Jesus, King of the Jews
In the New Testament, Jesus is referred to as the King of the Jews (or of the Judeans), both at the beginning of his life and at the end. In the Koine Greek of the New Testament, e.g., in John 19:3, this is written Basileus ton Ioudaion (βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων).
Both uses of the title lead to dramatic results in the New Testament accounts. In the account of the Nativity of Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew, the wise men (i.e., Magi) who come from the east call Jesus the "King of the Judeans", causing King Herod to order the Massacre of the Innocents. Towards the end of the accounts of all four Canonical Gospels, in the narrative of the Passion of Jesus, the title "King of the Judeans" leads to charges against Jesus that result in his crucifixion. The name Judea is a Greek and Roman adaptation of the name "Judah", which originally encompassed the territory of the Israelite tribe of that name and later of the ancient Kingdom of Judah.
The initialism INRI (Latin: Iēsus Nazarēnus, Rēx Iūdaeōrum) represents the Latin inscription (in John 19:19) which in English reads as "Jesus the Nazarene, King of the Jews" and John 19:20 states that this was written in three languages—Hebrew, Latin, and Greek—during the crucifixion of Jesus. The Greek version of the initialism reads ΙΝBΙ, representing Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζωραῖος ὁ Bασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων.
The title "King of the Jews" is only used in the New Testament by gentiles, namely by the Magi, Pontius Pilate, and the Roman soldiers. In contrast, the Jewish leaders use the designation "King of Israel". Although the phrase "King of the Jews" is used in most English translations, it has also been translated "King of the Judeans" (see Ioudaioi).
Use in the Nativity
In the account of the Nativity of Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew the Biblical Magi go to see King Herod the Great in Jerusalem and in Matthew 2:2 ask him: "Where is He that is born King of the Judeans?"
The question troubles Herod who considers the title his own, and in Matthew 2:7–8 he attempts to trick the Magi to reveal the exact location of the newborn King of the Jews. However, once the Magi depart without informing Herod of the location of Jesus, Herod orders the execution of all young male children in the village of Bethlehem, in the episode known as the Massacre of the Innocents (Matthew 2:16) to avoid the loss of his throne to the newborn King of the Jews whose birth had been announced to him by the Magi.
Use in the Passion Narratives
In the accounts of the Passion of Jesus, the title King of the Judeans is used on three separate occasions. In the first such episode, all four Gospels state that the title was used for Jesus when he was interviewed by Pilate and that his Crucifixion was based on that charge, as in Matthew 27:11, Mark 15:2, Luke 23:3 and John 18:33.
The use of the terms King and Kingdom and the role of the Jews in using the term King to accuse Jesus are central to the discussion between Jesus and Pilate. In Mark 15:2, Jesus confirms to Pilate that he is the King of the Jews and says nothing further. In John 18:34, he hints that the King accusation did not originate with Pilate but with "others" and, in John 18:36, he states: "My kingdom is not of this world". However, Jesus does not directly deny being the King of the Jews.
In the New Testament, Pilate writes "Jesus the Nazarene, King of the Judeans" as a sign to be affixed to the cross of Jesus. John 19:21 states that the Jews told Pilate: "Do not write King of the Jews" but instead write that Jesus had merely claimed that title, but Pilate wrote it anyway. Pilate's response to the protest is recorded by John: "What I have written, I have written."
After the trial by Pilate and after the Flagellation of Christ episode, the soldiers mock Jesus as the King of Jews by putting a purple robe (that signifies royal status) on him, place a Crown of Thorns on his head, and beat and mistreat him in Matthew 27:29-30, Mark 15:17-19 and John 19:2-3.
The continued reliance on the use of the term King by the Judeans to press charges against Jesus is a key element of the final decision to crucify him. In John 19:12 Pilate seeks to release Jesus, but the Jews object, saying: "If thou release this man, thou art not Caesar's friend: every one that maketh himself a king speaketh against Caesar", bringing the power of Caesar to the forefront of the discussion. In John 19:12, the Jews then cry out: "Crucify him! ... We have no king but Caesar." This is a violation of Deuteronomy 17:15 which states "You shall surely set a king over you whom the LORD your God chooses, one from among your countrymen you shall set as king over yourselves; you may not put a foreigner over yourselves who is not your countryman." and a violation of Exodus 23:2 which states "Do not follow the crowd in doing wrong. When you give testimony in a lawsuit, do not pervert justice by siding with the crowd."
The use of the term "King of the Judeans" by the early Church after the death of Jesus was thus not without risk, for this term could have opened them to prosecution as followers of Jesus, who was accused of possible rebellion against Rome.
