Lambdacism (from the Greek letter λ) is a medical condition or speech impediment related to the pronunciation of /l/ or related phonemes. In general, /r/ is usually substituted instead of /l/, as seen in Japanese and historically in Proto-Indo-Iranian, where the reflexes of PIE phonemes /*l/ and /*r/ and their syllabic variants are all realized as /*r/ or /*r̥/.
A common form of lambdacism is lallation, the substitution of /l/ for /ɹ/ in pronunciation. It is a common feature of Japanese and Korean pronunciation of English. Substitution of /l/ for /n/ at the beginning of a word or syllable (or the reverse at the end) is also a feature in certain East Asian languages, such as Cantonese and Thai.
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- Rhotacism, the equivalent condition with /r/
- Perception of English /r/ and /l/ by Japanese speakers