|South Korea, North Korea, Northeast China, Far East Russia|
|Linguistic classification||One of the world's primary language families|
During the 5th century CE, the Koreanic languages were spoken in the Three Kingdoms of Korea – a much wider area than modern Korea.
The Jeju language of Jeju Island, considered by some as a dialect of modern Korean, is distinct enough to be considered a language in its own right by other authorities. Some consider that rather than being a language isolate, Korean forms a small language family, together with Jeju.
Among extant languages, Korean is considered by most linguists to be a language isolate and by some as part of the widely rejected Altaic family or the Dravido-Korean languages. Alexander Vovin (2015) notes that Koreanic shares some typological features with the four Paleosiberian language groups (e.g. lack of phonemic voiced stops, verb compounding, earlier ergativity), and suggests that it actually has more in common with "Paleosiberian" (which is a geographical and areal grouping rather a genetic one) than with the putative Altaic group.
Koreanic also has some loanwords from Paleosiberian languages. Vovin notes that Koreanic has some Tungusic loanwords, but is not genetically related to Tungusic.
The unclassificated Khitan language has many similar Korean vocabulary that are not found in Mongolian or Tungusic languages, This suggests a strong Korean presence or that Khitan was in fact a Koreanic or para-Koreanic language.
The periodization of the historical stages of Korean is as follows:
- Before 1st century: Proto-Korean
- 1st to 10th century: Old Korean
- 10th to 16th century: Middle Korean
- 17th century to present: Modern Korean
Ancient Koreanic languages
Several ancient languages of the Korean peninsula—Silla, Buyeo, Goguryeo, Dongye, Okjeo, Baekje, Gojoseon and Ye-Maek—may have been ancestral to, related to, or part of Old Korean. Two branches are sometimes posited, Buyeo and Han.
In ancient times, Koreanic languages, then established in southern Manchuria and the northern Korean peninsula, expanded southward to the central and southern Korean peninsula, displacing the Japonic languages spoken there and possibly causing the Yayoi migrations. There is disagreement over the protohistorical or historical period during which this expansion occurred, ranging from the Korean Bronze Age period to the Three Kingdoms of Korea period.
Modern Koreanic languages
Modern Korean is traditionally considered a single language. However, Jeju (Cheju) is sometimes classified as a distinct language, for example in the UNESCO atlas on endangered languages. If that is accepted, there are two modern Koreanic languages, Jeju and Korean proper.
- Koreanic Languages (한국어족, 韓國語族)
- Buyeo languages (부여어족, 夫餘語族)
- Sillan language (신라어족, 新羅語族)
- Korean language (한국어/조선말, 韓國語/朝鮮말)
- Northwestern dialect (Pyongan dialect; 서북 방언, 西北方言)
- Central dialect (중부 방언, 中部方言)
- Gyeonggi dialect (Seoul dialect; 경기 방언/서울말, 京畿方言/---)
- Yeongseo dialect (영서 방언, 嶺西方言)
- Chungcheong dialect (충청 방언, 忠淸方言)
- Hwanghae dialect (황해 방언, 黃海方言): A transitional dialect between the northwestern and the central.
- Yeongdong dialect (영동 방언, 嶺東方言): A transitional dialect between the northeastern, the southeastern and the central.
- Southwestern dialect (Jeolla dialect; 서남 방언, 西南方言)
- Northeastern dialect (Hamgyŏng dialect; 동북 방언, 東北方言)
- Southeastern dialect (Gyeongsang dialect; 동남 방언, 東南方言)
- Zainichi Korean language (재일 한국어, 在日韓國語)
- Koryo-mar (고려말, 高麗말)
- Jeju language (제주어, 濟州語)
- Korean language (한국어/조선말, 韓國語/朝鮮말)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Koreanic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Kim, Chin-Wu (1974). The Making of the Korean Language. Center for Korean Studies, University of Hawai'i.
- Vovin, Alexander (2015). "Korean as a Paleosiberian Language". 알타이할시리즈 2. ISBN 978-8-955-56053-4. Retrieved 2016-11-06.
- Vovin, Alexander. 2003. ‘Etymological notes on some Paleosiberian and Tungusic loanwords in Korean’, in Proceedings for Korean Language and Culture 5/6: 57-60, St. Petersburg, Russia.
- Vovin, Alexander (June 2017). "Koreanic loanwords in Khitan and their importance in the decipherment of the latter". Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 70 (2): 207–215. doi:10.1556/062.2017.70.2.4. ISSN 0001-6446.
- Young Kyun Oh, 2005. Old Chinese and Old Sino-Korean
- Bellwood, Peter (2013). The Global Prehistory of Human Migration. Malden: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 9781118970591.
- Vovin, Alexander (2013). "From Koguryo to Tamna: Slowly riding to the South with speakers of Proto-Korean". Korean Linguistics. 15 (2): 222–240.
- Lee, Ki-Moon; Ramsey, S. Robert (2011). A History of the Korean language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-66189-8.
- Whitman, John (2011). "Northeast Asian Linguistic Ecology and the Advent of Rice Agriculture in Korea and Japan". Rice. 4 (3-4): 149–158.
- Unger, J. Marshall (2009). The role of contact in the origins of the Japanese and Korean languages. Honolulu: University of Hawai?i Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-3279-7.
- Janhunen, Juha, 1996. Manchuria: an ethnic history
- Lee & Ramsey, 2000. The Korean language