|Part of a series on|
|Freedom of religion|
The following is a list of a number of recent incidents characterized as inspired by Islamophobia by commentators. Islamophobia became a popular term in ideological debate in the 2000s, and it has been applied retrospectively to earlier incidents.
Incidents and conditions by country
Below is a list of 1 incidents in Albania that could be considered Islamophobic:
|7 August 2016||Melee attack||0||1||A Muslim woman wearing a headscarf was beaten on a bus and called a "terrorist."||Unnamed woman|
Below is a list of 7 incidents in Australia that could be considered Islamophobic:
|5 April 2015||Rallies and violent confrontations||0||Numerous/Unknown number||Anti-Islam Rallies have been held across Australia since 2015. Reclaim Australia primarily opposes Islam in Australia and is considered Islamophobic. The group has attracted neo-Nazis and the involvement of neo-Nazis in promoting and attending Reclaim Australia rallies has been well documented. Speakers at Reclaim Australia rallies have been known to express extremist views, with one speaker in South Australia warning of the risks of "Islamic barbarity" and encouraging those in attendance to "insult and vilify Islam five times a day if you want to"||Reclaim Australia|
|13 June 2015||vilification (mock public beheading and pig roasting aimed at offending Muslims)||0||0||The United Patriots Front, a far-right Australian nationalist protest group which is associated with nationalist and neo-Nazi hate groups. protested Zaky Mallah's appearance on Q&A, a television programme, by roasting a pig outside the Melbourne office of the ABC in an apparent attempt to upset Muslims. In October the same year, the group beheaded a dummy outside the Bendigo City Council chambers to protest the 2015 Parramatta shooting and approval to construct a mosque in Bendigo.||United Patriots Front|
|16 December 2016||Melee attack||0||1||A Perth man was found guilty of assaulting a Muslim woman after a confrontation at a shopping centre in which he wished her a merry Christmas, called her a "fucking Muslim" and threw a beer bottle at her.||Adam David Peters|
|19 March 2017||Stabbing||0||1||Rev. Tomy Kalathoor Mathew, a priest, was stabbed in the neck moments before he was about to say mass at a church because the perpetrator thought he was "Hindu" or "Muslim"||Unknown|
|9 February 2017||Verbal abuse||0||0||Islamophobia was documented at the Thursday 9 February Q Society fundraising dinner, with guest speaker Larry Pickering stating that "If they (Muslims) are in the same street as me, I start shaking." and that "They are not all bad, they do chuck pillow-biters off buildings." adding that "I can't stand Muslims". The cartoonist also auctioned an overtly Islamophobic work depicting the rape of a woman in a niqab by her son-in-law. Another Larry Pickering cartoon auctioned at the fundraiser depicted an Imam as a pig (in Islam the consumption of all pork products is considered haram or forbidden), being spit roasted, with a "halal certified" stamp on its rump. A case of wine called "72 Virgins" was also up for grabs, along with a signed photograph of Dame Joan Sutherland. Kirralie Smith has denied supporting Pickerings statements, however Smith has reiterated parts of the speech stating that "there are Muslims that actually do throw gays off buildings!"||Q Society of Australia|
|11 May 2017||Melee attack||0||4||Four Muslim women were assaulted in Sydney in an attack described by New South Wales police as "bias-motivated."||Unknown|
|26 May 2017||Discrimination||0||0||Muslim schoolgirls were told to leave a careers expo at the Perth Convention and Exhibition Centre after attendants stated their "Muslim attire" was threatening.||Unknown|
Below is a list of 1 incidents in Austria that could be considered Islamophobic:
|5 February 2008||Vandalism||0||0||Close to sixty tombstones of Muslims were desecrated. The police suspected the perpetrators were right-wing extremists.||Right-wing extremists (suspected)|
Below is a list of 1 incidents in Belgium that could be considered Islamophobic:
|7 February 2008||Melee attack||0||2||Two young women of Maghreb origin were attacked by in the city center after being verbally assaulted with ethnic slurs. One of the perpetrators had right-wing extremist affiliations.||Three unnamed men|
Bosnia and Herzegovina
In the 1990s, the Bosnian Genocide and the Kosovo War, both of which involved the "mass murder of innocent Muslims," have been linked to Islamophobia. In Bosnia, Christian Serb and Croat militias carried out genocidal attacks on the Muslim Bosniak community. According to the ICRC data on the Bosnian Genocide, "200,000 people were killed, 12,000 of them children, up to 50,000 women were raped, and 2.2 million were forced to flee their homes." Many attacks on religious buildings and symbols took place in towns such as Foča, where all of the town's mosques were destroyed. On 22 April 1992, Serbs blew up the Aladža Mosque and eight more mosques dating from the 16th and 17th centuries were damaged or completely destroyed.
Below is a list of 1 incidents in Brazil that could be considered Islamophobic:
|3 August 2017||Melee attack||0||1||A Muslim food-cart owner named Mohamed Ali Abdelmoatty Kenawy was attacked while working by someone who shouted "Get out of my country!"||Unnamed men|
Below is a list of 2 incidents in Bulgaria that could be considered Islamophobic:
|Early April 2008||Vandalism||0||0||Anti-Muslim graffiti was smeared on the walls of the building of the Chief Mufti’s Office. Hussein Hafyzov, the Chief Secretary of the Chief Mufti’s Office in Bulgaria, stated that ur buildings—administrative ones and mosques in all twelve regional Mufti’s Offices—have been desecrated over fifty times in the last ten years." Vandalism of mosques and religious buildings in Bulgaria rarely results in arrests or prosecution. Hafyzov reported that vandals were caught in only two or three occasions, and "the very few perpetrators who were caught were not convicted."||Unknown|
|10 April 2010||Arson||0||0||A mosque was burned down. Members of the Muslim community in Karlovo and the Chief Mufti’s office in Bulgaria believe the incident was a hate crime.||Unknown|
In recent years, other attacks have been reported against Muslims in Quebec, including vandalism and hate graffiti. This attacks provokes fear and anxiety of the escalation against Muslims and their religious rights.
Below is a list of 15 incidents in Canada that could be considered Islamophobic:
|16 March 2006||Melee attack||0||1||A female student in headscarf assaulted at Hart House in the University of Toronto in what the Canadian Council on American-Islamic Relations called "an Islamophobic incident".||Unknown|
|22 November 2011||Melee attack||0||1||A Muslim woman was with her children when she was attacked at a mall by someone who yelled "Leave our country. Go back to your country." Authorities stated that it was hate crime, and was deemed Islamophobic by the Ontario Human Rights Commission.||Unnamed man|
|17 September 2013||Melee attack||0||1||A 17-year old Muslim girl was punched in the nose, that left her bleeding and her headscarf was pulled off.||Three unnamed women|
|19 November 2013||Melee attack||0||1||A Muslim woman was beaten, called "dirty immigrant," and was told "go back to your country," despite the fact that she was born in Canada.||Two unnamed men|
|December 2013||Melee attack||0||1||A woman wearing a hijab was physically assaulted. The perpetrator stated that "her hijab and herself do not belong in Quebec."||Unnamed woman|
|31 December 2013||Bomb threat||0||0||A bomb threat was made against a Vancouver mosque and the building was evacuated by the RCMP.||Unknown|
|26 November 2014||Bomb threat||0||0||A bomb threat was made against a Montreal mosque and the police found a suspicious package. 12 buildings in the area were evacuated until the police neutralized the package.||Unknown|
|20 May 2014||Attempted arson||0||0||A man tried to throw a Molotov cocktail through the window of a mosque in, but was stopped by the police. The police had been watching the mosque because it had already been the target of multiple attacks.||Unnamed man|
|26 September 2014||Melee attack||0||6||Six Muslim students at Queen's University were attacked by four men, one of whom wielded a baseball bat and who yelled various racial epithet. One of the students suffered minor physical injuries. The police arrested two men in connection to the attack and charged them with assault.||Four unnamed men|
|4 October 2015||Melee attack||0||1||A pregnant woman wearing the hijab was attacked by teenagers, when they tried to pull off her hearscarf, causing her to fall.||Two teenagers|
|14 November 2015||Arson||0||0||A day after the Paris attacks, the only mosque in Peterborough was set on fire. Police deemed the arson a hate crime.||Unknown|
|29 May 2016||Melee attack||0||1||An Iranian student at University of Western Ontario suffered a concussion after being beaten and called an "Arab," despite the fact that he Iranian. Authorities stated it was a hate crime, and the mayor of London said that "Islamophobia had no place in Canada".||Two unnamed men|
|24 October 2016||Melee attack||0||1||A Muslim teenager was beaten in a “race related” attack.||Two unnamed men|
|27 November 2016||Vandalism||0||0||The mosque of Sept-Îles was vandalized. The mosque had previously been vandalized in 2014. Police suspect it was a hate crime.||Unknown|
