Kingdom of Afghanistan

Kingdom of Afghanistan
د افغانستان واکمنان
Dǝ Afġānistān wākmanān
پادشاهي افغانستان,
Pādešāhī-ye Afġānistān
1926–1973
Anthem: "Schahe ghajur-o-mehrabane ma" (1943–1973)
(English: "Our Brave And Noble King")
Capital Caubul
Common languages Pashto, Persian
Religion Sunni Islam
Government Constitutional monarchy
King  
 1926–1929
Amanullah Khan
 1929
Inayatullah Khan
 1929
Habibullāh Kalakāni
 1929–1933
Mohammed Nadir Shah
 1933–1973
Mohammed Zahir Shah
Prime Minister  
 1929–1946
Mohammad Khan (first)
 1972–1973
Mohammad Shafiq (last)
Legislature Loya Jirga
Historical era Interwar Period · Cold War
 Succeeds Afghan emirate
9 June 1926
17 July 1973
Area
1973 647,500 km2 (250,000 sq mi)
Population
 1973
11966400
Currency Afghan afghani
Calling code 93
ISO 3166 code AF
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Emirate of Afghanistan
Republic of Afghanistan
Today part of  Afghanistan
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The Kingdom of Afghanistan (Pashto: د افغانستان واکمنان, Dǝ Afġānistān wākmanān; Persian: پادشاهي افغانستان, Pādešāhī-ye Afġānistān) was a constitutional monarchy in southern and central Asia established in 1926 as a successor state to the Emirate of Afghanistan. It was proclaimed by its first king, Amanullah Khan, seven years after his accession to the throne.

History

Amanullah Khan was keen on modernizing the country, resulting in conservative forces causing social upheaval on a number of occasions. When he was visiting Europe in 1927, rebellion broke out again. He abdicated in favour of his brother Inayatullah Khan who only ruled for three days before the leader of the tribal rebellion Habibullah Kalakani took power and reinstated the Emirate.

After 10 months, Amanullah Khan's Minister of War, Mohammed Nadir, returned from exile in India. His British-supported armies sacked Kabul, forcing Habibullah Kalakani to discuss a truce. Instead, Mohammed Nadir's forces apprehended and subsequently executed Kalakani. Mohammed Nadir reinstated the kingdom, was proclaimed King of Afghanistan in October 1929, and went on to revert the reformist path of the last king, Amanullah Khan. He was succeeded by his son, Mohammed Zahir Shah, whose rule started in 1933 and lasted for 39 years. Mohammed Zahir Shah, the last King of Afghanistan, was eventually overthrown by his own cousin Mohammed Daoud Khan who successfully ended the centuries-old monarchy and established a republican Afghan government. It was under the leadership of Zahir Shah that the Afghan government sought relationships with the outside world, most notably with the Soviet Union, United Kingdom and the United States.[1]

On 27 September 1934, during the reign of Zahir Shah, the Kingdom of Afghanistan joined the League of Nations. During World War II, Afghanistan remained neutral and pursued a diplomatic policy of non-alignment. Mohammed Daoud Khan, Prime Minister of Afghanistan at the time, worked hard for development of modern industries, and education in the country.

See also

References

  1. Rubin, Barnett. "DĀWŪD KHAN". In Ehsan Yarshater. Encyclopædia Iranica (Online ed.). United States: Columbia University. Retrieved 20 March 2009.



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