List of Nazi concentration camps
This article presents a partial list of the most prominent Nazi German concentration camps and extermination camps set up across Europe before and during the course of World War II and the Holocaust. A more complete list drawn up in 1967 by the German Ministry of Justice names about 1,200 camps and subcamps in countries occupied by Germany, while the Jewish Virtual Library writes: "It is estimated that the Germans established 15,000 camps in the occupied countries." Some of the data presented in this table originates from the monograph titled The War Against the Jews by Lucy Dawidowicz among similar others.
In 1933–1939, before the onset of war, most prisoners consisted of German Communists, Socialists, Social Democrats, Roma, Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, and persons accused of 'asocial' or socially 'deviant' behavior by the Germans. They were not utilized to sustain the German war effort.
Although the term 'concentration camp' is often used as a general term for all German camps during World War II, there were in fact several types of concentration camps in the German camp system. Holocaust scholars make a clear distinction between death camps and concentration camps which served a number of war related purposes including prison facilities, labor camps, prisoner of war camps, and transit camps among others.
Concentration camps served primarily as detention and slave labor exploitation centers. An estimated 15 to 20 million people were imprisoned in 42,500 camps and ghettos, and often pressed into slavery during the subsequent years, according to research by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum conducted more recently. The system of about 20,000 concentration camps in Germany and German-occupied Europe played a pivotal role in economically sustaining the German reign of terror. Most of them were destroyed by the Germans in an attempt to hide the evidence of war crimes and crimes against humanity; nevertheless tens of thousands of prisoners sent on death marches were liberated by the Allies afterward.
Extermination camps were designed and built exclusively to kill prisoners on a massive scale, often immediately upon arrival. The extermination camps of Operation Reinhard such as Bełżec, Sobibór and Treblinka served as "death factories" in which German SS and police murdered nearly 2,700,000 Jews by asphyxiation with poison gas, shooting, and extreme work under starvation conditions.
The concentration camps held large groups of prisoners without trial or judicial process. In modern historiography, the term refers to a place of systemic mistreatment, starvation, forced labour and murder.
Statistical and numerical data presented in the table below originates from a wide variety of publications and therefore does not constitute a representative sample of the total.
|#||Camp name||Country (today)||Camp type||Dates of use||Est. prisoners||Est. deaths||Sub-camps||Webpage|
|1||Alderney||Channel Islands||Labour camps||Jan 1942 – Jun 1944||6,000||700||Lager Borkum, Lager Helgoland, Lager Norderney, Lager Sylt|
|2||Amersfoort||Netherlands||Transit camp and prison||Aug 1941 – Apr 1945||35,000||1,000|
|3||Arbeitsdorf||Germany||Labour camp||8 Apr 1942 – 11 Oct 1942||600 min.||none|
|4||Auschwitz-Birkenau||Poland||Extermination and labour camp||Apr 1940 – Jan 1945||135,000 min. in August 1944||1,100,000 min. with 400,000 recorded arrivals||list of 48 sub-camps with description at the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum|
|5||Banjica||Serbia||Concentration camp||Jun 1941 – Sep 1944||23,637||3,849|
|6||Bardufoss||Norway||Concentration camp||Mar 1944 – ????||800||250|
|7||Bełżec||Poland||Extermination camp||Oct 1941 – Jun 1943||434,508 min.|
|8||Bergen-Belsen||Germany||Concentration camp||Apr 1943 – Apr 1945||120,000||52,000||2|
|9||Berlin-Marzahn||Germany||Early a "rest place" then labour camp for Roma||July 1936 – ????||none|
|10||Bernburg||Germany||Collection point||Apr 1942 – Apr 1945||14,385||2|
|12||Bolzano||Italy||Transit camp||Jul 1944 – Apr 1945||11,116|
|13||Bor||Serbia||Labour camp||July 1943 – September 1944||6,000||1,800–2,800|
|14||Bredtvet||Norway||Concentration camp||Fall, 1941 – May, 1944||1,000 min.||none|
|14||Breendonk||Belgium||Prison and labour camp||20 Sep 1940 – Sep 1944||3532 min.||391 min.||none|
|15||Breitenau||Germany||"Early wild camp", then labour camp||Jun 1933 – Mar 1934,
|470 – 8500|
|16||Buchenwald||Germany||Concentration camp||Jul 1937 – Apr 1945||266,000||56,545||list|
|Poland||Extermination camp||Dec 1941 – Apr 1943,
Apr 1944 – Jan 1945
|18||Crveni Krst||Serbia||Concentration camp||1941–1944||30,000||10,000|
|19||Dachau||Germany||Concentration camp||Mar 1933 – Apr 1945||200,000||31,591||list|
