João Pessoa, Paraíba

João Pessoa
Municipality
Município de João Pessoa
João Pessoa skyline

Flag

Seal
Nickname(s): Sun Gate
Green City
Motto(s): INTREPIDA AB ORIGINE

Location of João Pessoa in the state of Paraíba
João Pessoa
Location of João Pessoa in Brazil
Coordinates: 07°05′00″S 34°50′00″W / 7.08333°S 34.83333°W / -7.08333; -34.83333Coordinates: 07°05′00″S 34°50′00″W / 7.08333°S 34.83333°W / -7.08333; -34.83333
Country  Brazil
Region Northeast
State Paraíba
Government
  Prefeito Luciano Cartaxo (PSD)
Area
  Total 211.475 km2 (81.651 sq mi)
Elevation 40 m (130 ft)
Population (2010)
  Total 801,718
Time zone UTC-3 (UTC-3)
Website


João Pessoa (Brazilian Portuguese: [ʒʊˈɐ̃w peˈsoɐ])[1] is the capital of the state of Paraíba in Brazil. It was founded in 1585 and it is also known as the city where the sun rises first, because it is the easternmost city in the Americas at 34° 47′ 38″ W, 7° 9′ 28″ S. Its easternmost point is known as Ponta do Seixas. The city is often referred as "the second greenest in the world", with more than 7 square kilometres (2.7 sq mi) of forested land, second only to Paris, France,[2] though such claim seems to be just a publicity stunt from the then mayor during Earth Summit.[3]

It is the state's largest city, with an estimated population of 801,718 of inhabitants.[4] Its metropolitan area comprises eight other satellite cities (Bayeux, Cabedelo, Conde, Lucena, Santa Rita, and others), totalling 1,223,000 of inhabitants.

The new "Estação Ciência, Cultura e Artes" (Science, Culture and Art Station),[5] located at the most eastern point of the Americas (Ponta das Seixas), is both an educational and cultural institution as well as a national landmark. The complex, inaugurated in 2008, was created by Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer and is one of his last projects.

The capital of Paraiba received in 2017, the title of creative city by Unesco[6], placing João Pessoa, as "Brazilian city of handicrafts". Besides the capital of Paraíba, just another city in Latin America, it has the same title, with the same category, which is Chordeleg, in Ecuador. The recognition of the capital João Pessoa, places it on the Brazilian tourist route for the richness of its popular art. This recognition had great contribution and influence, due to the mermaids project of Penha[7]; where women artisans perform the manual work, dialoguing with the design, fashion, creative economy, highlighting the art with fish scales in copper wires.

History

João Pessoa is the third oldest city in Brazil.[8] Previously named Frederikstadt by the Dutch and Parahyba by the Portuguese, the city was renamed for a governor of Paraíba state João Pessoa Cavalcanti de Albuquerque after his assassination in 1930.

Geography

Environment

João Pessoa has a 20 kilometres (12 mi) beachfront.[8]

João Pessoa has many green areas distributed among its avenues, parks, and residential neighborhoods, which support its claim as "the second greenest city in the world" with more than 7 square kilometres (2.7 sq mi) of forested land, second only to Paris. It was considered thus in 1992 after a survey of urban centres in various countries carried out by the United Nations (source: Embassy of Brazil in the UK).[9]

Climate

João Pessoa has a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen Am) with very warm temperatures all year long and strong rainfall in most of the months; however, October to December have a rather low rainfall.

