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The Jains in India are the last direct representatives of the ancient Śramaṇa tradition. They follow Jainism, the religion taught by the twenty-four propagators of faith called tirthankaras. The total Jain population is estimated to be 7+ million people worldwide.
The Jains have the highest literacy rate in India, 94.1.% compared with the national average of 65.38%. They have the highest female literacy rate, 90.6.% compared with the national average of 54.16%.
The sex ratio in the 0-6 age group is the second lowest for Jains (870 females per 1000 males).
There are about 110 different Jain communities in India. They can be divided into six groups based on historical and current residence.
- Jainism in Bundelkhand
- Jainism in Madhya Pradesh
Virchand Gandhi made a presentation of Jainism at the Parliament of the World's Religions in Chicago in 1893, marking one of the earliest appearances of Jainism outside India. The World Jain Congress was held in Leicester in 1988.
- Jainism in Europe
- Jainism in America
- Jainism in Canada
- Jainism in East Africa - One of the oldest Jain overseas diaspora. Their number was estimated at 45,000 at the independence of the East African countries in the early 1960s. Most members of the diaspora belonged to Gujarati speaking Visa Oshwal Jain community originally from the Jamnagar area of Saurashtra., Most members of this community belonged to Gujarati speaking Halari Visa Oshwal Jain community originally from the Jamnagar area of Saurashtra.,
The Jain population in India according to 2011 census is 0.37% i.e. 4,451,753 (Males 2,278,097; Females 2,173,656) out of the total population of India 1,210,854,977 (males 623,270,258; females 587,584,719). The tabular representation of Jain population in the major states of India as per 2011 Census data released by the government is:
|S. No.||State||Persons (total)||Persons (rural)||Persons (urban)||Male (total)||Male (rural)||Male (urban)||Female (total)||Female (rural)||Female (urban)|
It is likely that the actual population of Jains may be significantly higher than the census numbers.
- "Jains steal the show with 7 Padmas", The Times of India, 9 April 2015
- "Literacy race: Jains take the honours", The Times of India, 7 September 2004
- "Jains' contribution to exchequer "astounding"", The Hindu, 20 August 2007
- "Indian Government", PIB
- Carrithers, Michael; Humphrey, Caroline, eds. (1991). The Assembly of Listeners: Jains in Society. Cambridge University Press. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-52136-505-5.
- J. Gordon Melton & Martin Baumann 2010, p. 1555.
- Dundas 2002, p. 246.
- Gregory, Robert G. (1993), Quest for equality: Asian politics in East Africa, 1900-1967, New Delhi: Orient Longman Limited, p. 26, ISBN 0-863-11-208-0
- Mehta, Makrand (2001). "Gujarati Business Communities in East African Diaspora: Major Historical Trends". Economic and Political Weekly. 36 (20): 1738. JSTOR 4410637.
- Office of registrar general and census commissioner (2011), C-1 Population By Religious Community, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India
- Lee, Jonathan H. X. (21 December 2010), Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife, ABC-CLIO, pp. 487–488, ISBN 978-0-313-35066-5
- Wiley, Kristi L. (2004), Historical dictionary of Jainism, Scarecrow Press, p. 19, ISBN 978-0-8108-5051-4
- J. Gordon Melton; Martin Baumann, eds. (2010), Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, One: A-B (Second ed.), ABC-CLIO, ISBN 978-1-59884-204-3
- Shah, Natubhai (2004), Jainism, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-1938-2
- Facets of Jainology : Selected Research Papers on Jain Society, Religion and Culture/Vilas Adinath Sangave. Mumbai, Popular Prakashan, 2001
- Dundas, Paul (2002) , The Jains (Second ed.), Routledge, ISBN 0-415-26605-X
- hukonchu.com - one of the best resource for Jain literature and religious information with the use of latest technologies
- JainConnect.org - newly evolving online portal/directory for the Jain community
- - exclusive matrimonial service for Jain Samaj
- Jain Professional Network - first professional networking group for Jains all over the world
- - a portal to connect jains and discuss about Jainism and other things
- "JAINISM IN AMERICA" by Yashwant K. Malaiya
- Jain Jagruti Centre, Toronto
- Jain Community, Jain Businessmen - community website, Jain information
- Universal Hub for Jains - community website