Jewish Babylonian Aramaic

Babylonian Aramaic
Incantation bowl in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic
Region Babylonia, modern day southern and some of central Iraq
Era ca. 200–1200 CE
Early form
Hebrew alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-3 tmr
Glottolog jewi1240[1]


Babylonian Aramaic was the form of Middle Aramaic employed by writers in Babylonia between the 4th century and the 11th century CE. It is most commonly identified with the language of the Babylonian Talmud (which was completed in the seventh century) and of post-Talmudic (Geonic) literature, which are the most important cultural products of Babylonian Jews. The most important epigraphic sources for the dialect are the hundreds of Aramaic magic bowls written.[2]

Classification and type

The language was closely related to other Eastern Aramaic dialects such as Mandaic and Syriac language. Its original pronunciation is uncertain, and has to be reconstructed with the help of these kindred dialects and of the reading tradition of the Yemenite Jews,[3] and where available those of the Iraqi, Syrian and Egyptian Jews. The value of the Yemenite reading tradition has been challenged by some scholars.[4] (The vocalized Aramaic texts with which Jews are familiar, from the Bible and the prayer book, are of limited usefulness for this purpose, as they are in a different dialect.)[5]

Talmudic Aramaic bears all the marks of being a specialist language of study and legal argumentation, like Law French, rather than a vernacular mother tongue, and continued in use for these purposes long after Arabic had become the language of daily life. It has developed a battery of technical logical terms, such as tiyuvta (conclusive refutation) and tiqu (undecidable moot point), which are still used in Jewish legal writings, including those in other languages, and have influenced modern Hebrew.

Like the Judean (Galilean Aramaic) and Assyrian Jewish dialects it was written with Hebrew alphabet.

Grammar

Pronouns

Independent nominative pronouns [6]

Independent personal pronouns Meaning Examples
אנא First person, singular, common
את Second person, singular, common
הוא / איהו Third person, singular, masculine
היא / איהי Third person, singular, feminine
אנן First person, plural, common אנן קשישי ואינו דרדקי
We are old and they are young (bekarot 8b) [7]
אתון Second person, plural, masculine אתון דשאליתו לי דיאילו
It is you that I borrowed (Baba Mesia 97a)
אתון דמיקרביתו לרב
You, who are attached to Rav (Shabbat 37b)
אינהו Third person, plural, masculine אנן קשישי ואינו דרדקי
We are old and they are young (bekarot 8b) [8]
אינהי Third person, plural, feminine

copulative pronouns [9]

copulative pronouns Meaning Examples
נא First person, singular, common עדיפנא
I am more worthy (Kiddushin 29b) [10]
ת Second person, singular, common עציבת
You (common singular) are sad (Pesahim 3b) [11]
ניהו Third person, singular, masculine מי ידענא היכא ניהו
Do I know where he is (Sanhedrin 39a) [12]
הי ניהו
which is it (Nid. 41b) [13]
ניהי Third person, singular, feminine
נן First person, plural, common זוטרינן
we are young (Baba Qama 92b) [14]
תו(ן) Second person, plural, masculine חכימתו
You (masculine plural) are wise (Gitin 56b) [15]
נינהו Third person, plural, masculine הני הילכתה נינהו
These are laws from tradition (they) Mo'ed Qatan 3b [16]
גזלני נינהו
Robbers, they (Baba Batra 100a) [17]
סהדי שקרי נינהו
Lying witnesses, they (Baba Batra 92b) [18]
נינהי Third person, plural, feminine קדושה והבדלה חדה מילתא נינהי
Qedusha and Havdalah are one thing, they are (Pesah 102b) [19]
כולהי חדא ברכתא נינהי
all one long blessing, they are (Pesah 103b) [20]

Genitive pronominal suffixes [21]

Genitive pronominal suffix Genitive pronominal suffix (Hebrew) Meaning Examples
ַ אי [22][23] ִ י First person, singular possessive. My נַפְשַאי
my person
(jevamot 64b)[24]
דוּכְתַּאי
my position
(ketuvot 77b)[25]
ִי ךְ [26][27] ְ ךָ Second person, singular, possessive. Your פְּסוּקִיךְ
your verse
(chagiga 15)[28]
ָ ךְ [29][30] ֵ ךְ Second person, singular, possessive. Your רַבָּךְ
your teacher
(pesachim 24)[31]
שוּפְרָךְ
your beauty
(Bava Metzia 84a)
אמר ליה {רבי יוחנן} חילך לאורייתא {כמה יפה כוחך לסבול עול תורה} אמר ליה{ריש לקיש} שופרך לנשי {יופיך ראוי לנשים}
ֵי הּ וֹ Third person, singular, masculine possessive. His
ָ הּ ָ הּ Third person, singular, feminine possessive. Her אסירא לייחודי בגברא דלא דידָהּ
She is forbidden to be together in the room alone with a man who is not her husband (Erubin 100b)[32]
ִי ן [33][34] ֵ נוּ First person, plural possessive. Our אַרְעִין
our land (shanhedrin 94)[35]
ַ יְכוּ [36][37] ְ כֶם Second person, plural, masculine possessive. Your גַבְרַיְיכוּ
Your men (Shabbat 140b)[38]
ַ יְיכִי [39][40] ְ כֶן Second person, plural, feminine possessive. Your קַרְחַיְיכִי
your baldness
(pesachim 110)[41]
פַּרְחַיְיכִי
your crumbs
(pesachim 110)[42]
ַ יְהוּ [43][44] ָ ם Third person, plural, masculine possessive. Their מָנַיְיהוּ
their clothes (Shabbat 133b)
מִינַיְיהוּ(ן) [45]
from the men
ַ יְהִי [46][47] ָ ן Third person, plural, feminine possessive. Their עָלַיְיהִי(ן) [48]
about the women
Suffix + אִית Meaning Examples
אִיתֵיהּ He is/exists[49][50]
אִיתָהּ She is/exists [51][52]
אִיתְנָן We are/exist [53]
אִיתַנְכוּ You (pl. m.) are/exist[54]
אִיתַנְכִי You (pl. f.) are/exist[55]
אִיתַנְהוּ They (m.) are/exist[56][57]
אִיתַנְהִי They (f.) are/exist[58][59]