The final use of the title only appears in Luke 23:36-37. Here, after Jesus has carried the cross to Calvary and has been nailed to the cross, the soldiers look up on him on the cross, mock him, offer him vinegar and say: "If thou art the King of the Jews, save thyself." In the parallel account in Matthew 27:42, the Jewish priests mock Jesus as "King of Israel", saying: "He is the King of Israel; let him now come down from the cross, and we will believe on him."
King of the Jews vs King of Israel
In the New Testament, the "King of the Jews" title is used only by the gentiles, namely by the Magi, Pontius Pilate, Roman soldiers. In contrast the Jewish leaders prefer the designation "King of Israel", as in Matthew 27:42, Mark 15:32. But from Pilate's perspective, it is the term "King" (regardless of Jews or Israel) which is sensitive, for it implies possible rebellion against the Roman Empire.
In the Gospel of Mark the distinction between King of the Jews and King of Israel is made consciously, setting apart the two uses of the term by the Jews and the gentiles.
The INRI and ΙΝΒΙ acronyms
The acronym INRI represents the Latin inscription IESVS NAZARENVS REX IVDÆORVM (Iesus Nazarenus, Rex Iudaeorum), in English reads as "Jesus the Nazarene, King of the Jews" (John 19:19). John 19:20 states that this was written in three languages: Hebrew, Latin and Greek and was put on the cross of Jesus. The Greek version reads ΙΝΒΙ.
Devotional enthusiasm greeted the discovery by Cardinal Pedro González de Mendoza in 1492 of what was acclaimed as the actual tablet, said to have been brought to Rome by Saint Helena, mother of Emperor Constantine.
In Western Christianity, most crucifixes and many depictions of the crucifixion of Jesus include a plaque or parchment placed above his head, called a titulus, or title, bearing only the Latin letters INRI, occasionally carved directly into the cross and usually just above the head of Jesus. In the Eastern Church "King of Glory" (τῆς Δόξης, tês Dóxēs) may be used.
In Eastern Christianity, both the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Eastern Catholic particular churches sui iuris use the Greek letters ΙΝΒΙ, based on the Greek version of the inscription Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζωραῖος ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων (Iēsûs ho Nazōraêos ho basileùs tôn Iudaéōn). Some representations change the title to "ΙΝΒΚ," ὁ Bασιλεὺς τοῦ κόσμου (ho Basileùs tû kósmu, "The King of the World"), or to ὁ Bασιλεὺς τῆς Δόξης (ho Basileùs tês Dóxēs, "The King of Glory"), not implying that this was really what was written but reflecting the tradition that icons depict the spiritual reality rather than the physical reality. Some other Eastern Orthodox churches (such as the Romanian Orthodox Church) use the Latin version, INRI, which is the same to the abbreviation of the Romanian equivalent. The Russian Orthodox Church uses ІНЦІ (INCI, the Church Slavonic equivalent of ΙΝΒΙ) or the abbreviation Царь Славы (Carĭ Slavy, "King of Glory").
Some have claimed that the Hebrew translation of IESVS NAZARENVS REX IVDÆORVM would be properly abbreviated יהוה (YHWH), which is the tetragrammaton or biblical name of God, and that this explains why the chief priests asked Pilate to change it (the Tetragrammaton being sacred and reserved only for God). This theory is almost certainly not true, because the Hebrew word for "king," מלך, begins with the letter מ (M), which is not a part of the Tetragrammaton. Additionally, there is no suitable explanation for the inclusion of a word beginning with the letter ו (W).
Versions in the gospels
|Verse||Mk 15:26||Lk 23:38||Mt 27:37||Jn 19:19-20|
|Greek Inscription||ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων||ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων οὗτος||οὗτός ἐστιν Ἰησοῦς ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων||Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζωραῖος ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων|
|Transliteration||ho basileùs tôn Iudaéōn||ho basileùs tôn Iudaéōn hûtos||hûtós estin Iēsûs ho basileùs tôn Iudaéōn||Iēsûs ho Nazōraêos ho basileùs tôn Iudaéōn|
|English translation||The King of the Jews||This is the King of the Jews||This is Jesus, the King of the Jews||Jesus the Nazarene, the King of the Jews|
|Languages||[none specified]||Hebrew, Latin, Greek||[none specified]||Hebrew, Latin, Greek|
|Full verse in KJV||And the superscription of His accusation was written over, THE KING OF THE JEWS.||And a superscription also was written over Him in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew, THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS.||And set up over His head His accusation written, THIS IS JESUS THE KING OF THE JEWS||And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross. And the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS.|
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