The following is a list of dynasties, states or empires which are Turkic-speaking, of Turkic origins, or both. There are currently six recognized Turkic sovereign states. Additionally, there are six federal subjects of Russia in which a Turkic language is a majority, and three where Turkic languages are the minority, and also Crimea, a disputed territory between Ukraine and Russia where Turkic languages are the minority. There have been numerous Turkic confederations, dynasties, and empires throughout history across the Eurasian continent.
World map with present-day independent recognized Turkic countries highlighted in red
Contemporary entities with at least one Turkic language recognized as official
Current independent states
||91.6% Azerbaijanis, 0.43% Turkish, 0.29% Tatars.|
||63.1% Kazakhs, 2.9% Uzbeks, 1.4% Uyghurs, 1.3% Tatars, 0.6% Turkish, 0.5% Azerbaijanis, 0.1% Kyrgyz.|
||70.9% Kyrgyz, 14.3% Uzbeks, 0.9% Uyghurs, 0.7% Turkish, 0.6% Kazakhs, 0.6% Tatars, 0.3% Azerbaijanis.|
||75.6% Turkmens, 9.2% Uzbeks, 2.0% Kazakhs, 1.1% Turkish 0.7% Tatars|
||71.4% Uzbeks, 4.1% Kazakhs, 2.4% Tatars, 2.1% Karakalpaks, 1% Crimean Tatars, 0.8% Kyrgyz, 0.6% Turkmens, 0.5% Turkish, 0.2% Azerbaijanis, 0.2% Uyghurs, 0.2% Bashkirs.|
Federal subjects of Russia
Historical Turkic confederations, dynasties, and states
Turkic dynasties and states
| Turkic Khaganate
|Western Turkic Khaganate
|Eastern Turkic Khaganate
||located in Ulutau mountains
| Uyghur Khaganate
|Oghuz Yabgu State
|Karluk Yabgu State
||Suyab later Balasagun
| Kara-Khanid Khanate
||Balasagun, Kashgar, Samarkand
|Gansu Uyghur Kingdom
|Kingdom of Qocho
| Anatolian Beyliks
||Many such as Karaman, Sinop, Adana, Alanya, Kahramanmaraş.
||Nakhchivan (city) and Hamadan
| Ottoman Empire
||Also known as the Turkish Empire, Ottoman Turkey or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia
||Söğüt 1299–1335, Bursa 1335–1413, Edirne 1413–1453, Istanbul 1453–1922
|Emirate of Kasgharia
||A short lived emirate in Kashgar region.
Middle East and North Africa
The Turko-Persian tradition was an Islamic tradition of the interpretation of literary forms, practiced and patronized by Turkic rulers and speakers. Many Turko-Persian states were founded in modern-day Eastern Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
||Ruled by a thoroughly Persianized family of Turkic mamluk origin
||Ghazna 977–1163, Lahore 1163–1186
||Ruled by a clan of originally Oghuz Turkic descent.
||Nishapur 1037–1043, Rey, Iran 1043–1051, Isfahan 1051–1118, Hamadan Western capital 1118–1194, Merv Eastern capital (1118–1153)
|Sultanate of Rûm
||Persianized Oghuz Turkic dynasty
||İznik, Iconium (Konya)
||Ruled by a family of Turkic mamluk origin.
||Gurganj 1077–1212, Samarkand 1212–1220, Ghazna 1220–1221, Tabriz 1225–1231
||Kara Koyunlu was an Oghuz Turkic tribal federation.
||Aq Qoyunlu was an tribal federation from Bayandur clan of the Oghuz Turks
||Diyarbakır 1453–1471, Tabriz 1468 – January 6, 1478
Turco-Mongol is a term describing the synthesis of Mongol and Turkic cultures by several states of Mongol origin throughout Eurasia. These states adopted Turkic languages, either among the populace or among the elite, and converted to Islam, but retained Mongol political and legal institutions. Two of these states founded by the Timurid dynasty, specifically the Timurid Empire and Mughal Empire, were influenced by the Persian and Indian cultures.
The following list is of only used as vassal khanates of Turkic origin,Which was ruled by of another descent peoples.
Former Provisional Governments and Republics
Autonomous Soviet Republics
Autonomous oblasts of the Soviet Union
- ↑ Demographics of Azerbaijan.
- ↑ Demographics of Kazakhstan.
- ↑ Demographics of Kyrgyzstan
- ↑ Demographics of Turkmenistan
- ↑ Demographics of Uzbekistan
- ↑ Recognized only by Turkey and the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, see Cyprus dispute.
- ↑ Gagauzia
- ↑ Der Fischer Weltalmanach 2011, Artikel „Karakalpakstan“, S. 496
- ↑ http://pop-stat.mashke.org/azerbaijan-ethnic2009.htm
- ↑ Veronika Veit, ed. (2007). The role of women in the Altaic world: Permanent International Altaistic Conference, 44th meeting, Walberberg, 26–31 August 2001. Volume 152 of Asiatische Forschungen (illustrated ed.). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 61. ISBN 3-447-05537-5. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
- ↑ Michael Robert Drompp (2005). Tang China and the collapse of the Uighur Empire: a documentary history. Volume 13 of Brill's Inner Asian library (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 126. ISBN 9004141294. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
- ↑ The Yenisei Kirghiz Khagans claimed to be of agnatic Chinese descent from Li Ling
- ↑ Encyclopedia of European peoples, Vol.1, Ed. Carl Waldman, Catherine Mason, (Infobase Publishing Inc., 2006), 475; "The Kipchaks were a loose tribal confederation of Turkics...".
