2016)[13][14]
Rank Country/Territory Type
1 QatarOil & Gas
 MacauTax haven (Sink OFC)
2 LuxembourgTop 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3 SingaporeTop 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4 BruneiOil & Gas
5 IrelandTop 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
6 NorwayOil & Gas
7 KuwaitOil & Gas
8 United Arab EmiratesOil & Gas
9  SwitzerlandTop 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
 Hong KongTop 10 Tax Haven (Sink OFC)
10 San MarinoTax haven (Sink OFC)
11 United States59,495
12 Saudi ArabiaOil & Gas
13 NetherlandsTop 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
14 Iceland52,150
15 BahrainOil & Gas
Rank Country/Territory Type
1 QatarOil & Gas
2 LuxembourgTop 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
 MacauTax haven (Sink OFC)
3 SingaporeTop 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4 BruneiOil & Gas
5 United Arab EmiratesOil & Gas
6 IrelandTop 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
7  SwitzerlandTop 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
8 NorwayOil & Gas
 Hong KongTop 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
9 United States57,467
10 Saudi ArabiaOil & Gas
11 Iceland51,399
12 NetherlandsTop 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
13 Austria50,078
14 Denmark49,496
15 Sweden49,175

See also

Notes

  1. Calculated by dividing total world GDP according to IMF by total world population based on 2017 projection published by the United Nations.

References

  1. "World GDP – per capita (PPP) – Economy". www.indexmundi.com.
  2. "Sarkozy attacks focus on economic growth (French president urges more emphasis on quality of life)", The Guardian, 14-09-2009.
  3. "Alternative progress indicators to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a means towards sustainable development"
  4. World Economic Outlook Database, January 2018, International Monetary Fund. Database updated on 12 April 2017. Accessed on 21 April 2017.
  5. PPP (current international $)", World Development Indicators database, World Bank. Database updated on 1 July 2017. Accessed on 2 July 2017.
  6. "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  7. GDP – per capita (PPP), The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 7 March 2014.
  8. "How tax havens turn economic statistics into nonsense". Quartz. 11 June 2018.
  9. Dharmapala, Dhammika; Hines, James R., Jr. (2009). "Which Countries Become Tax Havens?". Journal of Public Economics. 93 (9–10): 1058–1068. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2009.07.005. The paper implicitly adopts the "smaller" tax haven approach, i.e., disregarding larger countries which have either low taxes rates (for example, Russia), or systems of taxation which permit them to be used to structure tax avoidance schemes (for example, the United Kingdom). It also excludes non-sovereign tax havens (for example, Delaware or Labuan).
  10. 1 2 "Piercing the Veil, FINANCE & DEVELOPMENT, JUNE 2018, VOL. 55, NO. 2". IMF Finance & Development. June 2018.
  11. "Ireland Exports its Leprechaun". Council on Foreign Relations. 11 May 2018.
  12. "The Irish National Accounts: Towards some do's and don'ts". irisheconomy.ie. 13 July 2016.
  13. PPP (current international $)", World Development Indicators database, World Bank. Database updated on 1 July 2017. Accessed on 2 July 2017.
  14. "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
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