|20||Drancy||France||Internment camp, transit||20 Aug 1941 – 17 Aug 1944||70,000||Three of five Paris annexes: Austerlitz, Lévitan and Bassano camps|
|21||Falstad||Norway||Prison camp||Dec 1941 – May 1945||200 min.||none|
|22||Flossenbürg||Germany||Concentration camp||May 1938 – Apr 1945||96,000||30,000||list of subcamps|
|23||Fort de Romainville||France||Prison and transit camp||1940 – Aug 1944||8,100 min.||200 min.||none|
|24||Fort VII (Posen)||Poland||Concentration, detention, transit||Oct 1939 – Apr 1944||18,000 min.||4,500 min.|
|25||Fossoli||Italy||Prison and transit camp||5 Dec 1943 – Nov 1944||2,800|
|26||Grini||Norway||Prison camp||2 May 1941 – May 1945||19,788||8||Fannrem
|27||Gross-Rosen||Poland||Labour camp; Nacht und Nebel camp||Aug 1940 – Feb 1945||125,000||40,000||list|
|Netherlands||Concentration camp||1943 – Summer 1944||31,000||750||list|
|29||Hinzert||Germany||Collection point and subcamp||Jul 1940 – Mar 1945||14,000||302 min.|
|30||Jägala||Estonia||Labour camp||Aug 1942 – Aug 1943||200||3,000||none|
|Ukraine||Ghetto; transit, labour, & extermination camp||Sep 1941 – Nov 1943||40,000 min.||none|
|Latvia||Concentration camp||1942 – 6 Aug 1944||20,000?||16,
|33||Kaufering/Landsberg||Germany||Concentration camp||Jun 1943 – Apr 1945||30,000||14,500 min.|
|Lithuania||Ghetto and internment camp||June 22, 1941 - August 1, 1944||Prawienischken|
|35||Kemna||Germany||Early concentration camp||Jun 1933 – Jan 1934||4,500||none|
|36||Kistarcsa||Hungary||Concentration camp||1944 – 1945||1,800|
|37||Klooga||Estonia||Labour camp||Summer 1943 – 28 Sep 1944||1,800|
|38||Koldichevo||Belarus||Labour camp||Summer 1942 – Jun 1944||22,000|
|39||Le Vernet||France||Internment camp||1939–1944|
|Poland||Extermination and concentration camp||Oct 1941 – Jul 1944||78,000|
|41||Malchow||Germany||Concentration and transit camp||Winter 1943 – 8 May 1945||5,000|
|42||Maly Trostenets||Belarus||Extermination camp||Jul 1941 – Jun 1944||60,000-65,000|
|43||Mauthausen-Gusen||Austria||Concentration camp||Aug 1938 – May 1945||195,000||55,000–60,000||list|
|44||Mechelen||Belgium||Transit camp||July 1942 – Sep 1944||25267 min.||300 min.||none|
|45||Mittelbau-Dora||Germany||Concentration camp||Sep 1943 – Apr 1945||60,000||20,000 min.||list|
|46||Natzweiler-Struthof (Struthof)||France||Concentration camp; Nacht und Nebel camp; extermination camp||May 1941 – Sep 1944||52,000||22,000||list|
|47||Neuengamme||Germany||Concentration camp||13 Dec 1938 – 4 May 1945||106,000||42,900+||list|
|48||Niederhagen||Germany||Concentration and labour camp||Sep 1941 – early 1943||3,900||1,285||none|
|49||Oberer Kuhberg concentration camp||Germany||Concentration camp||Nov 1933 – 1935||600||0||Former infantry base Gleißelstetten (Fortress of Ulm)|
|50||Oranienburg||Germany||Early concentration camp||Mar 1933 – Jul 1934||3,000||16 min.|
|51||Osthofen||Germany||Collective point||Mar 1933 – Jul 1934|
|52||Płaszów||Poland||Labour camp||Dec 1942 – Jan 1945||150,000 min.||9,000 min.||list|
|53||Ravensbrück||Germany||Concentration camp for women||May 1939 – Apr 1945||132,000||28,000||list|
|54||Risiera di San Sabba
|Italy||Police detainment camp, transit camp||Sep 1943 – 29 Apr 1945||25,000||5,000|
|55||Sachsenhausen||Germany||Concentration camp||Jul 1936 – Apr 1945||200,000 min.||30,000||list|
|56||Sajmište||Serbia||Extermination camp||Oct 1941 – Jul 1944||50,000||20,000–23,000|
|57||Salaspils (Kirchholm)||Latvia||Concentration camp||Oct 1941 – Summer 1944||2,000|
|Czech Republic||Transit (1939) and labour camp||Sept 1939 - Dec 1939, 1940–1943||700||13|
|59||Sobibór||Poland||Extermination camp||May 1942 – Oct 1943||170,165|
|60||Soldau||Poland||Labour and transit camp||Winter 1939/40 – Jan 1945||30,000||13,000||3|
|61||Stutthof||Poland||Concentration camp||Sep 1939 – May 1945||110,000||65,000||list|
|Ukraine||Labor and extermination camp||July 1942 – spring 1943||2,000|
|Czech Republic||Transit camp and Ghetto||Nov 1941 – May 1945||140,000||33,000 min.|
|64||Treblinka||Poland||Extermination camp||Jul 1942 – Nov 1943||780,000|
|65||Vaivara||Estonia||Concentration and transit camp||15 Sep 1943 – 29 Feb 1944||20,000||950||22|
|66||Warsaw||Poland||Concentration and extermination camp||1942–1944||400,000 max.||20,000–35,000|
|67||Westerbork||Netherlands||Transit camp||May 1940 – Apr 1945||102,000|
- "Auschwitz". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
- Bundesministerium der Justiz (2011), List of concentration camps and their outposts in alphabetical order. Internet Archive. (in German)
- Concentration Camp Listing Sourced from Van Eck, Ludo Le livre des Camps. Belgium: Editions Kritak; and Gilbert, Martin Atlas of the Holocaust. New York: William Morrow 1993 ISBN 0-688-12364-3. In this on-line site are the names of 149 camps and 814 subcamps, organized by country.