|29 January 2017||Shooting||6||19||Quebec City mosque shooting: A mass shooting occurred at the Islamic Cultural Centre of Quebec City. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and Premier Philippe Couillard called the shooting a terrorist attack, but the perpetrator was not charged with terrorism. The incident was classified as a hate crime and an Islamophobic attack.||Alexandre Bissonnette|
Below is a list of 1 incidents in Chad that could be considered Islamophobic:
|February 1979||Attacks||100–1000+||Unknown||Hundreds or thousands of people were killed in anti-Muslim riots in the southern Chad.||Chadian mobs|
Below is a list of 3 incidents in China that could be considered Islamophobic:
|February 2003||Attacks||0||100+||Tibetans rioted against Hui people, destroying Hui-owned shops and restaurants. Hundreds of people were injured.||Tibetan mobs|
|10-24 March 2008||Attacks||18||383||2008 Tibetan unrest: The main Mosque in Lhasa was burned down by Tibetans and Chinese Hui Muslims were violently assaulted by Tibetan rioters.||Tibetan mobs|
|8 October 2012||Attacks||0||12+||A mob of about 200 Tibetan monks beat a dozen Dungans (Hui Muslims) in Luqu County, Gansu province, in retaliation for the Chinese Muslim community's application to build a mosque in the county.||Tibetan monks|
Central African Republic
Below is a list of 2 incidents in the Central African Republic that could be considered Islamophobic:
|24 June 2014||Shooting||17||0||Gunmen killed 17 Muslim Fula people at a camp in the ongoing Central African Republic Civil War. Some of the bodies were mutilated and burnt by the assailants.||Anti-balaka|
|11 October 2017||Shooting||25||0||Rebels killed at least 25 Muslims inside a mosque in the town of Kembe in south-central Central African Republic.||Anti-balaka|
Below is a list of 3 incidents in Denmark that could be considered Islamophobic:
|30 September 2005||Unclear||0||0||Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy: Doudou Diène, in a report prepared by the UN Commission on Human Rights released on March 7, 2006, mentioned the publishing of the cartoons at the heart of the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy regarding, "The development of Islamophobia or any racism and racial discrimination ..."||Morgenavisen Jyllands-Posten|
|19 March 2008||Melee attack||1||0||A 16-year-old teenager of Turkish origin was verbally assaulted with racial slurs by three Danish teenagers, and subsequently beaten to death with baseball bats and hammers.||Three unnamed teenagers|
|2 June 2008||Melee attack||0||1||Kasem Said Ahmed, the former spokesperson of the Islamic Faith Society (IFS), was punched in the face after being asked if he was an imam.||Unknown|
In 2010 France banned face coverings including women wearing the niqab. The French Collective against Islamophobia reported "an explosion" in the number of physical attacks on women wearing the niqab. Kenza Drider, a protester against the law, said: "I'm insulted about three to four times a day. Most say, 'Go home'; some say, 'We'll kill you.' One said: 'We'll do to you what we did to the Jews.'... I feel that I now know what Jewish women went through before the Nazi roundups in France. When they went out in the street they were identified, singled out, they were vilified. Now that's happening to us." After the Charlie Hebdo shooting in January 2015, there were reports of attacks on mosques and Muslim citizens throughout the country.
Below is a list of 15 incidents in France that could be considered Islamophobic:
|October 4, 1972 – December 19, 1988||Bombing||1||16||Anti-Muslim bombings in Paris, Cannes and Nice: A series of three bombings killed one and injured 16 others in the French cities of Paris, Cannes, and Nice by neo-Nazi attackers.||Parti nationaliste français et européen|
|14 December 1973||Bombing||4||20||Four people killed when terrorists detonated a bomb at the Algerian consulate office in Marseille.||Charles Martel Group|
|21 February 1995||Shooting||1||0||Murder of Ibrahim Ali: Ibrahim Ali, a seventeen-year-old French-boy of Comorian origin, was shot by three far-right extremists.||Front National|
|1 May 1995||Forced drowning||1||0||Murder of Brahim Bouarram: Brahim Bouarram, a Moroccan immigrant, drowned after being pushed into the Seine river by three far-right extremists.||Front National|
|21 February 2005||Vandalism||0||0||Vandals scrawled swastikas and other Nazi references on the walls of the Grand mosque in south-east Paris. Dalil Boubakeur, the director of the mosque described the vandalism as Islamophobic.||Unknown|
|6 April 2008||Vandalism||0||0||148 Muslim graves were desecrated at the Notre Dame de Lorette, France's largest WWI cemetery. President Nicolas Sarkozy condemned the attack as a "hateful act" and the "most inadmissible kind of racism"||Unknown|
|20 April 2008||Arson||0||1||The Al-Salam Mosque was destroyed after it was set alight. Police suspect it was a hate crime.||Eight unnamed men|
|24 July 2008||Melee attack||0||1||Nouredine Rachedi, a 30-year-old French-born statistician, was beaten after being asked if he was Muslim.||Two unnamed men|
|13 December 2009||Vandalism||0||0||The Mosque of Castres in southern France, was vandalized in the night. Swastika in black paint, "Sieg Heil" in German, "France to the French" in French, and "White Power" in English were scrawled on the mosque. Additionally, a pig's feet was hung on the mosque.||Unknown|
|23 September 2010||Vandalism||0||0||More than 30 tombstones were knocked down or broken, and swastikas were drawn on the gravel paths at a Muslim cemetery. The local mayor denounced the vandalism as an "unbearable racist act."||Unknown|
|14 October 2010||Melee attack||0||1||A 26-year old Emirati woman wearing a niqab was attacked by someone who later said, "I find it unacceptable that someone should be wearing a niqab in this country of human rights."||Unnamed woman|
|14 January 2015||Stabbing||1||1||Mohamed El Makouli was stabbed to death at home by a 28-year-old neighbour shouting "I am your God, I am your Islam." His wife Nadia was suffered hands wounds while tried to save him.||Thomas Gambet|
|24-28 December 2015||Riots||0||0||2015 Corsican protests: A Muslim prayer hall was burned down and Qur'ans were set alight following marches by Corsican nationalists.||Corsican nationalists|
|13 March 2017||Kidnapping, melee attack, rape||0||1||Zak Ostmane, a 35-year-old Algerian LGBT rights activist, was kidnapped and raped by two men, one of which stated, "You people... you hate Trump. And you listen to black and Arabic music."||One English man and one American man|
|23 June 2018||Foiled plot involving firearms and improvised grenades and explosives||0||0||10 people from a far-right group including a retired police officer are arrested for suspicion of involvement in a terrorist plot. Several weapons were seized including home-made bombs and explosives.||Unnamed far-right group|
Below is a list of 10 incidents in Germany that could be considered Islamophobic:
|28 May 1993||Arson||5||14||Solingen arson attack of 1993: The Solingen arson attack of 1993 was one of the most severe instances of xenophobic violence in modern Germany. On the night of May 28 to May 29, 1993, four young German men (ages 16–23) belonging to the far right skinhead scene, with neo-Nazi ties, set fire to the house of a large Turkish family in Solingen in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Three girls and two women died; fourteen other family members, including several children, were injured, some of them severely. The attack led to violent protests by Turks in several German cities and to large demonstrations of Germans expressing solidarity with the Turkish victims.||Four neo-Nazis|
|9 September 2000 – 25 April 2007||Shooting||10||1||Bosphorus serial murders: A neo-Nazi group committed several murders of ethnic Turks and Kurds. The police discovered a hit list of 88 people that included "two prominent members of the Bundestag and representatives of Turkish and Islamic groups".||Nationalsozialistischer Untergrund|
|9 June 2004||Bombing||0||22||2004 Cologne bombing: 22 people were wounded when a pipe bomb detonated in a business area popular with Turkish immigrants in Cologne. A barber shop was completely destroyed and many other shops and numerous parked cars were seriously damaged by the explosion.||Nationalsozialistischer Untergrund|
|10 December 2007||Arson||0||0||A mosque was set on fire after someone threw an incendiary device at it.||Unknown|
|11 December 2007||Arson||0||0||A mosque was defaced with neo-Nazi graffiti and swastikas.||Unknown|
|1 July 2009||Stabbing||1||1||Murder of Marwa El-Sherbini: Marwa El-Sherbini was stabbed to death in a courtroom in Dresden, Germany. She had just given evidence against her attacker who had used insults against her because she wore an Islamic headscarf. El-Sherbini was called "Islamist", "terrorist" and (according to one report) "slut". Her husband Elwy Ali Okaz was seriously injured during the incident, he received at least 16 stab wounds to the head, neck, upper body and arm.||Alex Wiens|
|January 2010 – 2011||Arson||0||0||Three different mosques were set on fire by the same man.||Unnamed man|
|10 May 2016||Stabbing||1||3||A 28-year-old man killed a 56-year-old man and injured three others. While investigators initially thought the crime had Islamist motivation, they late found no evidence of an Islamic background. Instead, authorities state the perpetrator was haunted by delusions of a world overrun by Islam.||Paul H.|
