Jingpho–Luish languages

India, Burma
Linguistic classification Sino-Tibetan
  • Sal
    • Jingpho–Luish
Glottolog jing1259[1]

The Jingpho-Luish, Jingpho-Asakian, Kachin–Luic, or Kachinic languages are a group of Sino-Tibetan languages belonging the Sal branch. They are spoken in eastern India and Burma, and consist of the Jingpho (also known as Kachin) language and the Luish (a.k.a. Asakian) languages Sak, Kadu, Ganan, Andro, Sengmai, and Chairel. Ethnologue and Glottolog include the extinct or nearly extinct Taman language in the Jingpo branch, but Huziwara (2016)[2] considers it to be unclassified within Tibeto-Burman.

James Matisoff (2013)[3] provides phonological and lexical evidence in support of the Jingpho-Asakian (Jingpho–Luish) grouping, dividing it into two subgroups, namely Jingphoic and Asakian. Proto-Luish has been reconstructed by Huziwara (2012)[4] and Matisoff (2013).

Jingpho-Luish languages contain many sesquisyllables.[3]


Matisoff (2013),[3] citing Huziwara (2012),[4] provides the following Stammbaum classification for the Jingpho-Asakian (Jingpho-Luish) branch. Jingphoic internal classification is from Kurabe (2014).[5]

Jingpho-Asakian (Jingpho-Luish)
  • Jingphoic
    • Southern: Standard Jingpho, Nkhum, Shadan, Gauri, Mengzhi, Thingnai dialects
    • Northern
      • Northeastern: Dingga, Duleng, Dingphan, Jilí (Dzili), Khakhu, Shang, Tsasen dialects
      • Northwestern (Singpho): Diyun, Numphuk, Tieng, Turung dialects
  • Asakian


  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Jingpho–Luish". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Huziwara, Keisuke. 2016. タマン語の系統再考 / On the genetic position of Taman reconsidered. In Kyoto University Linguistic Research 35, p.1-34. doi:10.14989/219018
  3. 1 2 3 Matisoff, James A. 2013. Re-examining the genetic position of Jingpho: putting flesh on the bones of the Jingpho/Luish relationship. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 36(2). 1–106.
  4. 1 2 Huziwara, Keisuke 藤原, 敬介. 2012. Rui sogo no saikou ni mukete ルイ祖語の再構にむけて [Toward a reconstruction of Proto-Luish]. In Kyoto University Linguistic Research 京都大学言語学研究 (2012), 31: 25-131. doi:10.14989/182194
  5. Kurabe, Keita. 2014. "Phonological inventories of seven Jingphoish languages and dialects." In Kyoto University Linguistic Research 33: 57-88, Dec 2014.


  • George van Driem (2001). Languages of the Himalayas: An Ethnolinguistic Handbook of the Greater Himalayan Region. Brill.
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