List of Microsoft Windows components
The following is a list of Microsoft Windows components.
Configuration and maintenance
|Control Panel||Allows users to view and change basic system settings and controls, such as adding hardware, adding and removing software, controlling user accounts, and changing accessibility options||Windows 1.0|
|Device Manager||Allows the user to display and control the hardware attached to the computer, and control what device drivers are used||Windows 95|
|Windows Mobility Center||Centralizes the most relevant information related to mobile computing||Windows Vista|
|Security and Maintenance||Centralizes and reports on the status of anti-virus, Automatic Updates, Windows Firewall, and other security-related components of the operating system||Windows XP SP2|
|Microsoft Management Console||Provides system administrators and advanced users with a flexible interface through which they may configure and monitor the system||Windows NT 4.0 Option Pack|
|Windows System Assessment Tool||Built-in benchmarking tool that analyzes the different subsystems (graphics, memory, etc.), and uses the results to allow for comparison to other Windows Vista systems, and for software optimizations. It rates the computer's performance using the Windows Experience Index.||Windows Vista|
|System Restore||Allows for the rolling back of system files, registry keys, installed apps, etc., to a previous state in the event of a system failure||Windows ME|
|Windows Recovery Environment||Helps diagnose and recover from serious errors which may prevent Windows from booting successfully, or restore the computer to a previous state using System Restore or a backup image||Windows Vista|
|Disk Defragmenter||Rearranges files stored on a hard disk to occupy contiguous storage locations in order to optimize computer performance||Windows 95, Windows 2000|
|Event Viewer||Lets administrators and users view the event logs on a local or remote machine||Windows NT 3.1|
(previously Reliability and Performance Monitor)
|Lets administrators view current system reliability and performance trends over time||Windows Vista|
|Logical Disk Manager||Logical volume manager developed by Microsoft in conjunction with Veritas Software||Windows NT 4.0 (Separate Tool), Windows 2000|
|Registry Editor||Allows users to browse and edit the Windows registry||Windows 3.1|
|Task Scheduler||Allows users to script tasks for running during scheduled intervals||Microsoft Plus! for Windows 95|
|Software installation and deployment|
|Windows Update||An online service providing updates such as service packs, critical updates and device drivers. A variation called Microsoft Update also provides software updates for other Microsoft products.||Windows 98|
|Windows Installer||An engine for the management of software installation. Includes a GUI framework, automatic generation of the uninstallation sequence and deployment capabilities for corporate networks.||Windows 2000|
|ClickOnce||Technology for deploying .NET Framework-based software via web pages, with automatic update capabilities. Intended for per-user only applications.||.NET Framework 2.0|
|Windows PowerShell||Command-line shell and scripting framework.||Windows XP|
|Windows Shell||The most visible and recognizable aspect of Microsoft Windows. The shell provides the container inside of which the entire graphical user interface is presented, including the taskbar, the desktop, Windows Explorer, as well as many of the dialog boxes and interface controls. In Windows Vista, a new compositing glass-like user interface called Windows Aero has been shown.||Windows 95|
(previously Windows Explorer)
|Provides an interface for accessing the file systems, launching applications, and performing common tasks such as viewing and printing pictures||Windows 95|
|Windows Search||Starting with Windows Vista, search is a tightly shell-integrated component of Windows. A downloadable Windows Desktop Search software is available for Windows XP and older versions.||Windows Vista, downloadable for older versions|
|Search Folders||Virtual folders that retrieve items based on queries rather than hierarchical folder trees on disk.||Windows Vista|
|Special Folders||Folders which are presented to the user through an interface as an abstract concept, instead of an absolute path. This makes it possible for an application to locate where certain kinds of files can be found, regardless of what version or language of operating system is being used. See also Windows Shell namespace.||Windows 95|