|22 July 2016||Shooting||9 (+1)||36||2016 Munich shooting: A shooting occurred in the vicinity of the Olympia shopping mall in the Moosach district of Munich, Germany. Ten people, including the perpetrator, were killed and 36 others were injured. The motive for the shooting is under investigation, but the perpetrator had expressed admiration for Germany's right-wing AfD party, and that he was "very nationalistic," repeatedly uttering anti-Turkish abuse. The Local claimed that "those who knew him" said he considered himself part of the Aryan race, while The Guardian cited accounts from Sonboly's acquaintances who said he boasted about sharing the same birthday as Adolf Hitler and called it an "accolade."||David Sonboly (born Ali Sonboly)|
|27 September 2016||Bombing||0||0||Bomb attacks hit a mosque and a convention centre in the eastern German city of Dresden. Police said that the motive appeared to be xenophobia and nationalism.||Nino K.|
Below is a list of 3 incidents in Greece that could be considered Islamophobic:
|February 1897||Melee attack||850–1000||0 (4000 deported to Heraklion)||Lasithi massacres: Cretan Muslim civilians were murdered by local Christians in the prelude to the Greco-Turkish War of 1897.||Cretan Christians|
|8 October 2010||Vandalism||0||0||A Muslim cemetery was desecrated with about ten gravestones smashed, spurring a spontaneous demonstration by around 30 members of the Turkish minority living in the city. A government spokesperson had quickly condemned the act, attributing the vandalism to a marginal hate group.||Unknown|
|3 September 2015||Melee attack||0||Several||A group of people brandishing bats physically attack Muslim refugees on Kos, while shouting "go back to your countries" and other slurs. They also threatened activists.||15-25 unnamed people|
Below is a list of 1 incidents in Iraq that could be considered Islamophobic:
|7 April 2007||Melee attack||1||0||Murder of Du'a Khalil Aswad: 17-year-old Du'a Khalil Aswad, an Iraqi Kurdish girl of the Yazidi faith, was stoned to death in front of a mob of about 2000 men in 2007, because she had a Muslim boyfriend was planning to convert to Islam.||Eight or nine unnamed men|
Israel and Palestine
Below is a list of 7 incidents in Israel and Palestine that could be considered Islamophobic:
|25 February 1994||Shooting||29 (+1)||125||Cave of the Patriarchs massacre: A gunman opened fire on a large number of Palestinian Muslims who had gathered to pray inside the Cave of the Patriarchs compound in Hebron. The perpetrator was subsequently overpowered and beaten to death by survivors of the massacre.||Baruch Goldstein|
|3 May 2010||Arson||0||0||A mosque in the West Bank was destroyed in an arson attack. In previous months, other mosques had been attacked; some were vandalised with Hebrew graffiti and other mosques have been destroyed or damaged by arson in the past.||Israeli settlers (suspected)|
|10 June 2010||Vandalism||0||0||In northern Israel the walls of mosques were spray painted with the Star of David as well as messages such as "There will be war over Judea and Samaria" and "This structure is marked for demolition."||Four Kfar Hasidim yeshiva students|
|16–17 August 2012||Melee attack||0||3||Zion Square assault: Four Palestinian teenagers were beaten by dozens of Israeli teenagers, who chanted "Death to Arabs."||10-15 Israeli teenagers|
|2 July 2014||Kidnapping, Melee attack||1||0||Kidnapping and murder of Mohammed Abu Khdeir: 16-year-old Mohammed Abu Khdeir was kidnapped near a mosque, and later found murdered in Givat Shaul.||Yosef Ben David and 2 other teenage settlers|
|31 July 2015||Arson||3||1||Duma arson attack: Members of the Dawabsheh family were killed when their house was firebombed by masked attackers.||Amiram Ben-Uliel and 3 other Israeli settlers|
|13 June 2017||Stabbing||1||0||Henriette Karra, an Israeli Christian, was killed by her father after he found out she was in a relationship with a Muslim. Her father said this relationship violated the "family’s honor."||Sami Karra|
Religious clashes have been intermittent in modern India, which saw its own birth being marred by the religious riots that took place during the Direct Action Day and during its partition. Since then, India has seen violent incidents involving both the majority Hindu population and the minority Muslim population in a series of communal riots, one of which was the Bhagalpur riots of 1989, which has led to the death of 900-1000 Muslims and leaving 50,000 displaced. Recently, India has also seen tensions between Hindus and Muslims in the 2002 Gujarat violence; In response to the Godhra train burning, the nationalist party Vishva Hindu Parishad had organized protests that had immediately turned violent. After days of rioting and violence, it was estimated that 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus were killed, 2500 injured and 223 missing.
Below is a list of 16 incidents in India that could be considered Islamophobic:
|27 August 2004||Bombing||0||18||2004 Jalna Mosque bomb attack:Two separate bombs detonated at local mosques injuries 18.||Hindu nationalists|
|8 September 2006||Bombing||37||125+||2006 Malegaon bombings: A series of bomb were detonated in a Muslim cemetery. The attack took place on the holy day of Shab-e-Baraat and most of the victims were Muslim pilgrims.||Abhinav Bharat|
|11 October 2007||Bombing||3||17||Ajmer Dargah bombing: Bomb exploded at the Dargah of Sufi saint Moinuddin Chishti.||Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh|
|29 September 2008||Motorcycle bombing||8||80||29 September 2008 western India bombings: Eight people were killed and 80 others wounded when two bombs detonated by Hindu extremists during Ramadan.||Abhinav Bharat and other Hindu groups|
|27 August 2013 – 17 September 2013||Attacks||62||93||2013 Muzaffarnagar riots: Clashes between the Hindu and Muslim communities led to deaths and injuries of many people.||Various|
|1–3 May 2014||Shooting||33 (+3)||2+||May 2014 Assam violence : Suspected NDFB militants kills 33 Bengali Muslim villagers in Assam. The motive of the attack is speculated to be revenge for not voting for Bodos in the Lok Sabha elections.||National Democratic Front of Bodoland (suspected)|
|2 June 2014||Melee attack||1||0||Pune techie murder case: A 24 years old Muslim youth named Mohsin Shaikh was allegedly killed by Hindu nationalists.||Hindutva|
|28 September 2015||Melee attack||1||1||2015 Dadri mob lynching: Mohammad Akhlaq, a Muslim resident, was beaten to death by a mob of villagers after a neighbor accused him of stealing and slaughtering a missing cow calf. His 22-year-old son Danish was seriously injured during the incident.||Hindu nationalists|
|18 March 2016||Melee attack||2||0||2016 Jharkhand mob lynching: Two Muslim cattle traders was beaten to death by cow protection vigilantes in Jharkhand.||Cow protection vigilantes|
|26 March 2017||Melee attack||2||10||2017 Patan riots: Started as fight between two people of different communities and later turned into Hindu-Muslim riot in the Vadavali village in Gujarat’s Patan district.||Hindu-Muslim riot|
|5 April 2017||Melee attack||1||6||2017 Alwar mob lynching: A mob of about 200 cow protection vigilantes assaulted a group of Muslims transporting cattle in northern India. Eleven men transporting the cattle were arrested and accused of smuggling the animals. None of the assailants in the cow protection group were arrested, but a criminal case has been opened.||200 cow protection vigilantes|
|7 April 2017||Melee attack||1||0||Mohammad Shalik, a 20-year-old Muslim man, was tied to a tree and whipped to death for being in love with a Hindu woman.||Three unnamed men|
|2 May 2017||Melee attack||2||0||A mob in India beat to death two Muslims who were suspected of to slaughter cows.||20 cow protection vigilantes|
|24 June 2017||Melee attack||1||3||A man named Ramesh was arrested in India for being part of a mob that attacked a group of four Muslim teenagers on a train has said on TV that he was goaded into it by others because Muslims ate beef. One of the boys, 16-year-old Junaid Khan, was killed in the assault.||20 unnamed men|
|12 July 2017||Melee attack||0||10||A Muslim family of 10 including women, children, elders and a handicapped teenager were assaulted in a train and robbed by a gang who yelled "Kill them, they are Muslims."||30-35 unnamed men|
|27 September 2017||Melee attack||1||0||Near the India-Pakistan border, a Hindu priest named Ramesh Suthar accused folk singer Ahmad Khan of making mistakes while reciting hymns to evoke a Hindu goddess. Suthar and his friends proceeded to break Khan’s musical instruments and kill him. A month later, at least 200 Muslims have fled their village in the western Indian state of Rajasthan fearing communal clashes.||Ramesh Suthar and several unnamed men|
Under the reign of President Suharto during the New Order (Indonesia), Islamists were suppressed, and religious Muslims were actively persecuted by the Indonesian government. Several Christian Generals who served under Suharto like Leonardus Benjamin Moerdani actively persecuted religious Muslims in the Indonesian military, which was described as being "anti-Islamic", denying religious Muslims promotions, and preventing them from praying in the barracks and banning them from even using the Islamic greeting "Salaam Aleikum", and these anti-Islamic policies were entirely supported by Suharto, despite Suharto being a Muslim himself, since he considered political Islam a threat to his power. The Christian General Theo Syafei, who also served under Suharto, spoke out against political Islam coming to power in Indonesia, and insulted the Qur'an and Islam in remarks which were described as Islamophobic.
