January 1, 1927|
Wichita, Kansas, U.S.
March 11, 1965 38) (aged|
Birmingham, Alabama, U.S.
|Cause of death||Homicide|
St. Olaf College|
Princeton Theological Seminary
|Occupation||Unitarian Universalist minister|
|Known for||Civil Rights Movement|
James Reeb (January 1, 1927 – March 11, 1965) was an American Unitarian Universalist minister, pastor and activist during the Civil rights movement in Washington, D.C. and Boston, Massachusetts. While participating in the Selma to Montgomery marches actions in Selma, Alabama, in 1965, he was murdered by white segregationists, dying of head injuries in the hospital two days after being severely beaten.
Life and career
Reeb was born on January 1, 1927 in Wichita, Kansas, to Mae (Fox) and Harry Reeb. He was raised in Kansas and Casper, Wyoming. He attended Natrona County High School and graduated in 1945, after which he joined the Army despite the fact that his commitment to the ministry made him exempt from service. After basic training, he was sent to Anchorage, Alaska as a clerk typist for the headquarters of Special Troops. He was honorably discharged eighteen months later in December 1946 as Technical Sergeant, Third Class. After his time in the Army, Reeb continued his schooling. Initially, he attended classes in his home town at Casper Junior College, before moving on to St. Olaf College, in 1947, where he received his A.B. cum laude in 1950. He then entered Princeton Theological Seminary in Princeton, New Jersey, where he earned his B.D. in 1953. Three days later, Reeb was ordained a Presbyterian minister at the First Presbyterian Church of Casper. After this he accepted a position at the Philadelphia General Hospital as Chaplain to Hospitals for the Philadelphia Presbyter. To become a more effective counselor, he went back to school, enrolling at Conwell School of Theology, where he earned an S.T.M. in Pastoral Counseling in 1955.
As a scholar of theology, Reeb grew away from traditionalist Presbyterian teachings and was drawn to the Unitarian Universalist church. In March 1957, he resigned his Presbyterian Chaplaincy and contacted the American Unitarian Association about transferring his fellowship from Presbyterian to Unitarian. Reeb appreciated the church's emphasis on social action, and he became active in the civil rights movement during the 1960s.
Beginning in his new ministry, Reeb encouraged parishioners to participate in the movement as well. With his wife and four children, he lived in poor black neighborhoods where he felt he could do the most good. He took a job that would allow him to work closely with Philadelphia's poor community as a youth director for the West Branch Y.M.C.A. between 1957 and 1959. While at the Y.M.C.A. he abolished the racial quota system and started an integrated busing program to transport youth to and from the location. When he was granted preliminary fellowship by the Unitarians, he accepted an offer to be assistant minister of All Souls Church in Washington D.C. After three years of active service at All Souls Church, Reeb was fully ordained as a Unitarian Universalist minister in 1962. In 1964, he began as community relations director for the American Friends Service Committee's Boston Metropolitan Housing Program, focusing on desegregation. At the AFSC, Reeb and his staff advocated for the poor and pressed the city to enforce its housing code, protecting the rights of tenants of all races and backgrounds, particularly poor African and Hispanic Americans. The Reebs were one of the few white families living in Roxbury. James Reeb's daughter Anne recollected that her father "was adamant that you could not make a difference for African-Americans while living comfortable in a white community."
A member of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), Reeb went to Selma to join protests for African American voting rights following the attack by state troopers and sheriff's deputies on nonviolent demonstrators on March 7, 1965. After eating dinner at an integrated restaurant on March 9, Reeb and two other Unitarian ministers, Rev. Clark Olsen and Rev. Orloff Miller, were beaten by white men with clubs for their support of African American rights. The black hospital in Selma did not have the facilities to treat him,:153 and the white hospital refused. Two hours elapsed, and his condition deteriorated, before Reeb arrived at a Birmingham hospital — treatment was not available for him in much closer Montgomery — where doctors performed brain surgery. While Reeb was on his way to the hospital in Birmingham, civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. addressed a press conference lamenting the cowardly attack and asking all to pray for his protection. Reeb died two days later. His death resulted in a national outcry against the activities of white racists in the Deep South.
Reeb's death provoked mourning throughout the country, and tens of thousands held vigils in his honor. President Lyndon B. Johnson called Reeb's widow and father to express his condolences, and on March 15 invoked Reeb's memory when he delivered a draft of the Voting Rights Act to Congress. The same day, King eulogized Reeb at a ceremony at Brown's Chapel in Selma: "James Reeb symbolizes the forces of good will in our nation. He demonstrated the conscience of the nation. He was an attorney for the defense of the innocent in the court of world opinion. He was a witness to the truth that men of different races and classes might live, eat, and work together as brothers."