Demonstrative pronoun

Demonstrative pronoun (near/proximal) Meaning Examples
הַאי(י) Third person, singular, masculine demonstrative. This (Hebrew:זֶה) [60] מהַאי גִּיסָא ומהַאי גִּיסָא אַדַּעְתָּא דְדיקלא
on the one side..., on the other side with precise intention for
האיי דיאנא
this judge
האיי קלא
this voice
הָא Third person, singular, feminine demonstrative. This (Hebrew:זֹאת)[61] הא מילתא this word/thing
הָ(א)נֵי

Third person, plural, masculine demonstrative. These (Hebrew:אֵלֶּה, אֵלּוּ)[62] הָנֵי מילי these words/things
הָנֵי

Third person, plural, feminine demonstrative. These (Hebrew:אֵלֶּה, אֵלּוּ)[63] הָנֵי אִין הָנַך לאָ
(Chagiga 11b) (These yes, those not )
Demonstrative pronoun (medial) Meaning Examples
הַאי(י)+ךְ←הַאִיךְ Third person, singular, masculine demonstrative. That [64][65] איתתיה דהאייך
His wife of that (man)
הָא+ךְ←הָךְ Third person, singular, feminine demonstrative. That [66] הך ארעא
that land
הך לשנא
that language
הָ(א)נֵי+ךְ←הָנַךְ Third person, plural, masculine demonstrative. Those [67][68] מן הָנַךְ טעמי
Because of those reasons
הָנַךְ אֲזַלוּ לְעָלְמָא והָנֵי אַחֲרִינֵי נינהו
Those others have gone away, and these are others here
הָנֵי+ךְ←הָנַךְ Third person, plural, feminine demonstrative. Those [69] הָנֵי אִין הָנַך לאָ
(Chagiga 11b) (These yes, those not )
Demonstrative pronoun (remote/distal) Meaning Examples
הָהוּ(א) Third person, singular, masculine demonstrative. That (Hebrew:הוּא) [70] הָהוּא גַבְרָא
(Berachot 6b)
(any man, anybody, that man )
הָהִי(א) Third person, singular, feminine demonstrative. That (Hebrew:הִיא)[71] הָהִיא אִתְּתָא דַאֲתָא לְקָמֵיהּ
(nedarim 50b)
(That woman, who came before him )
הָנְהוּ

Third person, plural, masculine demonstrative. Those (Hebrew:הֵם)[72][73]
הָנְהִי

Third person, plural, feminine demonstrative. Those (Hebrew:הֵן)[74]

Accusative pronominal suffixes [75]

Accusative pronominal suffix Meaning Examples
ַ ן

ַ ני [76]

First person, singular, common גַנְבַן (Nedarim 62) he stole me

נַטְרַנִי he supervised me [77]

נֵיעָרְבִינְהוּ וְנִכְתְּבִינְהוּ

ך

[78]

Second person, singular, masculine
יך

Second person, singular, feminine
יה

Third person, feminine, singular
ה

Third person, masculine, singular
ה

Third person, masculine, singular
ינן

[79]

First person, plural, common
ינכו

second person, plural, masculine
נכי

second person, plural, feminine
ינון / ינ(ה)ו

[80]

Third person, plural, masculine נֵיעָרְבִינְהוּ וְנִכְתְּבִינְהוּ (pessachim 13) he shall put them (the words) together and write them [81]
ינון / י(נ)הי

[82]

Third person, plural, feminine וּרְמִי אִינְהִי ← וּרְמִינְהִי (berachot 9) you shall opposite them (the two sentences) [83]

Six major verbal patterns

There are six major verb stems or verbal patterns (binyanim) in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic. The form pe‘al (פְּעַל) “to do”, the form Aph'el (אַפְעֵל) “let do”, and the form Pa'el (פַּעֵל) “like to do”, are all in the active voice. But the form Itpe'el (אִתְפְּעֵל), the form Itaph'al (אִתַפְעַל) and the form Itpa'al (אִתְפַּעַל) are essentially reflexive and have usually function in a passive sense.[84][85]