Below is a list of 3 incidents in Italy that could be considered Islamophobic:
|25 July-24 October 2007||Arson||0||0||The Alif Baa Islamic Centre was firebombed on three different accounts: once in July, once in August, and once in October.||Unknown|
|5 August 2007||Arson||0||0||A mosque was attacked and an imam’s car was destroyed.||Unknown|
|June 2008||Bombing||0||0||Two handmade bombs were thrown at the Islamic Center, destroying the main gate. Another similar attack took place two weeks later.||Unknown|
Below is a list of 2 incidents in Kosovo that could be considered Islamophobic:
|5 August 2007||Vandalism||0||0||Two graves at a cemetery were desecrated.||Unknown|
|7 August 2007||Arson||0||0||The Alif Baa Islamic Centre was firebombed on three different accounts: once in July, once in August, and once in October.||Unknown|
Below is a list of 10 incidents in Myanmar that could be considered Islamophobic:
|26 May 1930||Attacks||120–200+||900–2,000||1930 Rangoon riots: Several anti-Indian and anti-Muslim riots exploded in Rangoon and various Burmese cities and ports following a massive Indian labors' strike which began at Rangoon’s harbor.||Bamar people|
|26 July 1938||Attacks||204||1,000||Multiple anti-Muslim riots again broke out in Burma. The agitation against Muslims and the British was led by Burmese newspapers.||Bamar people|
|16 March 1997||Attacks||3||Unknown||1997 Mandalay riots: A mob of 1,000–1,500 Buddhist monks targeted the mosques, Muslim shop-houses, and transportation vehicles for attack. Damaging, destroying, looting, and trampling, burning religious books, committing acts of sacrilege were also common.||Bhikkhu|
|May 2001 – May 2002||Attacks||88||Unknown||Anti-Muslim riots broke out in Taungoo, Pegu division, resulting in the deaths of about 200 Muslims, in the destruction of 11 mosques and the setting ablaze of over 400 houses. On 15 May, the first day of the anti-Muslim uprisings, about 20 Muslims who were praying in the Han Tha mosque were killed and some were beaten to death by the pro-junta forces. The mosques in Taungoo remained closed as of May 2002. Muslims have been forced to worship in their homes. Local Muslim leaders complain that they are still harassed. After the violence, many local Muslims moved away from Taungoo to nearby towns and to as far away as Yangon. After two days of violence the military stepped in and the violence immediately ended.||Bhikkhu|
|8 June 2012||Attacks||200+||Unknown (100,000 displaced)||2012 Rakhine State riots: Many Muslims and Rakhine have been killed in sectarian violence in the state.||Bhikkhu|
|20 March 2013 – 2 October 2013||Attacks||50||80+||2013 Myanmar anti-Muslim riots: A series of violent acts and riots took place throughout the country targeting Muslims.||Bhikkhu|
|2 July 2014||Attacks||2||12+||A vengeful mob of 300 people started throwing stones and bricks at a tea stall. The mob went on to attack Muslim shops and vehicles and shouting slogans in Muslim residential areas. Two men — one Buddhist and one Muslim — were killed. A curfew was imposed on 3 July.||Unnamed mob|
|23 June 2016||Arson||0||0||A mob demolished a mosque in Bago Region, about 60 km northeast of the capital Yangon.||Unnamed mob|
|2 July 2016||Arson||0||0||A mob burned down a mosque in northern Myanmar.||Unnamed mob|
|4 July 2017||Attacks||1||6||A mob of at least 100 buddhists attacked 7 Rohingya men from Dapaing camp, killing one and injuring six others. An unarmed junior policeman was with the Muslim men at the time of the attack but was unable to protect them from the mob and ran away back to the police station.||Unnamed mob|
Below is a list of 3 incidents in the Netherlands that could be considered Islamophobic:
|March–August 2010||Vandalism, attempted arson||0||0||A mosque was vandalized in March. In August, arson was attempted on the same mosque and offensive graffiti was sprayed on the walls.||Unknown|
|27 February 2016||Arson||0||0||Five men threw two Molotov cocktails at a mosque. Some 30 people, including children, were inside the mosque at the time but no one was injured. Dutch courts called it a "terrorist act."||Five unnamed men|
|28 December 2016||Arson||0||0||A building linked to the Association of Islamic Communities was set on fire. Police suspected it was a hate crime.||Unknown|
Below is a list of 1 incidents in Norway that could be considered Islamophobic:
|22 July 2011||Car bombing, shooting||77||319||2011 Norway attacks: A man named Anders Behring Breivik committed two attacks in Norway. The first attack was a car bomb explosion in Oslo within Regjeringskvartalet, the executive government quarter of Norway, at 15:25:22 (CEST). The explosion killed eight people and injured at least 209 people, twelve of them seriously. The second attack occurred less than two hours later at a summer camp on the island of Utøya in Tyrifjorden, Buskerud. The camp was organized by the AUF, the youth division of the ruling Norwegian Labour Party (AP). Breivik, dressed in a homemade police uniform and showing false identification, took a ferry to the island and opened fire at the participants, killing 68 of them outright, and injuring at least 110 people, 55 of them seriously; the 69th victim died in a hospital two days after the massacre. Analysts described him as having Islamophobic views and a hatred of Islam, and as someone who considered himself as a knight dedicated to stemming the tide of Muslim immigration into Europe. In a manifesto, he describes opposition to what he saw as the Islamisation of Europe as his motive for carrying out the attacks.||Anders Behring Breivik|
Below is a list of 5 incidents in the Philippines that could be considered Islamophobic:
|March 1970–January 1972||Shooting, stabbings, arson||300+||Unknown||The Ilaga committed 22 massacres resulting in the deaths of hundreds of Muslim civilians. The group is guilty of "mutilat[ing] bodies of victims" and "marking bodies with a cross." The group also burned down and looted many houses and properties.||Ilaga|
|19 June 1971||Shooting||70-79||17||Manili massacre: Moro Muslims were massacred inside a mosque in Manili. The Muslim residents of the town had gathered in their mosque to participate in a supposed peace talk with Christian groups when a group of armed men dressed in uniforms similar to those worn by members of the Philippine Constabulary opened fire on them.||Ilaga|
|24 October 1971||Shooting||40-66||0||Tacub massacre: Maranao Muslims were summarily executed at a military checkpoint in Tacub.||Philippine Army|
|24 September 1974||Shooting||1,000–1,500||Unknown||Malisbong massacre: The Malisbong massacre was the mass murder of Muslim Moros on September 24, 1974 in the coastal village of Malisbong in Palimbang, Sultan Kudarat, Mindanao where units of the Philippine Army killed more than 1000. Accounts compiled by the Moro Women's Center in General Santos City state that 1500 male Moros aged 11–70 were killed inside a mosque, 3000 women and children aged 9–60 were detained - with the women being raped and that 300 houses were razed by the government forces. The massacre occurred two years after Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law in September 1972.||Philippine Army|
|3 November 2008||Shooting||5||0||Muslim civilians were killed in an ambush by the Ilaga.||Ilaga|
Below is a list of 6 incidents in Russia that could be considered Islamophobic:
|21 August 2006||Bombing||13||47||2006 Moscow market bombing: A self-made bomb detonated in Cherkizovsky Market, with was targeted due to the market's high volume of Central Asian and Caucasian clientele. The perpetrators were charged with racially motivated murder.||Spas|
|26 April 2007||Melee attack||0||2||Imam Ulugbek Abdullaev and his wife, both of whom were dressed in distinctive Islamic clothing, were beaten by people who yelled "go back to your Muslim country."||Two Russian youth|
|15 August 2007||Execution, shooting||2||0||Russian National Socialist Party beheading video: A video was released on the Internet of a Tajik immigrant and a Dagestan man being beheaded by Russian neo-Nazis.||Russian National Socialist Party|
|28 November 2007||Vandalism||0||0||Men threw stones at and broke windows of a mosque.||Four unidentified men|
|1 January 2008||Vandalism||0||0||A Muslim prayer house was attacked with Molotov cocktails, marking the second attack in two months.||Four unidentified men|
|June 2010||Vandalism||0||0||15 head stones at a Muslim cemetery where desecrated.||Unknown|
Below is a list of 8 incidents in Sri Lanka that could be considered Islamophobic:
|28 May–8 August 1915||Shooting, bombing, arson||116||Unknown||1915 Ceylonese riots: A widespread and prolonged ethnic riot took place in the island of Ceylon between Sinhalese Buddhists and the Ceylon Moors ending in brutal suppression by the British colonial authorities. According to some official estimates, which must be taken as approximate, there were 25 murdered, 189 wounded, 4 incidents of rape associated with the riots. 4075 houses and boutiques looted, 250 houses and boutiques burned down, 17 mosques burnt and 86 mosques otherwise damaged. Other official figures place total of 116 people were killed, 63 by military and Police forces.||Sinhalese Buddhists and British authorities|
