Koreans in Beijing

Beijing has a population of Koreans. According to 2006 estimates there about 170,000 Joseonjok (ethnic Koreans who are Chinese citizens) in Beijing and Tianjin combined.[1]

History

Due to war and famine in Korea that occurred beginning in the 1860s, Koreans began settling in Beijing. The Japanese established Manchukuo in Manchuria in the 1930s and established labor migrations from southern Korea to Manchuria. Ultimately this caused Koreans to settle in Beijing. The Communist Party of China gave Chinese citizenship to Koreans who fought for the Communists during the Chinese Civil War.[2]

Economics

Reza Hasmath wrote that compared to other ethnic groups, Beijing Koreans have a higher presence in small and medium enterprise jobs and corporations.[3] As widespread economic reforms were implemented in the 1980s and 1990s, South Korean firms made inroads into Beijing markets,[4] and Korean Chinese in Beijing were hired by these firms since it would be cheaper to employ them than to hire South Korean nationals for China-related positions. Ethnic Koreans in Beijing were sought after since they retained their native language [5] and were acquainted with Korean customs, practices and values.[6] Today the entrepreneurial class is considered likely to expand among ethnic Koreans since they are "adopting capitalist values and high-earning economic activities more rapidly than other economic groups."[7] This trend has been observed in the Wangjing neighbourhood of the business-oriented Chaoyang District and Wukaoku part of Haidan District. Here, ethnic Koreans own and operate businesses such as electronic repair shops, information technology businesses and restaurants to serve a growing number of South Korean firms and their employees, as well as an expanding expatriate community.[8]

Geography

As of 2010 many South Koreans moving to Beijing have settled in Wangjing in Chaoyang District. Most South Korean businesspeople and their families in Beijing live in Wangjing.[9]

Prior to the 2000s the Wudaokou area of Haidian District was the most popular area for South Koreans.[9] It was the oldest of the major Korean settlements. Beginning in the early 1990s South Korean students who were studying Chinese for one to two year periods so they could enter Chinese universities began congregating in Wudaokou.[10] Hyejin Kim, author of International Ethnic Networks and Intra-Ethnic Conflict: Koreans in China, wrote that the growth of Wangjing had weakened Wudaokou as a Korean area.[9]

The other two areas with a large concentration of Koreans are Yansha and Yayuncun.[10] These areas have higher than average housing rental prices in Beijing and house offices of overseas companies and embassies.[11] The Beijing government official allows foreigners to settle in those two areas.[10]

In Wangjing and Wudaoukou there are restaurants, electronic repair shops, and information technology businesses which are owned by ethnic Koreans and cater to migrant Koreans and employees of South Korean companies.[3]

Politics

Reza Hasmath, author of A Comparative Study of Minority Development in China and Canada, write that many of Beijing's ethnic Koreans "adopted a strategy of full accommodation to the authority of the central and local Beijing government."[2] According to Hasmath, many Korean families he interviewed chose to have one child even though, under the One Child Policy, they were allowed to have two children.[2] Like some other ethnic minority groups such as Zhuang and Manchu, ethnic Koreans are "well assimilated" into Beijing's communities and inter-marriage among the majority Han population is common.[12]

Education

As Beijing's Korean population increased, the number of Korean-Chinese schools increased. In 1989 a Beijing municipal Korean school opened. In 1993 a private Korean Chinese school opened.[13]

The Korean International School in Beijing (KISB) is located in Wangjing.[14]

Culture and recreation

Several Korean cultural festivals are held in the city. The Beijing Korean Chinese Sports Event in 2008 attracted 100,000 Korean Chinese. Beijing has the Beijing Korean Cultural Research Center, which opened in 1996.[13]

See also

References

Citations

  1. Han, Enze. Contestation and Adaptation: The Politics of National Identity in China. Oxford University Press, September 19, 2013. p. 74. ISBN 0199936293, 9780199936298.
  2. 1 2 3 Hasmath, A Comparative Study of Minority Development in China and Canada, p. 30.
  3. 1 2 Hasmath, A Comparative Study of Minority Development in China and Canada, p. 31.
  4. Hasmath, Reza (2008). "The Big Payoff? Educational and Occupational Attainments of Ethnic Minorities in Beijing". European Journal of Development Research. 20 (1): 110.
  5. Hasmath, A Comparative Study of Minority Development in China and Canada, p. 30-31.
  6. Hasmath, Reza (2008). "The Big Payoff? Educational and Occupational Attainments of Ethnic Minorities in Beijing". European Journal of Development Research. 20 (1): 110.
  7. Hasmath, Reza (2008). "The Big Payoff? Educational and Occupational Attainments of Ethnic Minorities in Beijing". European Journal of Development Research. 20 (1): 110.
  8. Hasmath, Reza (2008). "The Big Payoff? Educational and Occupational Attainments of Ethnic Minorities in Beijing". European Journal of Development Research. 20 (1): 110.
  9. 1 2 3 Kim, Hyejin (ISBN 0230308937, 9780230308930), page unstated (PT146) on Google Books. "Since the announcement of the 2008 Beijing Olympics, South Koreans have eagerly begun to buy newly built apartments."
  10. 1 2 3 Kim, Hyejin (ISBN 0230308937, 9780230308930), page unstated (PT 145) on Google Books. "These groups can be seen in Korea towns in Beijing. Beijing has four Korean concentrated districtS: Wudaokou, Wangjing, Yansha, and Yayuncun.[...]"
  11. Kim, Hyejin (ISBN 0230308937, 9780230308930), page unstated (PT 145)-page unstated (PT146) on Google Books. "These groups can be seen in Korea towns in Beijing. Beijing has four Korean concentrated districts: Wudaokou, Wangjing, Yansha, and Yayuncun.[...]"
  12. Hasmath, Reza (2007). "The Paradox of Ethnic Minority Development in Beijing". Comparative Sociology. 6 (4): 470.
  13. 1 2 Kim, Hyejin (ISBN 0230107729, 9780230107724), p. 160.
  14. "Welcome to Korean International School in Beijing" (Archive) Korean International School in Beijing. Retrieved on January 25, 2014.

Sources

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