Aramaic binyanHebrew binyanAramaic exampleHebrew parallelEnglish translation
פְּעַל Pe'al קַל Qal/Pa'al כְּתַב כָּתַבhe wrote
אִתְפְּעֵל Itpe'el נִפְעַל Niphal אִתְכְּתֵיב נִכְּתַבit was written
אַפְעֵל Aph'el הִפְעִיל Hiph'il אַפְקֵד הִפְקִידhe deposited
אִתַפְעַל Itaph'al הֻפְעַל Huph‘al אִתַפְקַד הֻפְקַדit was deposited
פַּעֵל Pa'el פִּעֵל Pi'el קַדֵיש קִדֵשhe sanctifed
אִתְפַּעַל Itpa'al הִתְפַּעֵל Hitpa'el וְיִתְקַדַּשׁ הִתְקַדֵּשׁit was sanctifed

Verbal pattern (binyan): pe‘al (פְּעַל) Basic Verb - Active

past tense
Aramaic verb WROTE [86]Hebrew verb parallel WROTERomanization of AramaicRomanization of HebrewEnglish translation
אֲנָא כְּתַבִיתאֲנִי כָּתַבְתִּיana q'tavitani qatavtiI wrote
אַתְּ כְּתַבְתְּאַתָּה כָּתַבְתָּat q'tavtata qatavtayou (m.) wrote
אַתְּ כְּתַבְתְּאַתְּ כָּתַבְתְּat q'tavtat qatavtyou (f.) wrote
הוּא כְּתַבהוּא כָּתַבu q'tavu qatavhe wrote
הִיא כְּתַבָההִיא כָּתְּבָהi q'tavai qatvashe wrote
אֲנָן כְּתַבִינָןאָנוּ כָּתַבְנוּanan q'tavinananu qatavnuwe wrote
אַתּוּ כְּתַבִיתּוּאַתֶּם כְּתַבְתֶּםatu q'tavituatem qotvimyou (m.pl.) wrote
אינון כְּתַבוּהם כָּתְּבוּinnun q'tavuem qatvuthey (m.) wrote
Aramaic verb CAME [87]Hebrew verb parallel CAME Romanization of AramaicRomanization of HebrewEnglish translation
אֲנָא אֲתֵיתִי
אֲנָא אֲתַאי
אֲנִי בָּאתִיana ateti/ana ataiani batiI came
אַתְּ אֲתֵיתאַתָּה בָּאתָat atetata batayou (m.) came
אַתְּ ?אַתְּ בָּאתat ?at batyou (f.) came
הוּא אֲתָאהוּא בָּאu atahu bahe came
הִיא אֲתָת
הִיא אֲתַאי
הִיא אתיא
הִיא בָּאָהi atat/atai/atjiahi ba'ashe came
אֲנָן אֲתַאן
אֲנָן אֲתַן
אֲנָן אֲתֵינַן
אָנוּ בָּאנוּanan atan/atenananu banuwe came
אַתּוּ אֲתֵיתוּאַתֶּם בָּאתֶםatu atetuatem batemyou (m.pl.) came
אינון אֲתוּהם בָּאוּinnun atuem ba'uthey (m.) came
אינין אֲתַיָין
אינין אֲתַאָן
יאינין אתן
הן בָּאוּinnin attajanen ba'uthey (f.) came
Participle

The Aramaic verb has two participles: an active participle with suffix [88] and a passive participle with suffix:[89]

active participles with suffix
Aramaic active participle WRITE with suffixHebrew active participle WRITERomanization of AramaicRomanization of HebrewEnglish translation
כָּתֵיב + אֲנָא ← כָּתֵיבְנָאאֲנִי כּוֹתֵבqatevna←qatev+anaani qotevI write
כָּתֵיב + אַתְּ ← כָּתְבַתְּאַתָּה כּוֹתֵבqatvat← qatev+ataata qotevyou write
כָּתְבִי + אֲנָן ← כָּתְבִינָןאָנוּ כּוֹתְבִיםqatvinan←qatvi+anananu qotvimwe write
כָּתְבִי + אַתּוּ ← כָּתְבִיתּוּאַתֶּם כּוֹתְבִיםqatvitu← qatvi+atuatem qotvimyou (pl.) write
Aramaic active participle COME with suffix[90]Hebrew active participle COME Romanization of AramaicRomanization of HebrewEnglish translation
אָתֵי / אָתְיָא + אֲנָא ← אָתֵינָאאֲנִי בָּאatena←ate+anaani baI come
אָתֵי / אָתְיָא + אַתְּ ← אָתֵיתְּאַתָּה בָּאatet← ate+atata baYou come
אָתוּ / אָתֵיָין + אֲנָן ← אָתִינָןאָנוּ בָּאִיםatinan←atu+anananu ba'iimwe come
passive participle with suffix
Aramaic passive participle with suffix BUSY Hebrew passive participle BUSY Romanization of AramaicRomanization of HebrewEnglish translation
עֲסִיק + אֲנָא ← עֲסִיקְנָאאֲנִי עָסוּקassiqna←assiq+anaani assuqI am busy
עֲסִיק + אַתְּ ← עֲסִיקַתְּאַתָּה עָסוּקassiqat← assiq+ataata assuqyou are busy
עֲסִיקִי + אֲנַן ← עֲסִיקִינַןאָנוּ עֲסוּקִיםassiqinan←assiqi+anananu assuqimwe are busy
עֲסִיקִי + אַתּוּ ← עֲסִיקִיתּוּאַתֶּם עֲסוּקִיםassiqitu← assiqi+atuatem assuqimyou (pl.) are busy
infinitive /gerund
Aramaic infinitive /gerund TO COME Hebrew infinitive /gerundRomanization of AramaicRomanization of HebrewEnglish translation
(לְ)מֵיתֵי / לְמֵיתָא(לָ)בוֹאLemeta/metejila'voTO COME
Future tense
Aramaic verb WILL WRITE [91]Hebrew verb parallel WILL WRITERomanization of AramaicRomanization of HebrewEnglish translation
אֲנָא אֶיכְתּוֹבאֲנִי אֶכְתּוֹבana aehtovani aehtovI will write
אַתְּ תִּיכְתּוֹבאַתָּה תִּכְתּוֹבat tihtovata tihtovYou (m.sing.)will write
אַתְּ תִּיכְתְּבִיןאַתְּ תִּיכְתְּבִיat tihtevinat tihteviYou (f.sing.) will write
הוּא לִיכְתּוֹבהוּא יִכְתּוֹבu lihtovu jihtovHe will write
הִיא תִּיכְתּוֹבהִיא תִּכְתּוֹבi tihtovi tihtovShe will write
אֲנָן לִיכְתּוֹבאָנוּ נִכְתּוֹבanan lihtovanu nihtovWe will write
אַתּוּ תִּיכְתְּבוּןאַתֶּם תִּיכְתְּבוּatu tihtevuatem tihtevunyou (m.pl.) will write
אינון לִיכְתְּבוּןהם יכְתְּבוּinnun laphqeduem japhqiduthey (m.pl.) will write