|3 August 1990||Shooting, bombing||30–100+||Unknown||1985 Muttur massacre: The 1985 massacre in Muttur was a slaughter of Tamil civilians in the town of Muttur in Eastern Province, Sri Lanka. The massacre occurred when all three divisions of the Sri Lankan military attacked the town by land, air and sea. The motive of the attacks was deliberately aimed at slaughtering ethnic Tamils, who formed the local population in the region. The killings lasted for 3 days from 8 November to 11 November. Civilians were shot and killed and burnt with their houses. Over 30 people were confirmed to have been killed. And over 70 others who have been arrested or have been forcibly disappeared were not accounted for. Several others who attempted to escape and those who sought refuge at temples were also killed.||Sri Lankan military|
|3 August 1990||Shooting, bombing||147||Unknown||Kattankudy mosque massacre: Tamil militants massacred over 147 Muslims in a mosque in Kattankudi. The act took place when around 30 Tamil rebels raided four mosques in the town of Kattankudi, where over 300 people were prostrating during prayers. The LTTE later apologized (during the 2000 peace talks) for this act and asked the Muslims to return, but very few Muslims have taken up the offer.||Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam|
|29 April 1992||Shooting||157||Unknown||Polonnaruwa massacre: A series of attacks on civilians in the villages of Alanchipothana, Karapola, Madurangala and Muthugal in eastern Polonnaruwa District.||Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam|
|15 October 1992||Shooting, stabbing, melee attacks||166–285||Unknown||Palliyagodella massacre: The Palliyagodella massacre was carried out by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam against the mostly Muslim population of the Palliyagodella village located on border region of the northern part of Sri Lanka that were controlled by the Tigers at the time. This was the largest massacre of Muslim civilians by the LTTE to date. Village eyewitnesses claim that some 285 men, women and children, around a third of the population, were killed by a 1,000 strong force of the Tamil Tigers; however, the Sri Lankan government states that cadres massacred 166 to 171 people by a force of 150 attackers.||Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam|
|30 April 2001||Shooting, melee attack||2||15+||Mawanella riots: The Mawanella riots was a series of planned attacks on the Sri Lankan Muslim minority by the majority Sinhalese in the town of Mawanella, that resulted in the deaths of two people and left more than 15 injured in the clashes and also leading to destruction of millions of rupees worth property in the region.||Sri Lankan police, local thugs|
|18 September 2006||Shooting, stabbing, melee attack||10||0||Pottuvil massacre: The Pottuvil massacre is a disputed event in the Sri Lankan civil war where 10 unarmed minority Muslim civilians who were engaged in clearing a reservoir at Rattal Kulam in Pottuvil in the southern part of the Ampara District in the Eastern Province, were attacked and killed. All the men were aged between 19–35 years of age; three of the men were decapitated and the others were shot or hacked to death by the unknown gunmen.||Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam|
|15–17 June 2014||Shooting, stabbing, melee attack, arson||4||80||2014 anti-Muslim riots in Sri Lanka: The 2014 anti-Muslim riots in Sri Lanka were religious and ethnic riots in June 2014 in south-western Sri Lanka. Muslims and their property were attacked by Sinhalese Buddhists in the towns of Aluthgama, Beruwala and Dharga Town in Kalutara District. At least four people were killed and 80 injured. Hundreds were made homeless following attacks on homes, shops, factories, mosques and a nursery. 10,000 people (8,000 Muslims and 2,000 Sinhalese) were displaced by the riots. The riots followed rallies by Bodu Bala Sena (BBS), a hard line Buddhist group. The BBS was widely blamed for inciting the riots but it has denied responsibility. The mainstream media in Sri Lanka censored news about the riots following orders from the Sri Lankan government.||Bodu Bala Sena and followers|
Below is a list of 4 incidents in Spain that could be considered Islamophobic:
|23 March 2016||Arson||0||0||A group of neo-Nazi followers burn with Molotov cocktails the great mosque of the M-30 of Madrid, without causing personal damage.||Neo-nazi|
|7 September 2016||Melee attack||0||1||Two right-wing extremists assault a pregnant Muslim woman with a niqab while screaming “Get out of my country”. The attack occurred in Ciutat Vella, in the center of Barcelona.||Right-wing extremists|
|21 August 2017||Melee attack||0||3||Three Moroccans were brutally attacked by a group of extremists with big sticks and melee weapons in Navarre when they were participated in a tribute of the victims of Barcelona attack.||Islamophobics|
|23 August 2017||Melee attack||0||1||A 38-year-old Muslim woman was injured after being attacked by two or three young men in front of Madrid metro, in the district of Usera. The attack was in response to the 2017 Barcelona attacks.||Right-wing extremists|
Below is a list of 5 incidents in Sweden that could be considered Islamophobic:
|10 October 2009 – 21 October 2010||Shooting||2||13||2009–10 Malmö shootings: Serial shooting kills two and injures 13 others in Malmö. The perpetrator had "strong anti-immigrant sentiments" and all but one of the victims were not ethnically Swedish.||Peter Mangs|
|25 December 2014 – 1 January 2015||Arson, vandalism||0||5||2014 mosque arson attacks in Sweden: A series of arson attacks on three mosques in Sweden that took place during one week at the end of 2014. In addition to being struck by Molotov cocktails, some mosques were vandalized with racist graffiti.||Right wing extremists|
|22 October 2015||Stabbing||3 (+1)||1||Trollhättan school attack: A masked swordsman killed two and wounded another at the Kronan School in Trollhättan. The perpetrator choose the school as his target due to its high immigrant population.He was later shot and killed by police. It is the deadliest attack on a school in Swedish history. A teacher who was stabbed during the incident succumbed to his wound on 3 December, rising the death toll to 3.||Anton Lundin Pettersson|
|21 February 2017||Arson||0||0||An Islamic center was set on fire. Police suspect it was a hate crime.||Unknown|
|14 June 2017||Vehicular attack||0||0||A 22-year-old man with ties to the Nordic Resistance Movement confessed to driving his Volvo into an Iraqi demonstration outside the Migration Agency in Malmö. Police are investigating it as hate crime.||Unnamed man|
Below is a list of 1 incidents in Switzerland that could be considered Islamophobic:
|19 December 2016||Shooting||1 (+1)||3||Zürich Islamic center shooting: A man yelled "Raus aus unserem Land [Get out of our country]" before opening fire on people at an Islamic center in Central Zürich. The motive is still being investigated but the Islamic Central Council of Switzerland issued a statement suggesting it should serve as an "alarm" regarding the threat posed by increasing Islamophobia in Swiss society.||Unnamed man|
Below is a list of 2 incidents in Ukraine that could be considered Islamophobic:
|23 August 2010||Vandalism, attempted arson||0||0||Someone drew a swastika on the Seit-Settar mosque and attempted to set it on fire.||Unknown|
|25 December 2010||Attempted arson||0||0||Arson on the Seit-Settar mosque was attempted for a second time. One local Muslim leader said that vandalism on Muslim holy sites in the Crimea are not properly investigated.||Unknown|
Below is a list of 27 incidents in the United Kingdom that could be considered Islamophobic:
|12 July 2005||Melee attack||1||0||A Muslim man, Kamal Raza Butt, was beaten to death outside a corner shop in by a gang of youths who shouted anti-Islamic abuse at him and called him "Taliban."||Unnamed gang|
|10 March 2006||Stabbing, vandalism||0||1||The Jamia Masjid mosque was attacked by gangs of white youths using brick and concrete blocks. The youths damaged a number of cars outside the mosque and stabbed a 16-year-old Muslim teenager. The local police described the attack as "racially motivated"||Unnamed gang|
|30 June 2007||Stabbing, melee attack||0||1||Ghulam Mustafa Naz, a Muslim religious teacher, was stabbed and beaten by four men. Police suggest that it was a hate crime.||Four unnamed men|
|3 July 2007||Vehicular attack||0||0||A vehicle was driven into a store owned by a Muslim man named Ashfaq Ahmed. The driver attempted to set fire to the vehicle and threw a gas canister into the shop. The massive blast destroyed the store.||Unnamed men|
|3 August 2007||Arson||0||0||A mosque in Bradford was seriously damaged in an arson attack.||Unknown|
