List of cities of the ancient Near East

The earliest cities in history appear in the ancient Near East. The area of the ancient Near East covers roughly that of the modern Middle East; its history begins in the 4th millennium BC and ends, depending on the interpretation of the term, either with the conquest by the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC or that by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC.

The largest cities of the Bronze Age Near East housed several tens of thousands. Memphis in the Early Bronze Age with some 30,000 inhabitants was the largest city of the time by far. Ur in the Middle Bronze Age is estimated to have had some 65,000 inhabitants; Babylon in the Late Bronze Age similarly had a population of some 50,000–60,000, while Niniveh had some 20,000–30,000, reaching 100,000 only in the Iron Age (ca. 700 BC).

The KI 𒆠 determinative was the Sumerian term for a city or city state.[1] In Akkadian and Hittite orthography, URU𒌷 became a determinative sign denoting a city, or combined with KUR𒆳 "land" the kingdom or territory controlled by a city, e.g. 𒄡𒆳𒌷𒄩𒀜𒌅𒊭 LUGAL KUR URUHa-at-ti "the king of the country of (the city of) Hatti".

Mesopotamia

Lower Mesopotamia

(ordered from north to south)

Upper Mesopotamia

(ordered from north to south)

Iran

Anatolia

(ordered from north to south)

The Levant

In alphabetical order:

Arabian Peninsula

Kerma (Doukki Gel)

Horn of Africa

Egypt

See also

References

  1. Electronic Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary (EPSD)
  2. Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Pasargadae". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2018-04-02.
  3. "Hasanlu Publication Project". www.penn.museum. Retrieved 2018-04-01.
  4. "Firouzabad Ardashir Palace Garden". www.gardenvisit.com. Retrieved 2018-04-01.
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