Verbal pattern (binyan): Itpe'el (אִתְפְּעֵל) Basic Verb - Passive

past tense
Aramaic verb WAS/WERE WRITTEN [92]Hebrew verb parallel WAS/WERE WRITTEN Romanization of AramaicRomanization of HebrewEnglish translation
אֲנָא אִי(תְ)כְּתֵיבִיתאֲנִי נִכְתַבְתִּיana itq'tevitani nihtavtiI was written
אַתְּ אִי(תְ)כְּתַבְתְּאַתָּה נִכְתַבְתָּהat itq'tavtata nihtavtayou (m.s.) were written
אַתְּ אִי(תְ)כְּתַבְתְּאַתְּ נִכְתַבְתְּat itq'tavtat nihtavtyou (f.s.) were written
הוּא אִי(תְ)כְּתֵיבהוּא נִכְתַבְu itq'tevu nihtavit (m.) was written
הִיא אִי(תְ)כַּתְבָההִיא נִכְתְּבָהi itqatvai nihtevait (f.) was written
אֲנָן אִי(תְ)כַּתְבִינָןאָנוּ נִכְתַבְנוּanan itqatvinananu nihtavnuwe were written
אַתּוּ אִי(תְ)כַּתְבִיתּוּאַתֶּם נִכְתַבְתֶּםatu itqatvituatem nihtavtemyou (m.pl.) were written
אינון אִי(תְ)כַּתְבוּהם נִכְתְּבוּinnun itqatvuem nihtevuthey (m.pl.) were written
future tense
Aramaic verb Will BE WRITTEN [93]Hebrew verb parallel Will BE WRITTEN Romanization of AramaicRomanization of HebrewEnglish translation
אֲנָא אֶ(תְ)כְּתֵיבאֲנִי אֶכָּתֵיבana aeqqtevani aeqqatevI will be written
אַתְּ תִ(תְ)כְּתֵיבאַתָּה תִכָּתֵיבat tiqqtevata tiqqatevyou (m.s.) will be written
אַתְּ תִ(תְ)כְּתֵיבִיןאַתְּ תִכָּתֵיבִיat tiqqatevinat tiqqateviyou (f.s.) will be written
הוּא לִ(תְ)כְּתֵיבהוּא יִכָּתֵיבu liqqtevu iqqatevit (m.) will be written
הִיא תִ(תְ)כְּתֵיבהִיא תִכָּתֵיבi tiqqtevi tiqqatevit (f.) will be written
אֲנָן לִ(תְ)כְּתֵיבאָנוּ נִכָּתֵיבanan liqqtevanu niqqatevwe will be written
אַתּוּ תִ(תְ)כַּתְבוּאַתֶּם תִכָּתְבוּatu tiqqat'vuatem tiqqatvuyou (m.pl.) will be written
אינון לִ(תְ)קַכְּתֵיבוּןהם יִכָּתבוּinnun liqqtevunem iqqatvuthey (s.pl.) will be written
אינין לִ(תְ)כַּתְבָןהן תִכָּתֵבְנָהinnin liqqt'vanen tiqqatevnathey (m.pl.) will be written

|}

Verbal pattern (binyan): pa‘el (פַּעֵל) Frequentative - Active

The verbal pattern (binyan) pa‘el are frequentative verbs showing repeated or intense action.