|9 August 2007||Arson||0||0||Assailants attacked the 58-year-old imam of the Central Mosque in Regent's Park. The victim required emergency surgery on both eyes as a result.||Two unnamed men|
|22 August 2008||Melee attack||1||2+||Mohammed al-Majed, a 16-year-old student from Qatar, was beaten up by outside a kebab shop. He succumbed to his wound 2 days later in hospital. At least 2 of his friends were also injured during the incident. The perpetrator was convicted of "racially aggravated common assault."||George Austin, Paul Rockett, and Alexander Quinn|
|6 July 2009||Arson||0||0||The branch of Islamic Relief was badly damaged by a fire which police said was started deliberately, and which members of the Muslim community of Scotland allege was Islamophobic.||Two unnamed men|
|8 April 2010||Melee attack||0||1||Abida Malik and Asif Ahmed were targeted by up to 20 men on a train. The attackers called the couple terrorists.||20 unnamed men|
|10 May 2010||Bombing||0||0||Inmates at Ranby Prison made a bomb intending to kill fellow Muslim prisoners. The inmates threw the bomb in the room where worshippers were in but a prison officer removed it from the facility, and disabled it before it went off.||20 unnamed men|
|9 June 2010||Melee attack||0||1||A 13-year-old girl was burned and robbed in Grangewood Park by three teenagers who yelled anti-Muslim slurs.||Three unnamed teenagers|
|3 December 2010||Attempted arson||0||0||A mosque was filled with flammable gas in attempt to light it on fire. The police classified it as a "deliberate racist attack."||Four unnamed teenagers|
|26 May 2013||Arson||0||0||Two ex-soldiers firebombed a mosque four days after the death of Lee Rigby.||Gavin Humphreys, Stuart Harness and Daniel Cressey.|
|29 April 2013||Stabbing||1||0||Murder of Mohammed Saleem: 82-year-old Mohammed Saleem was stabbed to death while on his way home from Green Lane Masjid in Small Heath, Birmingham. The perpetrator later stated that he killed Salem because he "was a Muslim and there were no witnesses."||Pavlo Lapshyn|
|3 July 2016||Melee attack||0||1||A man was charged with racially/religiously aggravated assault after yelling ‘you’re in our country now’ and physically assaulting a Muslim woman at a mall. He was formally convicted and jailed in July 2017.||Peter Scotter|
|6 August 2016||Melee attack||0||1||A man was charged with racially/religiously aggravated assault after he kicked a pregnant Muslim woman in the stomach and caused her to lose her unborn twins. He was convected in May 2017. Rallies were held in Bletchley in support of the victims.||David Gallacher|
|12 December 2016||Stabbing||0||1||A knifeman stabbed a passenger on a train at Forest Hill station before chasing people outside shouting "Who is a Muslim? I want to kill a Muslim." Authorities called the incident a "serious hate crime."||Unnamed man|
|16 December 2016||Vandalism||0||0||A mosque was vandalized with graffiti reading "Saracen go home" and "Deus Vult," a Latin term meaning "God wills it." Authorities stated the incident was "a hate crime."||Unknown|
|16 December 2016||Melee attack||0||1||A Muslim woman was dragged along the pavement by her hijab. Authorities allege it was a "hate crime."||Two unnamed men|
|23 May 2017||Suspected arson attack||0||0||The door of the Jamia Qasmia Zahidia Islamic Centre in Oldham, Greater Manchester, was set alight and badly damaged. Mohammad Saddiq, an imam at the mosque, said the attack was arson attack in revenge for the Manchester Arena bombing.||Unknown|
|19 June 2017||Vehicular attack||1||11||Finsbury Park attack: A man drove into a crowd of Muslim worshippers leaving a mosque after prayer. The incident was deemed terrorism and, while the motive is still under investigation, several civil rights groups and politicians claim the perpetrator was motivated by Islamophobia.||Darren Osborne|
|25 June 2017||Melee attack
|0||1||A Muslim dad-of-three was knocked out by thugs before racist graffiti was daubed on his walls quoting a controversial Katie Hopkins tweet stating "we need a final solution."||Unnamed gang|
|26 June 2017||Melee attack||0||1||A 13-year-old boy was repeatedly kicked in the head by a gang of older teens during a racially motivated hate crime. The perpetrators repeatedly called him a "Paki."||Unnamed gang|
|11 September 2017||Melee attack||0||2||A man who set his dog on two Muslims during a ‘campaign of racism’ has been caged. Jakub Wendland’s cross breed bull terrier bit a man and left a woman traumatised. During one of the attacks, the 32-year-old shouted: "You bite her, bite her. They kill people. So go on, bite a Muslim." The Polish national, who denies being a racist, was jailed for two-and-a-half years at Manchester Crown Court.||Jakub Wendland|
|20 September 2017||Vehicular attack||0||1||A Muslim woman suffered serious injuries after being struck by a car. Police allege the car driver intended to kill her and that it was a hate crime.||An unnamed man|
|24 September 2017||Stabbing||0||1||A 58-year-old Muslim man named Nasser Kurdy was stabbed as he arrived at the Islamic Cultural Centre on Grove Lane. Greater Manchester Police confirmed the incident is being treated as a hate crime, and that two men aged 54 and 32 had been arrested in connection with the attack. Kurdy had treated victims of the Manchester Arena bombing. After he was out of the hospital, Kurdy said that he had forgiven his attackers and that they were "not representative of what this country stands for."||Two unnamed men|
|10 October 2017||Melee attack||0||1||A 12-year-old boy who stamped on a Muslim schoolboy’s head in a race hate gang attack, but was not arrested. The boy also chased and "terrorised" a 10-year-old boy with a medical crutch while wearing a mask and caused £500 damage by hurling stones at a truck on a building site.||Unnamed gang|
In the aftermath of the Oklahoma City bombing, many residents of Middle Eastern descent and African-American Muslims became victims of the initial rage at "Muslim terrorists" as the initial news stories hypothesized. KFOR-TV's coverage of the bombing informed viewers that a member of the Nation of Islam had taken credit for the bombing. Even though the network cautioned that it might be a crank call, it repeated the claim throughout the day's coverage. According to a report prepared by the Arab American Institute, three days after the bombings, "more than 200 serious hate crimes were committed against Arab Americans and American Muslims. The same was true in the days following September 11." There were also suggestions on the radio that all Arab Americans should "be put in internment camps".
In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, hate crimes against people of Middle-Eastern descent increased from 354 attacks in 2000 to 1,501 attacks in 2001. Among the victims of the backlash was a Middle-Eastern man in Houston, Texas who was shot and wounded after an assailant accused him of "blowing up the country" and four immigrants were shot and killed by a man named Larme Price who confessed to killing them as "revenge" for the September 11 attacks. Although Price described his victims as Arabs, only one was from an Arab country. This appears to be a trend; on account of stereotypes of Arabs, several non-Arab, non-Muslim groups were subjected to attacks in the wake of 9/11, including several Sikh men who were attacked for wearing their religiously mandated turban. According to a report prepared by the Arab American Institute, three days after the Oklahoma City bombing (which was committed by anti-government white American Timothy McVeigh), "more than 200 serious hate crimes were committed against Arab Americans and American Muslims. The same was true in the days following September 11."
While en route to Chicago, Shahrukh Khan, a well-known Bollywood actor, was held for what he described as "humiliating" questioning for several hours in Newark Airport, New Jersey because of his common Muslim surname Khan. He was released only following the intervention of the Indian embassy.
In April 2012, various media sources reported that the Joint Forces Staff College taught an anti-Islam course. The course taught that "they [Muslims] hate everything you stand for and will never coexist with you." It also proposed justified the destruction of the cities of Mecca and Medina "without regard for civilian deaths". The course was suspended after a student objected to the material.
In early August 2012 U.S. Representative Joe Walsh (R-IL) said at a town hall that radical Muslims were “trying to kill Americans every week.” Soon after his remarks several attacks against Muslims took place in his district, including an August 12 acid bomb attack on a Muslim school in Lombard, Illinois during evening Ramadan prayers and hate graffiti found on August 16 in a Muslim Cemetery. There also were several other attacks of mosques with pellet guns, acid bombs, eggs, or unclean animal parts. Some incidents are being investigated as hate crimes.