In April 1965, four men - Elmer Cook, William Stanley Hoggle, Namon O'Neal Hoggle, and R.B. Kelley - were indicted in Dallas County, Alabama for Reeb's murder; three were acquitted by an all-white jury that December. The fourth man fled to Mississippi and was not returned by the state authorities for trial. The Voting Rights Act was passed on August 6, 1965.
In July 2007, the Boston Globe reported that the FBI's Cold Case Initiative had reopened the investigation into the 46-year-old case. The renewed investigation was also reported by The Anniston Star and The Clarion-Ledger of Jackson, Mississippi. However, in 2011 the case was closed again and no charges were pursued. According to the U.S. department of Justice, the decision to close the case was made upon discovery that three of the four men believed to be responsible for the killing were deceased and that Namon Hoggle, the only surviving individual, was tried and acquitted of the crime in state court, which barred him from further prosecution. Namon Hoggle died just five years later on August 31, 2016 at age 81.
- Anderson, Laura. "James Reeb". March 16, 2009. Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- Howlett, Duncan (1993). No Greater Love: the James Reeb story. Boston: Skinner House. pp. 2–3. ISBN 1-55896-317-0. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- "Reeb, James (1927-1965)". The King Papers Project. Archived from the original on 2013-05-13. Retrieved 2013-02-23.
- Seaburg, Alan . "James Joseph Reeb." James Joseph Reeb, Unitarian Universalist History & Heritage Society, 12 Jan. 2012, uudb.org/articles/jamesjosephreeb.html.
- "James Reeb, Civil Rights Martyr: A Granddaughter Remembers." Casper College, Wyoming, Footprints Magazine , 10 Oct. 2016, www.caspercollege.edu/news/insidecc/james-reeb- civil-rights-martyr-a-granddaughter-remembers.
- "On This Day: Mass Moments". Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities. 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- Howlett, pp. 81ff.
- Helman, Scott (17 July 2011). "Letter from Selma". The Boston Globe Magazine. Globe Newspaper Co.: 14–21. Archived from the original on 28 October 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- Jack, Homer and John Sullivan. "James Reeb: Civil Rights Martyr and AFSC memorial statement on James Reeb" (PDF). www.afsc.org. Friends Journal and AFSC. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- Howlett, p. 131.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-08-20. Retrieved 2013-02-23.
- Schapiro, Rich (March 8, 2015). "Reverend recalls watching fellow minister die in Selma". NY Daily News. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- Mitchell, Jerry (March 11, 2011). "Clark Olsen still weeps over killing of fellow minister". The Clarion-Ledger. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- Newton, M. (2005). The FBI and the KKK: A Critical History. ISBN 9781476605104. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
- Jerry Mitchell And John Fleming (March 21, 2011). "FBI reopens investigation into murder of James Reeb". UU World Magazine. Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
- "James Reeb - Notice to Close File." The United States Department of Justice, 20 May 2011, www.justice.gov/crt/case-document/james-reeb-notice-close-file.
- "Namon O'Neal "Duck" Hoggle's Obituary on Montgomery Advertiser." Montgomery Advertiser, www.legacy.com/obituaries/montgomeryadvertiser/obituary.aspx?n=namon-. oneal-hoggle-duck&pid=181233556&fhid=20044
- Yamato, Jen (June 10, 2014). "Jeremy Strong Joins 'Selma,' 'Black Mass,' 'Time Out Of Mind'". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
- Martin Luther King Jr.’s "Eulogy for James Reeb", Unitarian Universalist World
- "Interview with two Reeb children, who talk about their father's effect on the Civil Rights movement", HMB Review, 12 November 2008
- Anderson, Laura. "James Reeb". March 16, 2009. Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "James Reeb", Harvard Square Library
- Reeb, James (1927-1965)" Martin Luther King Jr.: and the Global Freedom Struggle.
- Martin Luther King,Jr. "A Witness to the Truth" (PDF). UUWorld. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 11, 2012. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
- "The Rev. Clark Olsen's memories of the murder of Jim Reeb in Selma in 1965." Unitarian Universalist World
- "James Reeb" The King Center
- "Clark Olsen still weeps over killing of fellow minister" March 11, 2011, in Unpunished killings, by Jerry Mitchell
- "James Reeb" Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia. Ferris State University
- "Dr. King Leads March at Selma; State Police End It Peaceably" The New York Times on the web
- "Who was James Reeb?" James Reeb Unitarian Universalist Congregation
- "Touched by their family history, Rev. James Reeb’s granddaughters Leah Reeb and Corrie Lubenow have traveled to Selma to better understand his convictions and his sacrifice" Made in Wyoming: Our Legacy of Success.