The verbal pattern pa'el is Active Frequentative.

past tense
Aramaic verb SANCTIFIED [94]Hebrew verb parallel SANCTIFIED Romanization of AramaicRomanization of HebrewEnglish translation
אֲנָא קַדֵּישִיתאֲנִי קִדַּשְתִּיana qadeshitani qiddashtiI sanctified
אַתְּ קַדֵּישְתְּאַתָּה קִדַּשְתָּat qadeshtata qiddashtaYou (m.s.) sanctified
אַתְּ קַדֵּישְתְּאַתְּ קִדַּשְתְּat qadeshtat qiddashtYou (f.s.) sanctified
הוּא קַדֵּישהוּא קִדֵּשu qaddeshu qiddeshhe sanctified
הִיא קַדִּישָההִיא קִדְּשָהi qaddishai qiddshashe sanctified
אֲנָן קַדֵּישְנָןאָנוּ קִדַּשְנוּanan qaddeshnananu qiddashnuwe sanctified
אַתּוּ קַדֵּישְתּוּאַתֶּם קִדַּשְתֶּםatu qaddeshtuatem qiddashtemYou (m.pl.) sanctified
אינון קַדִּישוּהם קִדְּשוּinnun qaddishuem qiddshuthey (m.pl.) sanctified
future tense
Aramaic verb WILL SANCTIFY [95]Hebrew verb parallel WILL SANCTIFY Romanization of AramaicRomanization of HebrewEnglish translation
אֲנָא אֲקַדֵּישאֲנִי אֲקַדֵּשana aqadeshani aqadeshI will sanctify
אַתְּ תְקַדֵּישאַתָּה תְקַדֵּשat teqadeshata teqadeshYou (m.s.) will sanctify
אַתְּ תְקַדְּשִיאַתְּ תְקַדְּשִיat teqadeshiat teqadeshiYou (f.s.) will sanctify
הוּא יְקַדֵּישהוּא יְקַדֵּשu jeqadeshu jeqadeshhe will sanctify
הִיא תְקַדֵּישהִיא תְקַדֵּשi teqadeshi teqadeshshe will sanctify
אֲנָן לְקַדֵּישאָנוּ נְקַדֵּשanan leqadeshanu neqadeshwe will sanctify
אַתּוּ תְקַדְּשוּאַתֶּם תְקַדְּשוּatu teqadshuatem teqadshuYou (m.pl.) will sanctify
אינון לְקַדְּשוּהם יְקַדְּשוּinnun leqadshuem jeqadeshuthey (m.pl.) will sanctify
אינין לְקַדְּשָןהן תְקַדֵּשְנָהinnin leqadshanen teqadeshnathey (f.pl.) will sanctify

Verbal pattern (binyan): Itpa'al (אִתְפַּעַל) Frequentative - Passive

The verbal pattern itpa'al is Passive Frequentative.

Aramaic verb WAS/WERE SANCTIFIED [96]Hebrew verb parallel WAS/WERE SANCTIFIED Romanization of AramaicRomanization of HebrewEnglish translation
אֲנָא יִ(תְ)קַדַּשִׁיתאֲנִי נִתְקַדַּשְׁתִּיana jiqqadashitani nitqadashtiI was sanctified
אַתְּ יִ(תְ)קַדַּשְׁתְּאַתָּה נִתְקַדַּשָׁהat jiqqadashtata nitqqadashayou (m.s.) were sanctified
אַתְּ יִ(תְ)קַדַּשְׁתְּאַתְּ נִתְקַדַּשְׁתְּat jiqqadashtat nitqadashtyou (f.s.) were sanctified
הוּא יִ(תְ)קַדַּשׁהוּא נִתְקַדַּשׁu jiqqadashu nitqadashit (m.) was sanctified
הִיא יִ(תְ)קַדַּשָׁההִיא נִתְקַדַּשָׁהi jiqqadashai nitqadashait (f.) was sanctified
אֲנָן יִ(תְ)קַדַּשִׁינָןאָנוּ נִתְקַדַּשׁנוּanu jiqqadashinananu nitqadashnuwe were sanctified
אַתּוּ יִ(תְ)קַדַּשִׁיתּוּאַתֶּם נִתְקַדַּשְׁתֶּםatu jiqqadashituinnu nitqadashtemthey (f.) were sanctified
אִינון יִ(תְ)קַדַּשׁוּהם נִתְקַדַּשׁוּinnun jiqqadashituem nitqadashuthey (m.) were sanctified
Aramaic verb WILL BE SANCTIFIED [97]Hebrew verb parallel WILL BE SANCTIFIED Romanization of AramaicRomanization of HebrewEnglish translation
אֲנָא אֶ(תְ)קַדֵּשׁאֲנִי אֶתְקַדַּשׁana aeqqadashani aetqadeshI will be sanctified
אַתְּ תִ(תְ)קַדַּשׁאַתָּה תִתְקַדֵּשׁat tiqqadashata titqadeshyou (m.s.) will be sanctified
אַתְּ תִ(תְ)קַדְּשִׁיןאַתְּ תִתְקַדְּשִׁיat tiqqadshinat titqadshiyou (f.s.) will be sanctified
הוּא לִ(תְ)קַדַּשׁהוּא יִתְקַדֵּשׁu liqqadashu itqadeshit (m.) will be sanctified
הִיא תִ(תְ)קַדַּשׁהִיא תִתְקַדֵּשׁi tiqqadashi titqadeshit (f.) will be sanctified
אֲנָן לִ(תְ)קַדַּשׁאָנוּ נִתְקַדֵּשׁanan liqqadashanu nitqadeshwe will be sanctified
אַתּוּ תִ(תְ)קַדְּשׁוּאַתֶּם תִתְקַדְּשׁוּatu tiqqadshuatem titqadshuyou (m.pl.) will be sanctified
אינון לִ(תְ)קַדְּשוּןהם יִתְקַדְּשׁוּinnun liqqadshunem itqadshuthey (m.pl.) will be sanctified
אינין לִ(תְ)קַדְּשָׁןהן תִתְקַדֵּשְׁנָהinnin liqqadshanen titqadeshnathey (f.pl.) will be sanctified

