Joses is a short Greek form of Joseph. Unlike Greek Joseph however, which remains frozen as Joseph in all grammatical cases, Joses functions like a true Greek name and is declined in Greek, taking the ending -etos in the genitive case, hence Josetos, "of Joses".
Although spelling of Joseph is fairly constant in Greek, spellings of the short forms Joses and Josis vary. Tal Ilan's catalogue of Jewish name inscriptions of the period (2002) notes variation is the spelling of "Joseph" (indeclinable in Greek) and various shorter (and sometimes declined) Greek variants but also notes that the full form Joseph is dominant with 47 of 69 Greek inscriptions.
Jose, ancestor of Jesus
Joses, brother of Jesus
"Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon? And are not his sisters here with us? And they took offense at him." (Mark 6:3, ESV)
"Is not this the carpenter's son? Is not his mother called Mary? And are not his brothers James and Joseph and Simon and Judas?" (Matthew 13:55, ESV)
A minority of (Alexandrian, Western) Greek manuscripts in Matthew 13:55 read "Joseph" (Ἰωσήφ) the standard spelling of the name. Roman Catholics hold that Joses the brother of Jesus is the same as Joses the brother of James referred in Matthew 27:56 and Mark 15:40.
Joses, brother of James the younger
"There were also women looking on from a distance, among whom were Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the younger and of Joses, and Salome." (Mark 15:40, ESV)
"There were also many women there, looking on from a distance, who had followed Jesus from Galilee, ministering to him, among whom were Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of James and Joseph and athe mother of the sons of Zebedee." (Matthew 27:55-56, ESV)
The text in Mark continues to say "Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses saw where [Jesus] was laid." (15:47 ESV). In the New Testament, the name "James the Less" appears only in this verse in Mark 15:40, who, by parallel accounts of the women at the crucifixion is usually equated with "Mary the mother of James," and with Mary of Clopas, mentioned only in John 19:25. According to a tradition of Hegesippus (Eusebius III.11) this Clopas was a brother of Joseph making his wife Mary, Jesus' aunt and this James the younger and Jose to be Jesus' cousins.
James Tabor presents that Mary the mother of James is the same person with Mary the mother of Jesus and that Clopas was her second husband, thus making Joses half brother of Jesus. Roman Catholic tradition follows Jerome's view that Mary the mother of James (wife of Clopas) is the sister of Mary the mother of Jesus, though they need not be literally sisters, in light of the usage of the said words in Greek, Hebrew and Aramaic.
Bishops of Jerusalem
In the medieval Golden Legend, Joses is also identified with Joseph Barsabbas, also called Justus, who in the Acts of the Apostles 1:23 is mentioned as a candidate to fill the vacancy created by the death of Judas Iscariot. Justus is listed third in the hereditary line of succession of the Desposyni after James the Just and Simeon of Jerusalem as Bishops of Jerusalem.
- Greek New Testament, Matthew 13:55: "οὐχ οὖτός ἐστιν ὁ τοῦ τέκτονος υἱός; οὐχ ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ λέγεται μαριὰμ καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ αὐτοῦ ἰάκωβος καὶ ἰωσὴφ καὶ σίμων καὶ ἰούδας;"
- Mark 6:3
- Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
- Bauckham in Quarles Buried Hope Or Risen Savior: The Search for the Jesus Tomb 2008 Page 84 "In Greek this short form of the name is rarer and does not seem to have any consistent spelling.41 Among the Greek forms of the name Joseph, Iosepos (....) is overwhelmingly dominant, accounting for 47 of the 69 occurrences "
- Greek New Testament, United Bible Societies, - footnotes to Mark 6:3 and critical apparatus NA24.
- Karl Keating (1988), Catholicism and Fundamentalism: The Attack on "Romanism" by "Bible Christians", Ignatius Press, p. 284–288, ISBN 9780898701777
- Camerlynck, Achille (1910), "St. James the Less", The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8, New York: Robert Appleton Company (retrieved from New Advent)
- ed. Wilhelm Schneemelcher New Testament Apocrypha - Gospels and Related Writings. p483
- Tabor, James D. (2006). The Jesus Dynasty: A New Historical Investigation of Jesus, His Royal Family, and the Birth of Christianity. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-8723-1.
- Richard Bauckham, Jude and the Relatives of Jesus in the Early Church p 76.