|Start menu||Serves as the central launching point for applications. It provides a customizable, nested list of apps for the user to launch, as well as a list of most recently opened documents, a way to find files and get help, and access to the system settings. By default, the Start Button is visible at all times in the lower left-hand corner of the screen.||Windows 95|
|Taskbar||The application desktop bar which is used to launch and monitor applications||Windows 95|
|File associations||Used to open a file with the appropriate app. Users can assign file associations uniquely to specific actions, known as verbs.||Windows 1.0|
Applications and utilities
|Easy Transfer||Used to transfer many files at once from one computer to another||Windows Vista|
|Contacts||Keeps a single list of contacts that can be shared by multiple apps||Windows Vista|
|Calculator||Calculation application||Windows 1.0|
|Calendar||Calendaring application||Windows Vista|
|Character Map||Utility to view and search characters in a font, copy them to the clipboard and view their Windows Alt keycodes and Unicode names||Windows 3.1|
|Cortana||Digital personal assistant||Windows 10|
|Edge||Web browser||Windows 10|
|Feedback Hub||Platform for exchanging communication with Windows Insiders and developers||Windows 10|
(previously Xbox Music)
|Digital media player and media library application that is used for playing audio. In addition to being a media player, Groove includes the ability to copy music to compact discs, synchronize content with a digital audio player (MP3 player) or other mobile devices, and let users purchase or rent music from the Windows Store.||Windows 8|
|Movies & TV
(previously Xbox Video)
|Digital media player and media library application that is used for playing video. In addition to being a media player, Movies & TV lets users purchase or rent movies and TV episodes from the Windows Store.||Windows 8|
|Freemium cloud storage folder and sync service||Windows 8.1|
|OneNote||Integrated note-taking app, based on the Microsoft Office product of the same name||Windows 10|
|On-Screen Keyboard (osk.exe)||Virtual keyboard|
|Paint||Simple graphics painting app||Windows 1.0|
|Paint 3D||Simple graphics painting app||Windows 10 version 1703|
|Photos||Simple image viewer||Windows 8|
(called Problem Steps Recorder in Windows 7)
|Windows To Go||Utility to create bootable versions of Windows 8 and above||Windows 8|
|Notepad||Simple text editor||Windows 1.0|
|Narrator||Screen reader utility that reads dialog boxes and window controls in a number of the more basic applications for Windows||Windows 2000|
|Sound Recorder||Simple audio recording app that can record from a microphone or headset, and save the results in WAVE format and Windows Media Audio format in some Windows versions||Windows 3.0 Multimedia Extensions|
|Skype||Messaging and calling service||Windows 8.1, downloadable for previous versions|
|Sticky Notes||Tool for jotting notes on the desktop||Windows XP Tablet PC Edition|
|Command Prompt||Text-based shell (command line interpreter) that provides a command line interface to the operating system||Windows NT 3.1|
|WordPad||Simple word processor that is more advanced than Notepad. It has facilities to format and print text, but lacks intermediate features such as a spell checker and thesaurus.||Windows 95|
|Private Character Editor||Utility to create private use characters as defined under Unicode and various East Asian encoding schemes||Windows 3.1 East Asian editions|
|Remote Desktop Connection||Client implementation of the Remote Desktop Protocol; allows a user to securely connect to a computer running Terminal Services (Remote Desktop on Windows XP and Server 2003) and interact with a full desktop environment on that machine, including support for remoting of printers, audio, and drives.||Windows XP, downloadable for previous Windows versions|
|Remote Assistance||Allows a user to temporarily take over a remote computer over a network or the internet to offer help with and resolve issues||Windows XP|
|Mobility Center||Allows a user to adjust settings related to mobile computing||Windows Vista|
|Speech Recognition||Allows a user to input voice commands||Windows Vista|
|Internet Explorer||Web browser and FTP client. See also: Internet Explorer versions, Features, History, Removal, Browser Helper Objects||Microsoft Plus! for Windows 95|
|IExpress||Allows users to create self-extracting, self-installing INF installation-based packages||Internet Explorer 6|
(previously Xbox Games)
|Account manager for Xbox Live user accounts and a screen recording tool||Windows 8|
|Magnifier||Screen enlargement app||Windows 98|