Verbal pattern (binyan): aph‘el (אַפְעֵל) Causative - Active

The verbal pattern aphel is Active Causative.

past tense
Aramaic verb DEPOSITED [98]Hebrew verb parallel DEPOSITED Romanization of AramaicRomanization of HebrewEnglish translation
אֲנָא אַפְקֵידִיתאֲנִי הִפְקַדְתִּיana aphqeditani iphqadetiI deposited
אַתְּ אַפְקֵידְתְּאַתָּה הִפְקַדְתָּat aphqedtata iphqadettayou (m.s.) deposited
אַתְּ אַפְקֵידְתְּאַתְּ הִפְקַדְתְּat aphqedtat iphqadettyou (f.s.) deposited
הוּא אַפְקֵידהוּא הִפְקִידu aphqedu iphqidhe deposited
הִיא אַפְקִידָההִיא הִפְקִידָהi aphqidai iphqidashe deposited
אֲנָן אַפְקְדִינָןאָנוּ הִפְקַדְנוּanan aphqedinananu iphqadnuwe deposited
אַתּוּ אַפְקְדִיתּוּאַתֶּם הִפְקַדְתֶּםatu aphqedituatem iphqadtemyou (m.pl.) deposited
אינון אַפְקִידוּהם הִפְקִידוּinnun aphqiduem iphqiduthey (m.pl.) deposited
Aramaic verb BROUGHT [99]Hebrew verb parallel BROUGHT Romanization of AramaicRomanization of HebrewEnglish translation
אֲנָא אַיְיתֵיתאֲנִי הֵבֵאתִיana ajtetani hevetiI brought
אַתְּ אַיְיתֵייתאַתָּה הֵבֵאתָat ajtetata hevetayou (m.s.) brought
הוּא אַיְיתִיהוּא הֵבִיאu ajtiu hevihe brought
הִיא אַיְיתָא
הִיא אַתָיְא
הִיא אַתָאי
הִיא הֵבִיאָהi ajtai hevijashe brought
אֲנָן אַיְיתֵינָאאָנוּ הֵבֵאנוּanan ajtenaanu hevenuwe brought
אינון אַיְיתוּהם הֵבִיאוּinnun ajtuem hevi'uthey (m.pl.) brought
Participle
Aramaic active participle BRING with suffix [100]Hebrew active participle BRING Romanization of AramaicRomanization of HebrewEnglish translation
מַיְיתֵי / מַתְיָא + אֲנָא ← מַיְיתֵינָאאֲנִי מֵבִיאmaitena ←maite+anaani meviI bring
מַיְיתֵי / מַתְיָא + אַתְּ ← מַיְיתֵיתְּאַתָּה מֵבִיאmaitet← maite+atata meviyou bring
מַיְיתוּ / מַיְתָן + אֲנָן ← מַיְיתִינָןאָנוּ מֵבִיאִיםmaitinan←atu+maituanu mev'iimwe bring
Future tense
Aramaic verb WILL DEPOSITE [101]Hebrew verb parallel WILL DEPOSITE Romanization of AramaicRomanization of HebrewEnglish translation
אֲנָא אַפְקֵדאֲנִי אַפְקִידana aphqedani aphqidI will deposite
אַתְּ תַפְקֵדאַתָּה תַפְקִידat taphqedata taphqidyou (m.) will deposite
אַתְּ תַפְקְדִיאַתְּ תַפְקִידִיat taphqediat taphqidiyou (f.) will deposite
הוּא לַפְקֵדהוּא יַפְקִידu laphqedu japhqidhe will deposite
הִיא תַפְקֵדהִיא תַפְקִידi taphqedi taphqidshe will deposite
אֲנָן לַפְקֵדאָנוּ נַפְקִידanan laphqedanu naphqidwe will deposite
אַתּוּ תַפְקְדוּאַתֶּם תַפְקִידוּatu taphqeduatem taphqiduyou (m.pl.) will deposite
אינון לַפְקְדוּהם יַפְקִידוּinnun laphqeduem japhqiduthey (m.) will deposite
Aramaic verb WILL BRING [102]Hebrew verb parallel WILL BRINGRomanization of AramaicRomanization of HebrewEnglish translation
אֲנָא אַיְיתֵיאֲנִי אָבִיאana ajiteani aviI will bring
אַתְּ תַיְיתֵיאַתָּה תָּבִיאat tajiteata taviyou (m.) will bring
אַתְּ ?אַתְּ תָּבִיאיat ?at tavijiyou (f.) will bring
הוּא לַיְיתֵיהוּא יָבִיאu lajiteu javihe will bring
הִיא תַיְיתֵיהִיא תָּבִיאi tajitei tavishe will bring
אֲנָן לַיְיתֵיאָנוּ נָבִיאanan lajiteanu naviwe will bring
אַתּוּ תַיְתוּאַתֶּם תָּבִיאוּatu tajituatem tavijuyou (m.pl.) will bring
אינון לַיְתוּהם יָבִיאוּinnun lajituem javijuthey (m.) will bring

Verbal pattern (binyan): itaphal (אִתַפְעַל) Causative - Passive voice

The verbal pattern itaphal is Passive Causative.