Below is a list of 45 incidents in the United States that could be considered Islamophobic:
|September 15, 2001||Shooting||1||0||Murder of Balbir Singh Sodhi: Balbir Singh Sodhi, who wore a beard and a turban in accordance with his Sikh faith, was mistaken for an Arab Muslim. Roque had reportedly told friends that he was "going to go out and shoot some towel-heads" the day of the attacks.||Frank Silva Roque|
|September 15–October 4, 2001||Shooting||2||1||Waqar Hasan, a 46-year-old Pakistani immigrant, was shot and killed inside of a grocery store in Dallas. Another victim, 28-year-old Raisuddin Bhuiyan was shot in the face while working on a convenience store. He was saved from brain damage, but lost sight of one of his eyes. The third victim, Vasudev Patel, 49, was gunned down in Mesquite, Texas on October 4, 2001. The perpetrator said his motive is "to avenge the United States on 9/11"||Mark Anthony Stroman|
|January 14, 2007||Melee attack||0||1||A 26-year-old man of Yemeni ethnicity was physically assaulted by attackers who used a racist and anti-Muslim epithet during the incident. The victim was thrown to the ground, sustaining a fracture under one eye, a broken nose, and cuts requiring six stitches on his face and staples to the back of his head.||Unknown|
|September 16, 2007||Melee attack||0||1||Zohreh Assemi, an Iranian American Muslim owner of a nail salon in Locust Valley, New York, was robbed, beaten, and called a "terrorist" in what authorities called a bias crime. Assemi was kicked, sliced with a boxcutter, and had her hand smashed with a hammer. The perpetrators, who forcibly removed $2,000 from the salon and scrawled anti-Muslim slurs on the mirrors, also told Assemi to "get out of town" and that her kind were not "welcomed" in the area. The attack followed two weeks of phone calls in which she was called a "terrorist" and told to "get out of town," friends and family said.||Unknown|
|February 9, 2008||Arson||0||0||The Islamic Center in Columbia was firebombed with Molotov cocktails by members of the right-wing extremist Christian Identity Movement.||Christian Identity Movement|
|July 2010–March 2011||Burning Qur'ans||0||0||Dove World Outreach Center Quran-burning controversy: The Dove World Outreach Center church planned to burn Qur'ans on the ninth anniversary of the 9/11 attacks. Despite warning from the military leadership in the Afghan War, Terry Jones, the pastor of the centre, said it would be "tragic" if anybody's life was lost as a result of the planned Quran burning. While he added "Still, I must say that we feel that we must sooner or later stand up to Islam, and if we don't, it's not going to go away." His church's website claims to "expose Islam" as a "violent and oppressive religion;" it also displays a sign reading "Islam is of the Devil." In early September 2010, Jones cancelled and pledged never to burn a Quran, but on March 20, 2011, Jones held a "trial of the Quran" in his Gainesville church. Finding the scriptures guilty of "crimes against humanity," the Quran was burned in the church sanctuary.||Terry Jones|
|August 25, 2010||Stabbing||0||1||A New York taxi driver was stabbed after a passenger asked if he was Muslim. The perpetrator was charged with a hate crime.||Michael Enright|
|January 24, 2011||Attempted car bombing||0||0||2011 Dearborn mosque bombing plot: A man was arrested and charged with terrorism after attempting to blow up the Islamic Center of America in Dearborn, Michigan, which has large Arab-American and Muslim populations. The man later said he opposed the Iraq war and targeted the mosque to "grab people's attention." He was arrested in the parking lot outside the mosque with a car filled with high-end, class C fireworks including M-80s.||Roger Stockham|
|December 27, 2012||Melee attack||1||0||Sunando Sen, a 46-year-old Indian immigrant, was hit and killed by a subway train when a woman pushed him onto the track. The woman later told authorities that she hates Muslims and "ever since 2001 when they put down the twin towers I've been beating them up."||Erika Menendez|
|March 16, 2014||Shooting||1||0||A man gunned down Iraqi artist Hassan Alawsi in the parking lot of a Home Depot. Police suspect the shooter was motivated by "his dislike of people of Middle Eastern descent."||Jeffrey Caylor|
|December 4, 2014||Vehicular attack||1||0||Killing of Abdisamad Sheikh-Hussein: A Muslim Somali-American student at Staley High School was killed near the Kansas City Somali Center, a man intentionally rammed his car into him, knocking him into the air, and then ran over him, nearly severing his legs. The driver of the car made rants against Islam and threats against Muslim worshippers outside a mosque. The SUV used in the attack had an anti-Muslim bumper sticker which compared the Quran with Ebola, while another stated that "Islam is worse than Ebola". The FBI classified it as a hate crime.||Ahmed H. Aden|
|April 10, 2015||Attempted attack||0||0||A man spent months gathering weapons and plotting an assault on a Muslim hamlet in northern New York City.||Robert Doggart|
|December 26, 2015||Melee attack||0||1||Amrik Singh Bal, a 68-year-old Sikh man, was beaten by someone who called him a "terrorist."||Daniel Coronel Wilson Jr|
|June 29, 2016||Shooting||0||2||2016 Minneapolis shooting: A man shot at five Somali-Americans, wounding two of them. Witnesses later recounted that Sawina shouted Anti-Muslim expletives and stated he was going to "going to kill you all."||Anthony Sawina|
|July 19, 2016||Melee attack||0||1||Suthahar Subburaj, an Indian immigrant, was knocked unconscious outside an Indian restaurant by an assailant who shouted “ISIS... Get out of my country” as he beat him. Subbaraj is neither Arab nor Muslim.||Unnamed man|
|August 13, 2016||Shooting||2||0||Maulama Akonjee, a 55-year-old imam, and his assistant, 64-year-old Thara Uddin, was shot and killed while on their way home from Al-Furqan Jame Mosque in Ozone Park, Queens. Police suspect it was a hate crime.||Oscar Morel|
|August 18, 2016||Shooting||1||0||A Lebanese-American man was shot and killed on his porch in by an neighbor who regularly called him a "dirty muslim" and "Arab" despite him being Christian.||Stanley Majors|
|August 31, 2016||Stabbing||1||0||Nazma Khanam, a Bangladeshi woman was fatally stabbed on a Queens sidewalk. The NYPD investigated it as a hate crime.||Yonatan Galvez Marin|
|September 12, 2016||Arson||0||0||A man set a mosque on fire in fear of another "Manhattan World Trade Center attack or Boston Bombing."||Joseph Schreiber|
|October 11, 2016||Attempted car bombing||0||0||2016 Garden City bombing plot: Three men monitored apartment blocks which were known to house Muslim refugees, stockpiled an arsenal of weapons, and planned to kill by detonating explosives in four trucks laden with ammonium nitrate.||Kansas Security Force (Crusaders)|
|October 20, 2016||Vandalism||0||0||Two mosques were damaged with graffiti swastikas and xenophobic slurs.||Craig Wigginton|
|November 10, 2016||Melee attack||0||1||Two Muslim women in Brooklyn were attacked while they were walking and pushing their children in strollers. The perpetrator, stated “This is the United States of America, you’re not supposed to be different from us" and to demanded they leave the country.||Unnamed woman|
|November 14, 2016||Vandalism||0||0||The Islamic Center of Owensboro has been vandalized for the second time in less than a year.||Unknown|
|November 16, 2016||Melee attack||0||1||A student was beaten and choked by a teacher, ostensibly due to his religion.||Unnamed teacher|
|November 25, 2016||Melee attack||0||1||A man attacked an Indian man sitting next to him at a bar after mistaking him for a Muslim. He was charged with "ethnic intimidation."||Jeffrey Burgess|
|November 27, 2016||Melee attack||0||1||A man was beaten in a parking lot after someone yelled anti-Muslim slurs at him. The perpetrator was charged with a hate crime.||Robin McGreer|
|December 5, 2016||Melee attack||0||1||A Muslim New York City transit worker was pushed down the stairs at Grand Central Terminal by a man who called her a terrorist.||Unknown|
|December 10, 2016||Stabbing||0||1||A Muslim worshipper was stabbed outside of a mosque. The perpetrator was charged with a hate crime.||John Matteson|
|December 17, 2016||Vandalism||0||0||The sign outside a Redmond mosque was vandalized for a second time in a month. The sign was first vandalized November 21. Police said they are investigating both incidents as possible hate crimes.||Nathan Gray|
|December 18, 2016||Melee attack||0||1||A man chucked hot coffee at a Muslim woman, hit her and accused her of being a “terrorist” in a Midtown Dunkin Donuts. He was charged with a hate crime.||Nathan Gray|
|January 22, 2017||Vandalism||0||0||The windows of the Islamic Center of Davis were smashed. Police called it a hate crime.||Unknown|
|January 22, 2017||Vandalism, attempted arson||0||0||Burglary and attempted arson took place at a restaurant. Racist and derogatory comments, including the word “terrorist,” were written on the walls directed at the owners, who are Sikh. Police called it a hate crime.||Unknown|
|January 26, 2017||Melee attack||0||1||A man kicked a Muslim airline worker and told her “Trump is here now” and “he will get rid of all of you.”||Robin Rhodes|
|February 1, 2017||Vandalism||0||0||Members of Roseville’s Tarbiya Institute arrived Wednesday morning to find a dozen different racial epithets spray painted on the building’s front and back.||Unknown|
|February 11, 2017||Vandalism||0||0||An Islamic Center was vandalized with graffiti that read “Allah is a fraud.”||Unknown|
|February 23, 2017||Shooting||1||2||2017 Kansas shooting: A man shot and killed an Indian immigrant engineer he thought was Middle Eastern and wounded two others after shouting "get out of my country" and opening fire.||Adam Puritan|
|March 4, 2017||Shooting||0||1||A man shot and injured a Sikh after shouting "get out of my country."||Unknown|
|March 10, 2017||Melee attack||0||1||A man beat an Arab employee of Al Aqsa Restaurant with a pipe, yelling "go back to your country terrorist" and "get out of America."||Jason Kendall|
|March 12, 2017||Attempted arson||0||0||A Florida man who attempted to set fire to a convenience store told deputies that he assumed the owner was Muslim and that he wanted to “run the Arabs out of our country.” The sheriff later said the store owners are actually Indian.||Richard Lloyd|
