Lashi language

Native to Burma, China
Native speakers
30,000 (2000)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 lsi (incl. Chashan)
Glottolog lash1243[2]

Lashi (endonym Lacid) is a Burmish language. Although the endonym Lashi is often used by Western researchers, the people refer to themselves and their language as Lacid.[3] It is according to Nishi (1999: 70) in the Maruic branch, which preserves the preglottalized initials of Proto-Burmish in the most phonotactic environments.

Data on Lashi is available in the followining publications (A Literature Review on Segments in Lacid (Lashi) Noftz 2017,) (Luce 1985: Charts S, T, V; Huang et al. 1992; Wannemacher 1995-7, as cited in Mann 1998, and Yabu 1988).


There are conflicting reports about the size of the Lacid population. Reports range from 30,000 to 60,000. [4]In China, Lashi (Leqi) speakers are distributed in Mangshi City (formerly Luxi County), Ruili City, Longchuan County, and Yingjiang County of western Yunnan province (Dai 2007:5). Mangshi has the most Lashi speakers, who are distributed in the following townships.

  • Manghai 芒海镇
  • Zhongshan 中山乡
  • Dongshan 东山乡
  • Santai 三台乡 (in Gonglin 拱岭寨 and Manggang 芒岗寨 villages)

Lashi is also spoken in eastern Shan State, Burma. Lashi was originally spoken in the downstream area of the Ngochang Hka river valley, a tributary of the N’Mai Hka river, while Ngochang was originally spoken in the upstream area of the Ngochang Hka river valley.[5]

The Chashan language, which is closely related to Lashi, is spoken in nearby Pianma Township 片马镇, Lushui County.


  1. Lashi at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Lashi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. Noftz 2017
  4. Noftz 2017 A Literature Review on Segments in Lacid (Lashi)
  5. Sawada, Hideo. 2017. Two Undescribed Dialects of Northern Burmish Sub-branch: Gyannoʔ and Thoʔlhang. Presented at ICSTLL 50, Beijing, China.
  • 戴 Dai, 庆厦 Qingxia; 李 Li, 洁 JIe (2007). 勒期语研究 Leqiyu janjiu [Study of the Lashi language] (in Chinese). Beijing: 中央民族大学出版社 Zhongyang minzudaxue chubanshe. ISBN 9787811083262. 
  • Huang Bufan 黃布凡, ed. (1992). 藏緬語族語言詞匯 Zangmianyuzu yuyan cihui / A Tibeto-Burman Lexicon. Beijing: 中央民族大學出版社 Zhongyang minzu daxue chubanshe, 1992.
  • Luce, G. H. (1985). Phases of Pre-Pagán Burma: Languages and History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Luk, Hkaw. 2017. A Grammatical Sketch of Lacid. Master's thesis, Payap University.
  • Mann, Noel Walter (1998). A phonological reconstruction of Proto Northern Burmic. Unpublished thesis. Arlington: The University of Texas.
  • Wannemacher, Mark W. (1995-7). Notes on Achang, Atsi, Jinghpaw, Lashi, and Maru. (unpublished manuscript cited by Mann 1998).
  • Wannemacher, Mark (2011). A Phonological Overview of the Lacid Language. Chiang Mai: Research Unit, Linguistics Institute, Payap University.
  • Yabu Shirō 藪 司郎 (1987). "The Lashi Language of Burma: a brief description." Burma and Japan: basic studies on their cultural and social structure. Tokyo: Toyota Foundation. 47-53.
  • Yabu Shirō 藪 司郎 (1988). A preliminary report on the study of the Maru, Lashi and Atsi languages of Burma. In Yoshiaki Ishizawa (ed.), Historical and cultural studies in Burma, 65-132. Tokyo: Institute of Asian Studies, Sophia University.

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