Aramaic verb was refuted/were refuted [103]Hebrew verb parallel was refuted/were refuted Romanization of AramaicRomanization of HebrewEnglish translation
הוּא אִיתּוֹתַבהוּא הוּשַׁבu ittotavu ushavit (m.s.) was refuted
אינון אִיתּוֹתְבוּהם הוּשְׁבוּinnun ittotvuem ushvuthey (m.pl.) were refuted

Noun: singular/plural

noun: singular[104]
Jewish Babylonian Aramaic example Hebrew parallel English translation
of the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic example
מַלְכָּא (malk-a) [105] המֶלֶךְ (ha-melekh)[106] the king[107]
עָלְמָא (alm-a)[108] העוֹלָם (ha-olam)[109] the world[110]
מְדִינְתָא (medin-ta)[111] המְדִינָה (ha-medina)[112] the state[113]
מְנָא הָא מִילְּתָא דְּאָמְרִי אֱנָשֵׁי (mil-ta)[114] מִנַּיִין מִלָּה זֹאת שֶׁאוֹמְרִים אֲנָשִׁים (ha-mila) the word/thing[115]
noun: plural[116]
Jewish Babylonian Aramaic example Hebrew parallel English translation
of the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic example
מַלְכֵי (malkheji)/ מַלְכַיָּא (malkh-ajia)[117][118] המְלָכִים (ha-melakhim)[119] the kings[120]
עָלְמֵי (almeji)/ עָלְמַיָּא (alm-ajia)[121] העוֹלָמים (ha-olamim) [122] the worlds[123]
מְנָא הָנֵי מִילֵּי (mil-eji)[124] מִנַּיִין המִילִּים האֵלֶּה (ha-milim) the words/things

List of verbs

Aramaic verbHebrew verb parallelEnglish translation
בע' [125]רָצָהask, request, want and require
חז' [126]רָאָהsee
עבד [127]עָשָׂהdo/make
פלג [128]חלקdivide
צרך [129]צריךnecessity
את'[130]בָּאcome
תנ' [131]שנהteach, learn, state, recite and repeat
תוב [132]שובreturn
נפק [133]יָצָאgo out
נחת [134]יָרַדgo down
סלק [135]עָלָהgo up
ילף [136]למדlearn, teach
יתב [137]יָשַׁבto sit
זבן[138]מָכַרto sell
הדר [139]חָזַרto return
סלק [140]הוֹרִיד, הֵסִירto remove
גלי [141]גֵּרֵשׁto reveale
אסי [142]רִפֵּאto heal, cure
הוי [143]דָּןhe discussed/raised an objection
קום / קָאֵם [144]הִתְקַיֵּם/עומדto stand
עלל [145]יָשַׁבto sit

Idiom

Idiom
Jewish Babylonian Aramaic example Hebrew parallel English translation
of the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic example
קָאֵים
(qa'em)[146]
- "rising, standing, referring to"[147]
קָאֵים - קָא
(qa) [148]
- - [149]
מַאי קָא מַשְׁמַע לַן
(mai qa mashma lan) [150]
מָה מַשְׁמִיעַ לָנּוּ
(ma mashma lanu)
"What new point is he teaching us "[151]
מַאי קָאָמַר
(mai qa'amar )[152]
מָה הוּא אוֹמֵר
(ma hu omer)
"What does he mean "[153]
תָּנוּ רַבָּנָן
(tanu rabanan)[154]
שָׁנוּ חֲכָמִים
(shanu khakhamim)
"the rabbis taught"[155]
מְנָא הָנֵי מִילֵּי
(mena hane mileji)[156]
מִנַּיִין המִילִּים האֵלֶּה
(minajin ha-milim ha-ele)
"What is the source"[157]

Modern study

The language has received considerable scholarly attention, as shown in the Bibliography below. However, the majority of those who are familiar with it, namely Orthodox Jewish students of Talmud, are given no systematic instruction in the language, and are expected to "sink or swim" in the course of Talmudic studies, with the help of some informal pointers showing similarities and differences with Hebrew.[158]

