List of Presidents of the Republic of China

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This is a list of the Presidents of the Republic of China (1912–present). The official Chinese name of the President changes by time.

YearChineseMandarin
Pinyin
Taiwanese
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Hakka
Pha̍k-fa-sṳ
1912–1928大總統DàzǒngtǒngTōa-chóng-thóngThai-chúng-thúng
1928–1947國民政府主席Guómín Zhèngfǔ ZhǔxíKok-bîn Chèng-hú Chú-se̍kKoet-mìn Chṳn-fú Chú-si̍t
1947–present總統ZǒngtǒngChóng-thóngChúng-thúng

The Republic of China before 1949 controlled mainland China as well as offshore islands. In the fall of 1949 the ROC government retreated to Taiwan and surrounding islands as a result of the takeover of Mainland China by the People's Republic of China. The seat of government was moved to Taipei which retained recognition by the United Nations (to 25 October 1971), the United States (to 1 January 1979) and other Western countries in the context of the Cold War. The Republic of China since 1949, now usually known as Taiwan, has only controlled Taiwan and nearby islands. Martial law was ended in Taiwan in the 1980s and direct elections were introduced in 1996.

Timeline

List

Provisional Government:   Tongmenghui   Beiyang clique, etc.
Beiyang Government:   Beiyang clique, etc.   Progressive Party/Research Clique
Nationalist to Democratic Government:   Kuomintang (KMT)   Democratic Progressive Party (DPP)

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party Vice President Assembly
(elected)
1 Sun Yat-sen
孫文
Sūn Wén (Mandarin)
Sûn Vùn (Hakka)
(1866–1925)
1 January 191210 March 1912 Tongmenghui Li Yuanhong
(Nonpartisan)
Provisional (1911)
2 Yuan Shikai
袁世凱
Yuán Shìkǎi (Mandarin)
Yèn Sṳ-khói (Hakka)
(1859–1916)
10 March 191210 October 1913 Beiyang clique Li Yuanhong
(Nonpartisan)
Provisional (1912)
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party Vice President Assembly
(elected)
1 Yuan Shikai
袁世凱
Yuán Shìkǎi (Mandarin)
Yèn Sṳ-khói (Hakka)
(1859–1916)
10 October 19136 June 1916[note 1][note 2] Beiyang clique Li Yuanhong
(Progressive)
1st (1913)
2 Li Yuanhong
黎元洪
Lí Yuánhóng (Mandarin)
Lì Ngièn-fùng (Hakka)
(1864–1928)
7 June 191617 July 1917[note 3] Progressive Party Feng Guozhang
(Zhili clique)
Feng Guozhang
馮國璋
Féng Guózhāng (Mandarin)
Fùng Koet-chông (Hakka)
(1859–1919)

(acting)
17 July 191710 October 1918 Zhili clique Vacant
Due to Manchu Restoration, Li Yuanhong fled the presidential palace and appointed Vice President Feng Guozhang as Acting President.
3 Xu Shichang
徐世昌
Xú Shìchāng (Mandarin)
Chhì Sṳ-chhông (Hakka)
(1855–1939)
10 October 19182 June 1922 Anhui clique Vacant 2nd (1918)
Zhou Ziqi
周自齊
Zhōu Zìqí (Mandarin)
Chû Chhṳ-chhè (Hakka)
(1871–1923)

(acting)
2 June 192211 June 1922 Communications Clique Vacant
(2) Li Yuanhong
黎元洪
Lí Yuánhóng (Mandarin)
Lì Ngièn-fùng (Hakka)
(1864–1928)
11 June 192213 June 1923 Research Clique Vacant
Gao Lingwei
高凌霨
Gāo Língwèi (Mandarin)
(1868–1939)

(acting)
14 June 192310 October 1923 Nonpartisan Vacant
4 Cao Kun
曹錕
Cáo Kūn (Mandarin)
(1862–1938)
10 October 19232 November 1924 Zhili clique Vacant 1st (1923)
Huang Fu
黃郛
Huáng Fú (Mandarin)
(1883–1936)

(acting)
2 November 192424 November 1924 Nonpartisan Vacant
5 Duan Qirui[note 4]
段祺瑞
Duàn Qíruì (Mandarin)
Thon Khì-sui (Hakka)

(1865–1936)
24 November 192420 April 1926 Anhui clique Vacant
Vacant
Hu Weide
胡惟德
Hú Wéidé (Mandarin)
(1863–1933)

