Karachay-Balkar language

Karachay-Balkar
Къарачай-Малкъар тил
Таулу тил
Native to Russia
Region Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia, Afyonkarahisar Province
Ethnicity Karachays, Balkars
Native speakers
310,000 (2010 census)[1]
Turkic
Dialects
  • Karachay
  • Balkar
Cyrillic,
Latin
Official status
Official language in

 Russia

Language codes
ISO 639-2 krc
ISO 639-3 krc
Glottolog kara1465[2]

The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар тил, Qaraçay-Malqar til or Таулу тил, Tawlu til) is a Turkic language spoken by the Karachays and Balkars in Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay–Cherkessia, European Russia, as well as by an immigrant population in Afyonkarahisar Province, Turkey. It is divided into two dialects: Karachay-Baksan-Chegem, which pronounces two phonemes as /tʃ/ and /dʒ/, and Balkar, which pronounces the corresponding phonemes as /ts/ and /z/. The modern Karachay-Balkar written language is based on the Karachay-Baksan-Chegem dialect. The language is closely related to Kumyk.[3]

Alphabet

Modern Karachay-Balkar Cyrillic alphabet:

А а
/a/
Б б
/b/
В в
/v/
Г г
/g/
Гъ гъ
Д д
/d/
Дж дж
/dʒ/
Е е
/je/
Ё ё
/ø, jo/
Ж ж*
/ʒ/
З з
/z/
И и
/i/
Й й
/j/
К к
/k/
Къ къ
/q/
Л л
/l/
М м
/m/
Н н
/n/
Нг нг
/ŋ/
О о
/o/
П п
/p/
Р р
/r/
С с
/s/
Т т
/t/
У у
/u, w/
Ф ф*
/f/
Х х
/x/
Ц ц
/ts/
Ч ч
/tʃ/
Ш ш
/ʃ/
Щ щ
ъ
Ы ы
/ɯ/
ь
Э э
/e/
Ю ю
/y, ju/
Я я
/ja/
* Not found in native vocabulary

Karachay-Balkar Latin alphabet:

A a B в C c Ç ç D d E e F f G g
Ƣ ƣ I i J j K k Q q L l M m N n
N̡ n̡ O o Ө ө P p R r S s Ş ş T t
Ь ь U u V v Y y X x Z z Ƶ ƶ

Phonology

Vowels[4]
FrontBack
Close i y ɯ u
Mid e ø o
Open a
Consonants[4]
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Plosive p b t d k ɡ (q) (ɢ)
Fricative [f] s z ʃ x (ɣ) h
Affricate [ts] tʃ dʒ
Nasal m n ŋ
Liquid l r
Approximant w j

Parentheses indicate allophones.

Grammar

Nominals

Cases

CaseSuffix
Nominative
Accusative-NI
Genitive-NI
Dative-GA
Locative-DA
Ablative-DAн

Possessive suffixes

1st person2nd person3rd person
Singular-Iм-Iнг-(s)I(n)
Plural-IбIз-IгIз-(s)I(n)

Language example

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Karachay-Balkar:

In CyrillicTransliterationTranslation
Бютеу адамла эркин болуб эмда сыйлары бла хакълары тенг болуб тууадыла. Алагъа акъыл бла намыс берилгенди эмда бир-бирлерине къарнашлыкъ халда къараргъа керекдиле.Bütew adamla erkin bolub emda sıyları bla haqları teñ bolub tuwadıla. Alağa aqıl bla namıs berilgendi emda bir-birlerine qarnaşlıq halda qararğa kerekdile.All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Numerals

NumeralKarachay-BalkarKumykNogay
0нольнольноль
1бирбирбир
2экиэкиэки
3ючуьчуьш
4тёртдёртдоьрт
5бешбешбес
6алтыалтыалты
7джетиеттийети
8сегизсегизсегиз
9тогъузтогъузтогыз
10ононон

Loanwords

Loanwords from Ossetian, Kabardian, Arabic, and Persian are fairly numerous.[3]

Bibliography

  • Chodiyor Doniyorov and Saodat Doniyorova. Parlons Karatchay-Balkar. Paris: Harmattan, 2005. ISBN 2-7475-9577-3.
  • Steve Seegmiller (1996) Karachay (LINCOM)

References

  1. Row 102 in Приложение 6: Население Российской Федерации по владению языками [Appendix 6: Population of the Russian Federation by languages used] (XLS) (in Russian). Федеральная служба государственной статистики [Federal State Statistics Service].
  2. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Karachay-Balkar". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. 1 2 George L. Campbell and Gareth King (2013). Compendium of the World Languages. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-1362-5846-6. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  4. 1 2 Seegmiller, Steve. Phonological and Orthographical Information in Dictionaries: The Case of Pröhle's Karachay Glossary and its Successors.
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