Climate data for João Pessoa (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32.8
(91)
33.0
(91.4)
33.6
(92.5)
34.8
(94.6)
32.0
(89.6)
31.4
(88.5)
30.2
(86.4)
30.7
(87.3)
32.0
(89.6)
31.7
(89.1)
32.0
(89.6)
32.8
(91)
34.8
(94.6)
Average high °C (°F) 30.2
(86.4)
30.5
(86.9)
30.0
(86)
29.8
(85.6)
29.6
(85.3)
28.3
(82.9)
27.5
(81.5)
27.8
(82)
28.3
(82.9)
29.3
(84.7)
29.7
(85.5)
30.0
(86)
29.3
(84.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.1
(80.8)
27.2
(81)
27.0
(80.6)
26.7
(80.1)
26.0
(78.8)
25.2
(77.4)
24.2
(75.6)
24.3
(75.7)
25.1
(77.2)
26.3
(79.3)
26.7
(80.1)
26.9
(80.4)
26.1
(79)
Average low °C (°F) 23.7
(74.7)
23.5
(74.3)
23.2
(73.8)
22.8
(73)
22.2
(72)
21.4
(70.5)
20.9
(69.6)
20.5
(68.9)
21.5
(70.7)
23.0
(73.4)
23.7
(74.7)
23.9
(75)
22.5
(72.5)
Record low °C (°F) 19.6
(67.3)
16.9
(62.4)
19.0
(66.2)
20.2
(68.4)
19.6
(67.3)
17.0
(62.6)
17.0
(62.6)
15.0
(59)
13.6
(56.5)
18.6
(65.5)
17.8
(64)
19.4
(66.9)
13.6
(56.5)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 75.8
(2.984)
108.4
(4.268)
252.2
(9.929)
349.8
(13.772)
307.3
(12.098)
346.1
(13.626)
346.2
(13.63)
183.5
(7.224)
87.2
(3.433)
35.4
(1.394)
24.9
(0.98)
28.5
(1.122)
2,145.4
(84.465)
Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 8 9 15 17 17 18 21 16 11 7 5 5 149
Average relative humidity (%) 75 75 81 79 81 81 87 75 77 73 74 74 77.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 244.2 219.1 206.9 181.5 193.9 180.7 190.5 230.1 235.1 266.2 272.7 274.2 2,695.1
Source: Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET).[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]

Demographics

According to the IBGE of 2009, there were 801,718 people residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 45.72% White, 38.72% Pardo (two or more races), 2.77% Black, and 0.25% Asian or Amerindian.[19]

Religion

ReligionPercentageNumber
Catholic 74.06% 442,841
Protestant 15.92% 95,191
No religion 7.41% 44,332
Spiritist 1.10% 6,571

Source: IBGE 2000.[20]



Transportation

International airport

Joao Pessoa is served by Presidente Castro Pinto International Airport.[21]

Rail System

The João Pessoa Urban Trains System is operated by diesel components in only one railway line with a 30 km extension spanning 4 municipalities, João Pessoa, Cabedelo, Bayeux and Santa Rita, constituted by the Cabedelo / stretch, with 10 stations in operation, carrying around 10,1 thousand passengers per day. Composed of three locomotives and 17 passenger cars, forming two compositions that carry out 28 daily trips; the passengers can enjoy a pleasant, safe, economical and fast trip, besides contemplating beautiful rural landscapes in the urban area.[22]

Economy

The GDP for the city was R$ 14,841,805 (2010).[23]

The per capita income for the city was R$ 19,284 (2010).[24]

Culture

In the crafts part, the city stands out for its creativity through the popular art, possessing some places to be visited.

  • "CREATIVE SPACE BARN"[25] : The environment has an exhibition of pieces and works by more than 140 artisans and artists from Paraíba. The work of these artists can be visited by the public, who can also purchase the pieces.
  • "THE PARAIBANIAN CRAFT MARKET"[26] : The building has more than 120 shops that sell the region's handicrafts.
  • "JÚLIO RAFAEL CRAFTS CENTER"[27] : The place has 20 stores where are tradized handicraft products of different typologies, such as renaissance, embroidery, colored cotton, leather, weaving.
  • "TAMBAÚ FAIRY" [28] : The place has a large walk area where the shows and artistic and culture activities take place. The Fair is currently one of the main leisure options for visitors, tourists and residents of the capital. The Fair, has 45 boxes where the artisans sell their products and boxes where they sell typical foods of the Northeast.
  • "SERENE OF THE PENHA"[29]: The artisans who participate in the project produce biojóias with scales and fish leather.