|Fax and Scan||Integrated faxing and image scanning application||Windows Vista, older faxing and scanning applications were present in previous Windows versions|
|Windows Media Player||Digital media player and media library application that is used for playing audio, playing video and viewing images. In addition to being a media player, Windows Media Player includes the ability to rip music from, and copy music to compact discs, synchronize content with a digital audio player (MP3 player) or other mobile devices, and let users purchase or rent music from a number of online music stores.||Downloadable for Windows 95, Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 98|
|Photo Viewer||Simple image viewer that can play a simple slideshow||Windows 7|
|Email aggregator||Windows Vista|
|Maps||Map viewer that allows users to look for locations, plan routes, and store offline maps||Windows 8|
|Media Center||Designed to serve as a home-entertainment hub, to be viewed from a distance up to 3 meters (~10 feet) and controlled by specially designed remote controls. Lets users browse and view pictures, videos, and music from local hard drives, optical drives, and network locations, along with viewing, recording and deferred-playing live TV. Features an interactive TV guide with scheduled recording capabilities. Can also be used for visualization of other information (like sports scores) within the interface.||Windows XP Media Center Edition|
|Task Manager||Provides information about computer performance and displays details about running applications, processes, network activity, logged-in users, and system services||Windows 3.0|
|Disk Cleanup||Utility for compacting rarely used files and removing files that are no longer required||Windows 98|
|Snipping Tool||Screen-capture tool that allows for taking screenshots (called snips)||Experience Pack for Windows XP Tablet PC Edition 2005|
(previously Windows Store)
|Initially known as Windows Store, it started as an app store for Windows 8. In Windows 10, it expanded into a broad digital distribution platform for apps, games, music, digital video and e-books. In 2017, it was renamed Microsoft Store and started offering hardware in United States, Canada and United Kingdom.||Windows 8|
|MSN apps||Provide information from MSN web services||Windows 8|
|Alarms & Clock(pre Alarms)||App that allows Windows users to set alarms, stopwatches, timers, and view a world clock||Windows 8|
|Solitaire Collection||Set of solitaire card games||Windows 10|
Windows Server components
|Active Directory||A set of technologies introduced with Windows 2000 that allows administrators to assign enterprise-wide policies, deploy apps to many computers, and apply critical updates to an entire organization. Active Directory stores information and settings relating to an organization in a central, organized, accessible database. Networks can vary from a small installation with a few objects, to global-scale directories with millions of objects.
Related topics: Domain controller, Flexible single master operation
|Windows 2000 and later server versions|
|Group Policy||Provides centralized management of user and computer settings in an Active Directory environment. Group policy can control a target object's registry, NTFS security, audit and security policy, software installation, logon/logoff scripts, folder redirection, and Internet Explorer settings. Policy settings are stored in Group Policy Objects (GPOs), and may be linked to one or more sites, domains or organizational units.
Related topics: Administrative Templates
|Windows 2000 and later|
|Internet Information Services||Web server||Windows NT family|
|FAT12, FAT16||The original file systems used with MS-DOS. The standard file systems used with Windows 1.0 through Windows 95.||All versions|
|FAT32||Extensions to FAT supporting larger disk sizes. The standard file system for Windows 98 and ME.||Windows 95 OSR2 and later versions|
|NTFS||Standard file system of Windows NT; supports security via access control lists, as well as file system journaling and file-system metadata. Windows 2000 added support for reparse points (making NTFS junction points and Single instance storage possible), Hard links, file compression, and Sparse files. Encryption of data is provided by Encrypting File System. Symbolic links and transactioning of file operations via Transactional NTFS are features new to Windows Vista.
Although Windows 9x operating systems cannot read or write NTFS formatted disks, they can access the data over a network if it is shared by a computer running Windows NT.