(acting)
20 April 192613 May 1926 Nonpartisan Vacant
Yan Huiqing
(W.W. Yan)

顏惠慶
Yán Huìqìng (Mandarin)
Ngién Fi-khiang (Hakka)
(1877–1950)

(acting)
13 May 192622 June 1926 Nonpartisan Vacant
Du Xigui
杜錫珪
Dù Xīguī (Mandarin)
(1875–1933)

(acting)
22 June 19261 October 1926 Zhili clique Vacant
V. S. Wellington Koo
顧維鈞
Gù Wéijūn (Mandarin)
Ku Vì-kiûn (Hakka)
(1888–1985)

(acting)
1 October 192617 June 1927 Nonpartisan Vacant
6 Zhang Zuolin[note 5]
張作霖
Zhāng Zuòlín (Mandarin)
Chông Chok-lìm (Hakka)
(1875–1928)
18 June 19274 June 1928 Fengtian clique Vacant

Chairmen of the Nationalist Government

[note 6]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party Party congress
(elected)
1 Tan Yankai
譚延闓
Tán Yánkǎi (Mandarin)
Thàm Yèn-khói (Hakka)
(1880–1930)
7 February 192810 October 1928 Kuomintang 2nd National Congress of Kuomintang
(4th plenum)
2 Chiang Kai-shek
蔣中正
Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng (Mandarin)
Chiông Chûng-chṳn (Hakka)
(1887–1975)
10 October 192815 December 1931[note 7] Kuomintang 2nd National Congress of Kuomintang
(5th plenum)
Lin Sen
林森
Lín Sēn (Mandarin)
Lìm Sêm (Hakka)
(1868–1943)
15 December 19311 August 1943[note 8][note 2] Kuomintang
3 4th National Congress of Kuomintang
(1st plenum)
Chiang Kai-shek
蔣中正
Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng (Mandarin)
Chiông Chûng-chṳn (Hakka)
(1887–1975)
1 August 194320 May 1948[note 9] Kuomintang
4 5th National Congress of Kuomintang
(11th plenum)
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party Vice President Term
(elected)
1 Chiang Kai-shek
蔣中正
Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng (Mandarin)
Chiông Chûng-chṳn (Hakka)
(1887–1975)
20 May 194821 January 1949[note 10] Kuomintang Li Zongren
(Kuomintang)
1 (1948)
Li Zongren
李宗仁
Lǐ Zōngrén (Mandarin)
Lí Chûng-yìn (Hakka)
(1890–1969)

(acting)
21 January 1949[note 11]1 March 1950 Kuomintang Vacant
Had an antagonistic relationship with Chiang. After the fall of Guangdong, Li flew to New York.
Yan Xishan
閻錫山
Yán xíshān (Mandarin)
Ngiàm Siak-sân (Hakka)
(1883–1960)

(acting)
20 November 1949[note 12]1 March 1950 Kuomintang Vacant
On 1 March 1950, Chiang re-assumed the presidency, but Li Zongren denounced Chiang's re-assumption as unconstitutional.
(1) Chiang Kai-shek
蔣中正
Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng (Mandarin)
Chiông Chûng-chṳn (Hakka)
(1887–1975)
1 March 19505 April 1975[note 2] Kuomintang Li Zongren[note 13]
(Kuomintang)
Vacant
Chen Cheng[note 14]
(Kuomintang)
2 (1954)
3 (1960)
Vacant
Yen Chia-kan
(Kuomintang)
4 (1966)
5 (1972)
Resumed office on 1 March 1950. Imposed martial law under the Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion; period of white terror. Implemented sweeping land reforms. Chiang's government lost recognition by the United Nations on 25 October 1971 and replaced by the People's Republic of China.
2 Yen Chia-kan
(C. K. Yen)