- ↑ Vásáry, István, Cumans and Tatars: Oriental military in the pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185–1365, (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 6; "..two Turkic confederacies, the Kipchaks and the Cumans, had merged by the twelfth century.".
- ↑ Sneath 2007, p. 25.
- ↑ Peter Sarris (2011). Empires of Faith: The Fall of Rome to the Rise of Islam, 500–700. p. 308.
- ↑ The Emergence of Muslim Rule in India: Some Historical Disconnects and Missing Links, Tanvir Anjum, Islamic Studies, Vol. 46, No. 2 (Summer 2007), 233.
- ↑ Abulafia, David (2011). The Mediterranean in History. p. 170.
- ↑ Haag, Michael (2012). The Tragedy of the Templars: The Rise and Fall of the Crusader States.
- ↑ Bacharach, Jere L. (2006). Medieval Islamic Civilization: A-K, index. p. 382.
- ↑ C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, (Columbia University Press, 1996), 62.
- ↑ C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, (Columbia University Press, 1996), 191.
- ↑ Marshall Cavendish (2006). World and Its Peoples. p. 1213.
- ↑ Thackston 1996
- ↑ Findley 2005
- ↑ Saunders 1970, p.177
- ↑ "The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Tamarind Empire)". Ucalgary.ca. Archived from the original on 2009-08-16. Retrieved 2011-07-06.; "The Islamic World to 1600: Rise of the Great Islamic Empires (The Mughal Empire)". Ucalgary.ca. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2011-07-06.
- ↑ Wudai Shi, ch. 75. Considering the father was originally called Nieliji without a surname, the fact that his patrilineal ancestors all had Chinese names here indicates that these names were probably all created posthumously after Shi Jingtang became a "Chinese" emperor. Shi Jingtang actually claimed to be a descendant of Chinese historical figures Shi Que and Shi Fen, and insisted that his ancestors went westwards towards non-Han Chinese area during the political chaos at the end of the Han Dynasty in the early 3rd century.
- 1 2 According to Old History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 99, and New History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 10. Liu Zhiyuan was of Shatuo origin. According to Wudai Huiyao, vol. 1 Liu Zhiyuan's great-great-grandfather Liu Tuan (劉湍) (titled as Emperor Mingyuan posthumously, granted the temple name of Wenzu) descended from Liu Bing (劉昞), Prince of Huaiyang, a son of Emperor Ming of Han
- ↑ Lewis, Bernard. "Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire", p29. Published 1963, University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1060-0.
- 1 2 M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK Archived 2007-03-11 at the Wayback Machine.): "... here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkish heroes or Muslim saints ..."
- ↑ Muhammad Qāsim Hindū Šāh Astarābādī Firištah, "History Of The Mohamedan Power In India", Chapter I, "Sultān Mahmūd-e Ghaznavī", p.27: "... "Sabuktegin, the son of Jūkān, the son of Kuzil-Hukum, the son of Kuzil-Arslan, the son of Fīrūz, the son of Yezdijird, king of Persia. ..."
- ↑ Jonathan Dewald, "Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World", Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24
- ↑ K.A. Luther, "Alp Arslān" in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... Saljuq activity must always be viewed both in terms of the wishes of the sultan and his Khorasanian, Sunni advisors, especially Nezām-al-molk ..."
- ↑ Encyclopædia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition, (LINK): "... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."
- ↑ O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK Archived 2012-01-22 at the Wayback Machine.)
- ↑ 1.Bernard Lewis, Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire, 29; "Even when the land of Rum became politically independent, it remained a colonial extension of Turco-Persian culture which had its centers in Iran and Central Asia","The literature of Seljuk Anatolia was almost entirely in Persian...".
- ↑ M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India and Early Ottoman Turkey, with a foreword by Professor Clifford Edmund Bosworth, member of the British Academy, Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003, ISBN 9971-77-488-7.
- ↑ C.E. Bosworth and R. Bulliet, The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual , Columbia University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-231-10714-5, p. 275.
- ↑ Compiled after Y. Bregel, ed. (1999), Firdaws al-iqbal; History of Khorezm. Leiden: Brill.
- ↑ "Panayotis D. Cangelaris – The Western Thrace Autonomous Government "Muhtariyet" Issue (1913) Philatelic Exhibit". Cangelaris.com. Retrieved 2016-09-25.
- 1 2 KIBRIS'TA ESKİ YÖNETİMLER
- Finkel, Caroline, "Osman's Dream, History of the Ottoman Empire 1300–1923", 2005, John Murray ISBN 0-465-02396-7
- Findley, C.V., The Turks in World History, 2005, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517726-6
- Forbes Manz, B., The Rise and Rule of Tamerlane, 2002, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-63384-2
- Hupchick, D.P., The Balkans: From Constantinople to Communism, 2002, Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6417-3
- Lewis, Bernard. "Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire", 1963, University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1060-0.
- Saunders, J.J., The History of the Mongol Conquests, 2001, Routledge & Kegan Ltd. ISBN 978-0-8122-1766-7
- Thackston, W.M., The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor, 2002, Modern Library. ISBN 978-0-375-76137-9
- Vásáry, I., Cumans and Tatars: Oriental Military in the Pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185–1365, 2005, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83756-9
- Veronika Veit, ed. (2007). The role of women in the Altaic world: Permanent International Altaistic Conference, 44th meeting, Walberberg, 26–31 August 2001. Volume 152 of Asiatische Forschungen (illustrated ed.). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 3-447-05537-5. Retrieved 8 February 2012.