Pieces produced: biojoias (necklaces, bracelets and earrings), flowers, handbags, garments, arrangements and bouquets. Raw material: Shells, pearls, copper wires, fishing net wires and fish scales. The Penha Serene, seeks to provide improvements in the quality of life of the families of those who participate. The artisans have the talent to transform objects into true works of art.[30]

  • "HOUSE OF THE PEOPLE ARTIST"[31] : In the House of the Popular Artist the craftsmen explore the variety of the crafts paraibano. In addition, the site houses the Craft Curatorship and spaces destined to the commercialization of the artisanal products and gastronomy of Paraíba. The collection consists of more than 1000 pieces that represent the genuine crafts of Paraíba, in 09 types: clay, wood, fibers, yarns, stones, metals, leather, indigenous handicrafts and recycled material. The space promotes the effective integration of the artisan activity with the tourist activity, contributing to the preservation of the manual arts that bring traces of the history, beliefs, customs and socio-cultural traditions of Paraíba.

Museums

Source:[21]

  • Museu Sacro e de Arte Popular, within the São Francisco church.
  • Espaço Cultural José Lins do Rego. A cultural centre including history and science museums.
  • City Museum. The former Casa da Pólvora, an old gunpowder store.
  • Museu Fotográfico Walfredo Rodríguez.
  • Bica Natural History Museum[32].
  • Museum Foundation house of Jose Américo.[33]
  • Hotel Globo Museum[34] : Formerly a luxury hotel in the city, it consists of two buildings of eclectic style, and its lines are influenced by Neo-classical, Art, Nouveau and Art Deco styles. Today it functions as a museum, where it houses the permanent exhibition of part of the furniture of the Hotel, in addition to a collection of popular art, is much visited for the appreciation of the beautiful view of the Sanhauá River and the sunset seen from its garden.

Sports

João Pessoa provides visitors and residents with various sport activities.

References

  1. The European Portuguese pronunciation is [ʒwɐ̃w pɨˈso.ɐ].
  2. "Onde o Sol brilha primeiro". Câmara Municipal de João Pessoa. Archived from the original on 2009-04-08. Retrieved March 2010. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  3. "Cidade mais verde? Extremo oriental? Saiba o que é verdade sobre João Pessoa" (in Portuguese). G1.
  4. "Paraíba » João Pessoa". Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). 1 July 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  5. ESTAÇÃO CIÊNCIA, CULTURA e ARTES (in Portuguese). joão pessoa, Brazil: E.C.C.A. 2006. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-12-24. Retrieved 2008-01-10.
  6. "Unesco Creative City title puts João Pessoa on the world tourist route through folk art". City Hall of João Pessoa. 03 november 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2018. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  7. "Mermaids from Penha". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
  8. 1 2 "Introducing João Pessoa". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
  9. Green City (PDF). joão pessoa, Brazil: UK Embassy. 2006. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved 2008-01-10.
  10. "Temperatura Média Compensada (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  11. "Temperatura Máxima (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  12. "Temperatura Mínima (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  13. "Precipitação Acumulada Mensal e Anual (mm)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  14. "Número de Dias com Precipitação Mayor ou Igual a 1 mm (dias)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  15. "Insolação Total (horas)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  16. "Umidade Relativa do Ar Média Compensada (%)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  17. "Temperatura Máxima Absoluta (ºC)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (Inmet). Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  18. "Temperatura Mínima Absoluta (ºC)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (Inmet). Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  19. Síntese de Indicadores Sociais 2000 (PDF) (in Portuguese). João Pessoa, Brazil: IBGE. 2000. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved 2009-01-31.
  20. Religion in João Pessoa by IBGE
  21. 1 2 "João Pessoa in Brazil". Footprint Travel Guides. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  22. "João Pessoa". CBTU-Brazilian company of urban trains. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
  23. GDP (PDF) (in Portuguese). João Pessoa, Brazil: IBGE. 2005. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-10-02. Retrieved 2007-07-18.
  24. per capita income (PDF) (in Portuguese). João Pessoa, Brazil: IBGE. 2005. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-10-02. Retrieved 2007-07-18.
  25. "CREATIVE SPACE BARN". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  26. "THE PARAIBANIAN CRAFT MARKET". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  27. "JÚLIO RAFAEL CRAFTS CENTER". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  28. "TAMBAÚ FAIRY". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  29. "SERENE OF THE PENHA". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  30. "Sereias da Penha". Paraíba Criativa. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  31. Bica Natural History Museum (in English)
  32. Museum Foundation house of Jose Américo (in English)
  33. "Hotel Globo". Paraiba Criativa. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
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