嚴家淦
Yán Jiāgàn (Mandarin)
Ngiàm Kâ-kàm (Hakka)
(1905–1993)
6 April 197520 May 1978 Kuomintang Vacant
Premier (1963–1972). As Vice-President under Chiang Kai-shek, Yan succeeded to the Presidency on Chiang's death and completed Chiang's term.
3 Chiang Ching-kuo
蔣經國
Jiǎng Jīngguó (Mandarin)
Chióng Kîn-koet (Hakka)
(1910–1988)
20 May 197813 January 1988[note 2] Kuomintang Hsieh Tung-min
(Kuomintang)
6 (1978)
Lee Teng-hui
(Kuomintang)
7 (1984)
Son of Chiang Kai-shek. Oversaw completion of the Ten Major Construction Projects and economic modernization of Taiwan (Taiwan miracle). Presided at time of growing democratic movements (Kaohsiung Incident); ended martial law.
4 Lee Teng-hui
李登輝
Lǐ Dēnghuī (Mandarin)
Lí Tên-fî (Hakka)
(1923–)
13 January 198820 May 1996 Kuomintang Vacant
Lee Yuan-tsu
(Kuomintang)
8 (1990)
Served as Mayor of Taipei (1978–1981), Governor of Taiwan Province (1981–1984), Chairman of Kuomintang (1988–2000). First President born in Taiwan. As Vice President (1984–1988) under Chiang Ching-kuo, Lee succeeded to the Presidency on Chiang's death and completed Chiang's term. Oversaw democratic reforms.
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party Vice President Term
(elected)
4 Lee Teng-hui
李登輝
Lǐ Dēnghuī (Mandarin)
Lí Tên-fî (Hakka)
(1923–)
20 May 199620 May 2000 Kuomintang Lien Chan
(KMT)
9 (1996)
First president elected by direct election. Term saw the manifestation of "black gold" politics within the KMT. Cross-strait tensions over promotion of "special state-to-state relations" with mainland China.
5 Chen Shui-bian
陳水扁
Chén Shuǐbiǎn (Mandarin)
Chhṳ̀n Súi-pién (Hakka)
(1950–)
20 May 200020 May 2008 Democratic Progressive Annette Lu
(DPP)
10 (2000)
11 (2004)
Served as Member of the Legislative Yuan for Taipei 1st District (1990–1994), Mayor of Taipei (1994–1998) and Chairman of DPP (2002–2004, 2007–2008). First Pan-Green and pro-Taiwan independence President. Promoted Taiwanization policies; increased cross strait tensions due to pro-independence stance. Abruptly halted construction of the Number Four Nuclear Power Facility, leading to antagonistic relations with the opposition. Sentenced to imprisonment for corruption.
6 Ma Ying-jeou
馬英九
Mǎ Yīngjiǔ (Mandarin)
Mâ Yîn-kiú (Hakka)
(1950–)
20 May 200820 May 2016 Kuomintang Vincent Siew
(KMT)
12 (2008)
Wu Den-yih
(KMT)
13 (2012)
Served as Minister of Justice (1993–1996), Mayor of Taipei (1998–2006), Chairman of Kuomintang (2005–2007, 2009–2014).Led efforts to ease cross strait tensions; oversaw the opening of the Three Links to mainland China and the signing of the Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement. First president to meet with the paramount leader of the People's Republic of China since the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949. Attempt to pass the Cross-Strait Service Trade Agreement led to mass student protests and an occupation of the legislature.
7 Tsai Ing-wen
蔡英文
Cài Yīngwén (Mandarin)
Chhai Yîn-vùn (Hakka)
Tjuku Tsai (Paiwan)
(1956–)
20 May 2016Incumbent Democratic Progressive Chen Chien-jen
(Independent)
14 (2016)
Served as Minister of Mainland Affairs Council (2000–2004), Member of the Legislative Yuan for the DPP party list (2005–2006), vice premier (2006–2007), Chairwoman of DPP (2008–2012, 2014–). First female President and the first President of Aboriginal descent (1/4 Paiwan).

See also

Notes

  1. Restored the monarchy from 12 December 1915 to 22 March 1916.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Died in office.
  3. Zhang Xun restored Qing Empire from 1 July to 12 July in 1917.
  4. Duan was the Provisional Chief Executive instead of President.
  5. Zhang was the Generalissimo of the Beiyang Military Government instead of President.
  6. The head of state of the Nationalist Government (國民政府) in this period (political tutelage,  訓政時期). There was no office of Vice Chairman.
  7. Resigned
  8. Assumed office as acting chairman from 15 December 1931 to 1 January 1932.
  9. Assumed office as acting chairman from 1 June to 1o October 1943.
  10. Declared incapacity to discharge duties and powers as President following a succession of defeats by the Communists in the Chinese Civil War.
  11. Acting President on Chiang Kai-shek's declaration of incapacity.
  12. After Li fled to New York, Premier Yan became acting president according to Article 49 of Constitution.
  13. Vice-President from 1948 to 1954, did not assume his office after stepping down as acting president and subsequently impeached and recalled in 1954.
  14. Vice-President from 1960 to 1965, died on 5 March 1965.
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