|Windows NT (all versions)|
|ISO 9660 (CDFS)||The predominant file system for CD-ROM and DVD-ROM media. Windows includes support for Joliet extensions and the ISO 9660:1999 standard. ISO 9660:1999 is supported since Windows XP.||MS-DOS and Windows 9x via extensions, such as MSCDEX.EXE (Microsoft CDROM Extension), natively in Windows NT|
|Universal Disk Format (UDF)||A file system for storing files on optical media. It is an implementation of the ISO/IEC 13346 standard (also known as ECMA-167). It is considered to be a replacement of ISO 9660. Successive versions of Windows have supported newer versions of UDF.||Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista|
|HPFS||High-Performance File system, used on OS/2 computers. Read and write capability in Windows 95 (where it also listed network computer NTFS-formatted drives as "HPFS", even though it had no direct NTFS capabilities). HPFS write support was dropped in Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 98, and dropped altogether shortly before the release of Windows 2000.||Windows 95 (Read/write), Windows 98, Windows NT (read), 3.1/3.51 (read/write/boot)|
|ReFS||A newer file system, based on NTFS. This system adds built-in integrity checking and removes the need for chkdsk, among other features. The maximum partition size is 1 YB.||Windows Server 2012, Windows 8.1|
|Windows kernel (Windows NT)|
|Ntoskrnl.exe||The Windows kernel image. Provides the kernel and executive layers of the kernel architecture, and is responsible for services such as hardware virtualization, process and memory management, etc.|
|hal.dll||HAL||Provides and handles the interaction between software and hardware via the Hardware Abstraction Layer.|
|kernel32.dll||This application provides kernel operations to apps in the Win32 mode, like memory management, I/Os, process creation, etc.|
|Core processes (Windows NT)|
|System idle process||SIP||A counter which measures how much idle capacity the CPU has at any given time. The process runs in the background and monitors processing bandwidth, occupied memory and the Windows virtual paging file.|
|Session Manager Subsystem||SMSS||Performs several critical boot-time operations, such as the creation of environment variables, starting CSRSS, and performing file-copy operations that were queued up from before the system was booted (pending file rename operations). During system operation, it handles Windows File Protection and the creation of logon sessions via Winlogon.|
|Client/Server Runtime Subsystem||CSRSS||User-mode side of the Win32 subsystem. Provides the capability for applications to use the Windows API.|
|Local Security Authority Subsystem Service||LSASS||Responsible for enforcing the security policy on the system. Verifies users logging on to the computer and creates security tokens.|
|Winlogon||Responsible for handling the secure attention key, loading the user profile on logon, and optionally locking the computer when a screensaver is running. On Windows NT systems prior to Windows Vista, Winlogon is also responsible for loading GINA libraries which are responsible collecting logon credentials from the user.|
|Svchost.exe||A generic host process name for services that run from dynamic-link libraries (DLLs). Several Svchost processes are typically present on a Windows machine, each running in a different security context, depending on what privileges the contained services require.|
|Windows on Windows and WOW64||WoW||An abstraction layer that allows legacy code to operate on more modern versions of Windows; typically this means running 16-bit Windows applications on 32-bit Windows, and 32-bit applications on 64-bit Windows.|
|Virtual DOS machine||NTVDM||Allows MS-DOS apps to run on Intel 80386 or higher computers when there is already another operating system running and controlling the hardware. Introduced in Windows 2.1; not available in any 64-bit edition of Windows.|
|System startup (Windows NT)|
|NTLDR, IA64ldr, Winload||The boot loader; performs basic system initialization options such as loading the hardware abstraction layer and boot-time device drivers, prior to passing control to the Windows kernel. In versions prior to Vista, NTLDR and IA64ldr also display menus to the user if multiple operating systems are defined in boot.ini, or if F8 is pressed.|
|Recovery Console||Provides the means for administrators to perform a limited range of tasks using a command line interface, primarily to aid in recovering from situations where Windows does not boot successfully.|
|ntdetect.com||Used during the boot process to detect basic hardware components that may be required during the boot process|
|Windows Boot Manager||In Windows Vista and later operating systems, displays boot menus to the user if multiple operating systems are configured in the system's Boot Configuration Data.|
|Desktop Window Manager||DWM||The compositing manager introduced in Windows Vista that handles compositing and manages special effects on screen objects in a graphical user interface|
|Graphics Device Interface||GDI/GDI+||The kernel graphics component for representing graphical objects and transmitting them to output devices such as monitors and printers|
|Windows USER||The Windows USER component provides core user interface, messaging and visual elements|
This list is not all-inclusive.
