Italian general election, 1913

Italian general election, 1913

26 October–2 November 1913

All 508 seats to the Chamber of Deputies of the Kingdom of Italy

  Majority party Minority party Third party
 
Leader Giovanni Giolitti Costantino Lazzari Ettore Sacchi
Party Liberal Union Socialist Party Radical Party
Seats won 270 52 62
Seat change 59 11 14
Popular vote 2,387,947 883,409 522,522
Percentage 47.6% 17.6% 10.4%
Swing 6.8% 1.4% 0.5%

Prime Minister before election

Giovanni Giolitti
Liberal Union

Elected Prime Minister

Giovanni Giolitti
Liberal Union

General elections were held in Italy on 26 October 1913, with a second round of voting on 2 November.[1] The Liberals (the former Ministeriali) narrowly retained an absolute majority in the Chamber of Deputies, while the Radical Party emerged as the largest opposition bloc. Both groupings did particularly well in Southern Italy, while the Italian Socialist Party gained eight seats and was the largest party in Emilia-Romagna.[2] However, the election marked the beginning of the decline of Liberal establishment.

Electoral reform

Changes made in 1912 widened the voting franchise to include all literate men aged 21 or over who had served in the armed forces. For those over 30 the literacy requirement was abolished.[3] This raised the number of eligible voters from 2,930,473 in 1909 to 8,443,205.[4] The electoral system remained single-member constituencies with two-round majority voting.[3]

Historical background

The two historical parliamentary factions, the liberal and progressive Left and the conservative and monarchist Right, formed a single liberal and centrist group, known as Liberal Union, under the leadership of Giovanni Giolitti. This phenomenon, known in Italian as Trasformismo (roughly translatable in English as "transformism"—in a satirical newspaper, the PM was depicted as a chameleon), effectively removed political differences in Parliament, which was dominated by an undistinguished liberal bloc with a landslide majority until after World War I. Two parliamentary factions alternated in government, one led by Sidney Sonnino and the other, by far the larger of the two, by Giolitti. At that time the Liberals governed in alliance with the Radicals, the Democrats and, eventually, the Reform Socialists.[5] This alliance governed against two smaller opposition: The Clericals, composed by some Vatican-oriented politicians, The Extreme, formed by the socialist faction which represented a real left in a present-day concept.[5]

Parties and leaders

Party Ideology Leader
Liberal Union (UL) Liberalism, Centrism Giovanni Giolitti
Italian Socialist Party (PSI) Socialism, Revolutionary socialism Costantino Lazzari
Italian Radical Party (PR) Radicalism, Republicanism Ettore Sacchi
Constitutional Democratic Party (PDC) Social liberalism, Liberalism several
Catholic Electoral Union (UECI) Clericalism, Christian democracy Ottorino Gentiloni
Italian Reformist Socialist Party (PSRI) Social democracy, Social liberalism Leonida Bissolati
Democratic Party (PD) Social liberalism, Social democracy several
Italian Republican Party (PRI) Republicanism, Radicalism Napoleone Colajanni
Conservative Catholics (CC) Royalism, Clericalism several

Coalitions

Coalition Parties
Majority
Liberal Union (UL)
Italian Radical Party (PR)
Constitutional Democratic Party (PDC)
Catholic Electoral Union (UECI)
Democratic Party (PD)
Conservative Catholics (CC)
Opposition
Italian Socialist Party (PSI)
Italian Reformist Socialist Party (PSRI)
Italian Republican Party (PRI)

Results

Summary of November 1913 Chamber of Deputies election results
Party Votes % Seats +/−
Liberal Union2,387,94747.6270New
Italian Socialist Party883,40917.652+11
Italian Radical Party522,52210.462+14
Constitutional Democratic Party277,2515.529New
Catholic Electoral Union212,3194.220+2
Italian Reformist Socialist Party196,4063.919New
Democratic Party138,9672.811New
Italian Republican Party102,1022.08−15
Conservative Catholics89,6301.89New
Dissident Republican71,5641.49New
Independent Socialists67,1331.38New
Dissident Radicals65,6711.311New
Invalid/blank votes85,694
Total5,100,615100508±0
Registered voters/turnout8,443,20560.4
Source: Nohlen & Stöver
Popular vote
UL
47.62%
PSI
17.62%
PR
10.42%
PDC
5.53%
UECI
4.23%
PSRI
3.92%
PD
2.77%
PRI
2.04%
CC
1.79%
Others
4.08%
Parliamentary seats
UL
53.15%
PR
12.20%
PSI
10.24%
PDC
5.71%
UECI
3.94%
PSRI
3.74%
PD
2.17%
CC
1.77%
PRI
1.57%
Others
5.51%

First party by Region

Region First party Second party Third party
Abruzzo-Molise UL PSI PR
Apulia UL PSI PR
Basilicata UL PR PSI
Calabria UL PR PSI
Campania UL PR PSI
Emilia-Romagna PSI UL PR
Lazio UL PSI PR
Liguria UL PSI PR
Lombardy PSI UL PR
Marche UL PSI PR
Piedmont UL PSI PR
Sardinia UL PSI PR
Sicily UL PR PSI
Tuscany PSI UL PR
Umbria PSI UL PR
Veneto UL PSI PR

References

  1. Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1047 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  2. Piergiorgio Corbetta; Maria Serena Piretti, Atlante storico-elettorale d'Italia, Zanichelli, Bologna 2009
  3. 1 2 Nohlen & Stöver, p1031
  4. Nohlen & Stöver, p1050
  5. 1 2 Italian Liberal Party Archived 2006-11-21 at the Wayback Machine., Britannica Concise
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