See also

References

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Jewish Babylonian Aramaic (ca. 200–1200 CE)". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Sokoloff 2003
  3. Morag 1988
  4. Morgenstern 2011
  5. Elitzur Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic (2013)
  6. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 78
  7. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 79
  8. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 79
  9. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 99
  10. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 99
  11. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 99
  12. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 100
  13. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 101
  14. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 99
  15. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 99
  16. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 82
  17. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 100
  18. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 100
  19. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 100
  20. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 100
  21. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90
  22. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90.
  23. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 65, 66.
  24. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 66.
  25. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 66.
  26. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90.
  27. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 66.
  28. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 66.
  29. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90.
  30. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 66.
  31. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 66.
  32. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 91.
  33. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90.
  34. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 66.
  35. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 66.
  36. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90.
  37. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 67.
  38. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 67.
  39. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90.
  40. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 67.
  41. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 67.
  42. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 67.
  43. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90.
  44. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 67.
  45. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 92.
  46. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90.
  47. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 67.
  48. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 92.
  49. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90, 104
  50. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 95.
  51. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90, 104
  52. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 95.
  53. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90, 104
  54. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90, 104
  55. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90, 104
  56. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90, 104
  57. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 95.
  58. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90, 104
  59. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 95.
  60. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 80
  61. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 80
  62. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 80
  63. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 80
  64. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 80
  65. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 73.
  66. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 80
  67. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 80
  68. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 73.
  69. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 80
  70. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 80
  71. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 80
  72. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 80
  73. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 72.
  74. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 80
  75. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 191
  76. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 192
  77. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 91.
  78. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 192
  79. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 192
  80. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 194
  81. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 84, 92.
  82. Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 194
  83. Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 92.
  84. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 18:A survey of the aramaic binyanim.
  85. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic: , Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 23:Talmud Bavli Aramaic.
  86. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 22:Past tense: binyan.
  87. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 123:Past tense: came.
  88. Frank (2011), p. 32.
  89. Frank (2011), p. 33.
  90. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 124:active participle with suffix
  91. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 36:Future tense: binyan.
  92. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 25:Past tense: binyan.
  93. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 39:Future tense: binyan.
  94. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 23:Past tense: binyan.
  95. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1,p. 37:Future tense: binyan.
  96. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 26:Past tense: binyan.
  97. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 40:Future tense: banyan.
  98. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 24:Past tense: binyan.
  99. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p.123 f.
  100. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 124:active participle with suffix
  101. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 38:Future tense: binyan.
  102. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 125:Future tense: will bring.
  103. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 94:Past tense:was refuted/were refuted.
  104. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1,p. 231-232.
  105. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1,p. 231.
  106. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1,p. 231.
  107. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1,p. 231.
  108. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1,p. 231.
  109. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1,p. 231.
  110. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1,p. 231.
  111. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1,p. 231.
  112. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1,p. 232.
  113. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1,p. 232.
  114. Yitzhak Frank: The Practical Talmud Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 178:From where is the maxim that people say?
  115. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1,p. 231.
  116. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1,p. 231-232.
  117. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1,p. 233: ...in the plural of masculine nouns ... construct forms such as מַלְכֵי are often used not only in the construct state but even in the absolute and emphatic states. Thus, in Babylonian Aramaic, the form מַלְכֵי may mean either the kings of or kings or the kings.
  118. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1,p. 231.
  119. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1,p. 231.
  120. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1,p. 233.
  121. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1,p. 231.
  122. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1,p. 231.
  123. Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1,p. 231.
  124. Yitzhak Frank: The Practical Talmud Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 178:From where do we derive these things?
  125. Frank (2011), p. 49, 105f.
  126. Frank (2011), p. 49, 108f.
  127. Frank (2011), p. 49, 59f.
  128. Frank (2011), p. 49, 50f.
  129. Frank (2011), p. 49, 56f.
  130. Frank (2011), p. 49, 123f.
  131. Frank (2011), p. 49, 116f.
  132. Frank (2011), p. 49, 93.
  133. Frank (2011), p. 49, 68f.
  134. Frank (2011), p. 49, 70f.
  135. Frank (2011), p. 49, 74.
  136. Frank (2011), p. 49, 82f.
  137. Frank (2011), p. 49, 88f.
  138. Frank (2011), p. 49, (Nr. 2 - Index).
  139. Frank (2011), p. 49, 64.
  140. Frank (2011), p. 49, 74f.
  141. Frank (2011), p. 49, 111.
  142. Frank (2011), p. 49, 114f.
  143. Frank (2011), p. 49, 126f.
  144. Frank (2011), p. 49, 132f.
  145. Frank (2011), p. 49, (Nr. 26 - Index).
  146. Yitzhak Frank: The Practical Talmud Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 230.
  147. Yitzhak Frank: The Practical Talmud Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 230: "This participle is often used with a word that has a prepositional prefix - אֵי, to mean basing oneself upon or referring to."
  148. Yitzhak Frank: The Practical Talmud Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 229.
  149. Yitzhak Frank: The Practical Talmud Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 229: " A contraction of the participle קָאֵים (from the root קום ) is often placed before another participle...it has an emphatic effect that is difficult to translate into english ."
  150. Yitzhak Frank: The Practical Talmud Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 153.
  151. Yitzhak Frank: The Practical Talmud Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 153: "What new point is he teaching us? This question points out a difficulty: Since the amora's halakha was already known to us from a mishna, a baraita, or the amora's own statement on another occasion - why did the amora present it again?"
  152. Yitzhak Frank: The Practical Talmud Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 152.
  153. Yitzhak Frank: The Practical Talmud Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 152: "What does he mean? This question seeks a clarification of the meaning of a mishna, a baraitha, an amoraic statement, or a pasuk."
  154. Yitzhak Frank: The Practical Talmud Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 260.
  155. Yitzhak Frank: The Practical Talmud Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 260: "the hakhamim taught. This expression usually introduces a baraitha that begins with an anonymous statement."
  156. Yitzhak Frank: The Practical Talmud Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 178.
  157. Yitzhak Frank: The Practical Talmud Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, s. p.178: "From where do we derive these things? What is the source? This question seeks a source for a statement in a mishna, in a baraitha, or by an amora."
  158. Jay Bushinsky, "The passion of Aramaic-Kurdish Jews brought Aramaic to Israel"

Bibliography

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