- Search Results: Mapping the SS Concentration Camp System. Alphabetical listing. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Further Reading. Bergen, Dawidowicz, Gilbert, Gutman, Hilberg, Yahil.
- Holocaust Encyclopedia, Nazi Camps. Introduction. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
- Peter Vogelsang & Brian B. M. Larsen (2002), The difference between concentration camps and extermination camps. Archived 2015-10-27 at the Wayback Machine. The Danish Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies.
- Anat Helman (2015). "The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos by Geoffrey P. Megargee". Exploring the Universe of Camps and Ghettos. Jews and Their Foodways. Oxford University Press. pp. 251–252. ISBN 0190265426.
- Source: Abzug, Bridgman, Chamberlin, Goodell (2015). "Liberation of German Camps". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
- Holocaust Encyclopedia, Killing Centers: An Overview. .Archived 2013-04-02 at the Wayback Machine. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
- Yad Vashem (2012). "The Implementation of the Final Solution: The Death Camps". The Holocaust. Yad Vashem, The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority – via Internet Archive, 4 November 2013. Also in: Wolf Gruner (2004). "Jewish Forced Labor as a Basic Element of Nazi Persecution: Germany, Austria, and the Occupied Polish Territories (1938–1943)" (PDF). Forced and Slave Labor in Nazi-Dominated Europe. Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: 43–44.
- Robert Gellately; Nathan Stoltzfus (2001). Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany. Princeton University Press. p. 216. ISBN 978-0-691-08684-2.
- Franciszek Piper, Construction and Expansion of KL Auschwitz ("Budowa i rozbudowa KL Auschwitz"). Archived 2010-09-25 at the Wayback Machine. The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, Poland (Państwowe Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau w Oświęcimiu), 1999–2010 (in Polish)
- Franciszek Piper, Dead victims of KL Auschwitz per nationality and/or profile of deportees ("Liczba uśmierconych w KL Auschwitz ogółem wg Narodowości lub kategorii deportowanych"). Archived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine. The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, Poland, 1999–2010 (in Polish)
- Franciszek Piper. "Victims of KL Auschwitz" [Liczba ofiar KL Auschwitz]. Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum (in Polish). Oświęcim, Poland. 1999–2010. Overwhelming majority of Auschwitz arrivals were killed within hours. Only about 10 percent of the prisoners from transports organized by the Reich Main Security Office (RSHA) were registered and assigned to the Birkenau barracks. There were around 400,000 registrations at Auschwitz in total, including 195,000 non-Jews, and around 202,000 Jews. — Franciszek Piper. See also: Vincent Châtel & Chuck Ferree (2006). "Auschwitz-Birkenau Death Factory". The Forgotten Camps. – via Internet Archive, 2010-09-25.
- List of Subcamps of KL Auschwitz (Podobozy KL Auschwitz). Archived 2011-10-12 at the Wayback Machine. The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, Poland (Państwowe Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau w Oświęcimiu), 1999–2010 (in Polish)
- Ramet, Sabrina P., The Three Yugoslavias: State-Building and Legitimation: 1918–2005. Indiana University Press, 2006. (p. 131)
- Store norske leksikon (2010-04-09). "Bardufoss fangeleir" (in Norwegian).
- Gerlach, Christian (2013). Kalkulierte Morde (in German) (Kindle ed.). Hamburger Edition. loc 25883. ISBN 978-3-86854-567-8.
- "Shoah Resource Center - Maly Trostinets" (PDF). Yad Vashems.
- Schram, Laurence (2006). "De cijfers van de deportatie uit Mechelen naar Auschwitz. Perspectieven en denkpistes". De Belgische tentoonstelling in Auschwitz. Het boek - L'exposition belge / Auschwitz. Le Livre (in Dutch). Het Joods Museum voor Deportatie en Verzet. ISBN 978-90-76109-03-9. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
- Mikhman, Dan; Gutman, Israel, eds. (2005). The encyclopedia of the righteous among the nations: rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust. Belgium. Yad Vashem Publications. ISBN 978-9653083769.
- Roger Boulanger (2006), L'historique du camp de Natzweiler-Struthof via Internet Archive.