|Display name||Service key name||Description||Introduced|
|Active Directory Service||NTDS||Network Authentication Management||Windows 2000 Server|
|Alerter service||Alerter||Sends administrative alerts over the network to client computers, administrators and users||Windows NT|
|ALG||Provides support for plugins that allow network protocols to pass through Windows Firewall and work behind Internet Connection Sharing||Windows 2000|
|Application Experience service||Processes application compatibility cache requests for applications as they launch|
|Application Management||AppMgmt||Processes requests to enumerate, install, and remove applications that are installed on the computer or deployed through an organization's network||Windows 2000|
|BITS||Transfers files between machines using idle network bandwidth. Used by Windows Update, Windows Server Update Services, and Systems Management Server to deliver software updates to clients, as well as by Windows Messenger.||Windows XP|
|Computer Browser||Browser||Crawls neighboring computers on the network and locates shared resources. One of the computers acts as the Master Browser and supplies this information to other computers designated as browsers.||Windows for Workgroups|
|Delivery Optimization||DoSvc||A peer-to-peer distribution service that downloads Windows updates and Microsoft Store apps from the local network or Internet peers, and redistributes them to others. Can be configured using either the Settings app or Group Policy. The Settings app can turn it on or off, and specify whether the service operates on the local network only, downloads from and uploads to the Internet peers as well. Group Policy allows finer control. Delivery Optimization relies on a centralized web service that does not index contents under 10 MB. Computers without Internet access cannot use Delivery Optimization.||Windows 10 Anniversary Update|
|Distributed Link Tracking||TrkWks, TrkSrv||Used to track links to files on NTFS volumes. Windows uses these services to find linked files if they are renamed or moved (locally or to another machine).||Windows 2000|
|MSDTC||Allows transactional components to be configured through COM+ by coordinating transactions that are distributed across multiple computers and/or resource managers, such as databases, message queues, file systems, and other transaction–based resource managers.||Windows 2000 and later NT-based|
|DNS Client||DNSCache||Resolves and caches domain names (e.g. “en.wikipedia.org”) to IP addresses||Windows 2000|
|Event Log||EventLog||Stores and retrieves events that can be viewed in the event viewer. Part of services.exe.||Windows NT|
|Extensible Authentication Protocol||EAPHost||Provides EAP authentication to connecting clients||Windows 2000|
|Indexing Service||CISVC||Indexes contents and properties of files on local and remote computers; provides rapid access to files through flexible querying language.||Windows 2000 and later NT-based|
|Interactive Services Detection||UI0Detect||For compatibility; when a service-displayed user interface is detected, it gives the user an option to switch to Session0 to see it||Windows Vista|
|Internet Connection Sharing (ICS)||SharedAccess||When enabled, it allows other computers on the local network to access an internet connection that is available to the host computer||Windows 2000; Windows Vista onward|
|Network Location Awareness||NLA||Manages network configurations and information, and notifies applications of changes||Windows XP|
|Network Store Interface Service||NSIS||Collects routing information of active network interfaces, shares this with other services and notifies applications of changes||Windows XP|
|NTLM Security Support Provider||NTLMSSP||Uses the NTLM MS-CHAP protocol to encapsulate and negotiate options in order to provide signed and sealed communication. Deprecated now in favor of Kerberos authentication.||Windows NT|
|Peer Name Resolution Protocol||PNRPSvc||Resolves domain names using Peer Name Resolution Protocol||Windows XP|
|Plug and Play||PlugPlay||Enables autodetection and configuration of hardware||Windows 2000|
|Windows Print spooler||Spooler||Manages printer devices and moves files into memory for printing||Windows 95, Windows NT|
|Remote Procedure Call (RPC)||RpcSs||Provides Remote Procedure Call features via remotely accessible Named Pipes||Windows NT family|
|Routing and Remote Access Service||RRAS||API and server software that enables applications to administer the routing and remote-access service capabilities of the operating system, to function as a network router.||Windows 2000|
|Secondary Logon||SecLogon||Allows users to run apps with a different account than the one they logged in with. Allows non-administrative accounts to perform administrative tasks.|
|Security Accounts Manager||SamSs||Manages user account security information||Windows NT family|
|System Event Notification Service||SENS||Monitors system events, such as network, power, logon, logoff, terminal services session connection and disconnection, and delivers these to applications and other system components.||Windows 2000|
|Superfetch||SysMain||Monitors file usage patterns and boosts system speed by caching frequently accessed files to RAM||Windows Vista|
|Task Scheduler||Schedule||Lets users setup and schedule automated tasks||Microsoft Plus! for Windows 95|
|TCP/IP NetBIOS Helper||LmHosts||Enables support for NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NetBT) service and NetBIOS name resolution||Windows NT family|
|Volume Shadow Copy||VSS||Creates multiple versions of files that change. The ability to store persistent snapshots was added in Windows Server 2003.||Windows XP|
|Windows Audio||AudioSrv||Manages audio devices for Windows-based apps. Controls all audio functions.||Windows XP|
|Windows Error Reporting||WERSvc||Generates error logs and reports errors. On Windows Vista and later, it notifies of solutions.||Windows XP|
|Windows Firewall||MpsSvc||Blocks unauthorized network connections to and from the computer||Windows Vista|
|Windows Firewall(née Internet Connection Sharing)||SharedAccess||Provides a simple firewall feature which was introduced in Windows XP. It also shares the internet on the local network, if the internet connection sharing feature is turned on.||Windows XP only|
|Windows Image Acquisition (WIA)||STISvc||Handles scanner and camera inputs||Windows ME|
|Windows Time||W32Time||Synchronizes the system time with external time servers. From Windows Server 2003 forward, full and compliant NTP support is provided.||Windows 2000|
|Windows Update||WUAUServ||Provides updates for the operating system and its installed components||Windows XP|
|Wireless Zero Configuration||WZCSvc (XP), WLANSvc||Configures and manages 802.11 wireless adapters||Windows XP, Server 2003 only|
|Windows Messenger service||Messenger||Allows users to send pop-up messages to other computers over the network||Windows NT family|
|WebClient||Enables Windows-based apps to create and interact with Internet-based files||Windows XP|
Scripting and command-line
- CLI Languages
- .NET Remoting
- Base Class Library
- Common Intermediate Language
- Common Language Infrastructure
- Common Language Runtime
- Common Type System
- Virtual Execution System
- Windows CardSpace
- Windows Communication Foundation
- Windows Forms
- Windows Presentation Foundation
- Windows Workflow Foundation
|AppLocker||Policy-based component that enables or disables execution of software based on rules such as location, properties and digital signature||Windows 7 Professional, Enterprise and Ultimate editions|
Windows Server 2008 R2
|BitLocker Drive Encryption||Disk encryption software, designed to protect data by providing encryption for entire volumes||Windows Vista Enterprise and Ultimate editions,|
Windows Server 2008
|Data Execution Prevention||Security feature that is intended to prevent an application or service from executing code from a non-executable memory region||Windows XP Service Pack 2|
|Encrypting File System||File system driver that provides file system-level encryption||Windows 2000|
|Security Account Manager||Database stored as a registry file||Windows NT 3.1|
|SYSKEY||Utility that encrypts the hashed password information in a SAM database using a 128-bit encryption key||Windows NT 4.0 Service Pack 3|
|User Account Control||Technology and security infrastructure utility that aims to improve the security of Microsoft Windows by limiting application software to standard user privileges until an administrator authorizes an increase||Windows Vista,|
Windows Server 2008
|Windows Firewall||Utility designed to block unauthorized access while permitting authorized communications. An earlier edition known as Internet Connection Firewall that was disabled by default was included with the original Windows XP release.||Windows XP Service Pack 2|
|Windows Defender||Security utility to prevent, remove and quarantine malware (viruses, Trojan horses, etc.)||Downloadable for Windows XP and Windows Server 2003|
|Windows Resource Protection||Protects Registry keys and folders in addition to critical system files||Windows Vista|
Deprecated components and apps
Miscellaneous (to be categorized)
- Compatibility Appraiser collects telemetry information.
- DMRC (Device Metadata Retrieval Client) interfaces to metadata about devices from Windows 7 onwards.
- I/O technologies
- Macro Recorder
- Microsoft Agent
- Sync Center
- Text Services Framework
- Universal Audio Architecture
- Windows Color System
- Windows Diagnostic Infrastructure (WDI)
- Windows Mobile Device Center
- Windows Rally
- Windows Registry
- Windows Speech Recognition
- XML Paper Specification
"System Services". technet.microsoft.com. Microsoft. 2014. Retrieved 2014-09-02.
The Application Experience service (AELookupSvc) is a part of the Application Compatibility Administrator. It processes application compatibility lookup requests for applications as they are started, provides support for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista–based computers running apps in compatibility mode, reports on compatibility issues, and automatically applies software updates to apps.
- "Description of the Microsoft Computer Browser Service". Microsoft. Retrieved 2017-11-03.
- Mackie, Kurt (16 August 2016). "Microsoft Clarifies Windows 10 'Delivery Optimization'". Redmond Magazine. 1105 Enterprise Computing Group.
- Hachman, Mark (29 March 2017). "How Delivery Optimization in Windows 10 Creators Update helps avoid data overage fees". PCWorld. IDG.
- Halfin, Dani; Poggemeyer, Liza; Lich, Brian; Kieselbach, Oliver; Childs, Andrew (30 April 2018). "Configure Delivery Optimization for Windows 10 updates". docs.microsoft.com. Microsoft. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
- "Distributed Link Tracking on Windows-based domain controllers". Microsoft. Retrieved 2008-10-28.
- "Distributed Transaction Coordinator (MSDTC)". Microsoft. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- "Event Log". Microsoft. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- "What is Indexing Service?". Microsoft. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- "Windows 2000 Professional and Server Service Pack 4 Services Configuration by Black Viper", notice that the service is listed on this page. Retrieved April 2013
- "Windows Firewall". Retrieved April 2013
- "Secondary Logon (Run As): Starting Programs and Tools in Local Administrative Context". Microsoft Corporation. Retrieved 2008-10-28.
- "System Event Notification Service". The Elder Geek. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- "Myth Busted: Why Disabling SuperFetch on Vista and Windows 7 Is a Bad Idea", retrieved April 2013
- "What Is Volume Shadow Copy Service?: Data Recovery". Microsoft Corporation. Retrieved 2008-10-28.
- "Windows Firewall/Internet Connection Sharing (ICS)"], Retrieved April 2013
- "Windows 2000 Professional and Server Service Pack 4 Services Configuration by Black Viper", Notice the absence of the service on this page. Retrieved April 2013
- "Windows Firewall/Internet Connection Sharing (ICS)", Notice that XP is the operating system listed. Retrieved April 2013
- "How Windows Time Service Works: Windows Time Service". Microsoft Corporation. Retrieved 2008-10-28.
Minasi, Mark; Layfield, Rhonda; Justice, Lisa (2006). Mastering Windows Server 2003: upgrade edition for SP1 and R2 (12 ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-470-05645-5. Retrieved 2010-07-21.
There is also a client piece for WebDAV built into XP, 2003, R2, and Vista, called the WebClient Service.
Leonhard, Woody (2015-04-20). "KB 2952664 triggers daily telemetry run in Windows 7 -- and may be snooping on users: Microsoft bills the 'compatibility update' as way to ease the upgrade process to Windows 10 -- but it's collecting data daily". Operating Systems. InfoWorld. InfoWorld, Inc. Retrieved 2016-08-23.
The Microsoft Compatibility Appraiser task runs %windir%\system32\rundll32.exe appraiser.dll,DoScheduledTelemetryRun with the description 'Collects program telemetry information if opted-in to the Microsoft Customer Experience Improvement Program.'
Compare: Tulloch, Mitch; Northrup, Tony; Honeycutt, Jerry; Wilson, Ed (2010). Windows 7 Resource Kit. Windows 7 Resource Kit, Microsoft Corporation. 1. Microsoft Press. p. 708. Retrieved 2016-08-18.
The DMRC [(Device Metadata Retrieval Client)] checks the computer's local metadata cache and metadata store for metadata that applies to the device.
Solomon, David A.; Russinovich, Mark E.; Ionescu, Alex (2009). Windows Internals. Developer Reference (5 ed.). Microsoft Press. ISBN 9780735637962. Retrieved 2016-10-24.
The Windows Diagnostic Infrastructure (WDI) helps to detect, diagnose, and resolve common problem scenarios with minimal user intervention.