|March 26, 2017||Melee attack||0||1||Yosef Steynovitz was charged with assault with significant bodily injury, which is a felony, in connection with the beating of Kamal Nayfeh, a 55-year old Palestinian-American instructor at a community college in Charlotte, North Carolina. Steynovitz was also charged with a "suspected hate crime" based on "anti-Arab" bias.||Yosef Steynovitz|
|April 11, 2017||Melee attack, stabbing||0||1||A woman was beaten and stabbed by a man. Munjed Ahmad of the Islamic Society of Milwaukee concluded that "Nothing was stolen. There was no robbery. Her valuables remain with her. The only motive we can think of—because everything stayed with her and this individual went straight for her scarf is a hate crime."||Unnamed man|
|May 26, 2017||Melee attack, stabbing||2||1||2017 Portland train attack: A man fatally stabbed two people and injured a third on a MAX Light Rail train, after he was confronted for reportedly "yelling a gamut of anti-Muslim and anti-everything slurs." The Portland Police Bureau's report said Christian was shouting "hate speech toward a variety of ethnicities and religions", and directed his inflammatory remarks at two young Muslim women, one of whom was wearing a hijab.||Jeremy Joseph Christian|
|August 5, 2017||Bombing||0||0||2017 Dar Al-Farooq Islamic Center bombing: Bomb detonated in the Dar Al-Farooq Islamic Center in Bloomington.||Unknown|
|September 13, 2017||Melee attack||0||2||An Orthodox Jewish woman and her daughter were allegedly beaten up at a Queens subway station by a drunk who mistook them for Muslims.||Dimitrious Zia|
|September 19, 2017||Melee attack||0||1||Five football players at a private U.S. Christian college were charged in connection with a hazing incident that allegedly included anti-Muslim taunts and left a student with injuries requiring surgeries.||Five unnamed men|
The Cham Muslims in Vietnam are only recognized as a minority, and not as an indigenous people by the Vietnamese government despite being indigenous to the region. Muslim Chams have experienced violent religious and ethnic persecution and restrictions on practicing their faith under the current Vietnamese government, with the Vietnamese state confiscating Cham property and forbidding Cham from observing their religious beliefs. In 2010 and 2013 several incidents occurred in Thành Tín and Phươc Nhơn villages where Cham were murdered by Vietnamese. In 2012, Vietnamese police in Chau Giang village stormed into a Cham Mosque, stole the electric generator, and also raped Cham girls. Cham Muslims in the Mekong Delta have also been economically marginalized and pushed into poverty by Vietnamese policies, with ethnic Vietnamese Kinh settling on majority Cham land with state support, and religious practices of minorities have been targeted for elimination by the Vietnamese government.
Incidents on aircraft
Some incidents with Muslim passengers on aircraft have given rise to the expression "Flying while Muslim".
- On 16 August 2006 British passengers on board a flight from Malaga to Manchester requested the removal of two men of Asian descent from a plane. According to a spokesman for the Civil Guard in Malaga, "These men had aroused suspicion because of their appearance and the fact that they were speaking in a foreign language thought to be an Arabic language, and the pilot was refusing to take off until they were escorted off the plane." A security sweep of the plane found no explosives or any item of a terrorist nature. Monarch Airlines booked the men, who were Urdu speakers, into a hotel room, gave them a free meal and sent them home on a later plane. The men later responded, "Just because we're Muslim, does not mean we are suicide bombers." The Islamic Human Rights Commission blamed "ever-increasing Islamophobia" related to the "war on terror" for the incident.
- A passenger traveling to the British Virgin Islands on a plane bound for the United States from Manchester in the UK was forced off the plane prior to takeoff. The man, a British-born Muslim residing in the United States, said he was singled out because he was a Muslim pilot and was left feeling "demoralized and humiliated. I must have met the profile on the day. I have an Arabic name, I am a Muslim, I'm from Britain and I know how to fly."
- On 21 November 2006, six imams were forcefully removed from a US Airways flight at Minneapolis St. Paul International Airport for security reasons. The event led to an outcry from Muslim organizations in America saying that what happened showed the growing prejudice against Muslims in America. Investigations by the airline and police so far have reported that the airline and ground crews responded to security concerns properly in removing the men from the plane. See Flying Imams controversy for more details regarding this incident.
- In 2009 AirTran Airways removed nine Muslim passengers, including three children, from a flight and turned them over to the FBI after one of the men commented to another that they were sitting right next to the engines and wondered aloud where the safest place to sit on the plane was. Although the FBI subsequently cleared the passengers and called the incident a "misunderstanding," AirTran refused to seat the passengers on another flight, forcing them to purchase last minute tickets on another airline that had been secured with the FBI's assistance. A spokesman for AirTran initially defended the airline's actions and said they would not reimburse the passengers for the cost of the new tickets. Although the men had traditional beards and the women headscarves, AirTran denied that their actions were based on the passengers' appearance. The following day, after the incident received widespread media coverage, AirTran reversed its position and issued a public apology, adding that it would in fact reimburse the passengers for the cost of their rebooked tickets.
- On 18 November 2015, in two separate incidents, passengers at Midway Airport were allegedly not permitted to fly aboard Southwest Airlines flights when other passengers claimed to be afraid to fly with them because they were speaking Arabic, or appeared to be Muslim. The refusal sparked widespread condemnation on the airline's social media pages and received prominent coverage, in the US and internationally, accompanied by calls for a boycott of the airline. According to The Economist, "in the two Southwest cases, it was the passengers themselves conducting their own vigilante profiling; the airline was merely bowing to their demands."
- CAIR and the Associated Press called United States Rep. Virgil Goode (R-VA) Islamophobic for his December 2006 letter stating that Rep-elect Keith Ellison's desire to use the Qur'an during the swearing in ceremonies was a threat to "the values and beliefs traditional to the United States of America" and for saying "I fear that in the next century we will have many more Muslims in the United States if we do not adopt the strict immigration policies."
- Concerning the US state of North Carolina’s position (as expressed by their attorney general’s office) in the ongoing case of ACLU of N.C. & Syidah Matteen v. State of North Carolina that the only swearing-in for testimony in court that was valid had to be on a Christian Bible (and that all others must choose to affirm), CAIR's Legal Director in Washington D.C, Arsalan Iftikhar, said “This shows there's a lot of anti-Muslim sentiment, especially here in the United States.”
- British cabinet ministers had been criticized in October 2006 for helping to "unleash a public anti-Muslim backlash" in the United Kingdom by blaming the Muslim community over issues of integration despite a study commissioned by the Home Office on white and Asian-Muslim youths demonstrating otherwise: that Asian-Muslim youths "are in fact the most tolerant of all" and that white British youths "have far more intolerant attitudes," concluding that intolerance from the white British community was a greater "barrier to integration" in the United Kingdom.
- A 2008 amateur shoot 'em up computer game called Muslim Massacre: The Game of Modern Religious Genocide had as its aim killing all Muslims that appear on the screen. The game's creator took down the game's download site with a statement of apology on his personal website, stating his original intention in releasing the game, to "mock the foreign policy of the United States and the commonly held belief in the United States that Muslims are a hostile people to be held with suspicion." He said this had not been understood by the wider public and that its release "did not achieve its intended effect and instead only caused hurt to hospitable, innocent people." However, it later emerged that the apology was indeed fake and the original game was an act of a political statement and not of anti-Muslim sentiment.
- In September 2012 the group Stop Islamization of America, which has been labeled a "hate group" by the Southern Poverty Law Center and the Anti-Defamation League, ran advertisements in the New York City subway reading "In any war between the civilized man and the savage, support the civilized man. Support Israel. Defeat Jihad." Several groups condemned the advertisements as "hate speech." In early January 2013 a related group put up advertisements next to 228 clocks in 39 New York subway stations showing the 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center with a quote attributed to the Koran: “Soon shall we cast terror into the hearts of the unbelievers.” The New York City Transit Authority, which said it would have to carry the advertisements on First Amendment grounds, insisted that 25% of the ad contain a Transit Authority disclaimer. These advertisements also were criticized.
- The police report stated that Wiens called El-Sherbini Terroristin, Islamistin and Schlampe. (Der Spiegel, 31 August 2009, p. 65).
- Sinani, Besnik (2017). "Islamophobia in Albania National Report 2016" (PDF). European Islamophobia Report. Istanbul, Turkey: Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research. p. 27. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
- "Reclaiming Australia: Liberalisms Role in Islamophobia". ABC News. 17 July 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- "Reclaim Australia Rally drowns out Counter Protesters". The Canberra Times. 6 February 2016. Retrieved 3 Jan 2017.
- "ASIO monitoring of right-wing extremists uncovered alleged plan to attack radical left". the Age. 13 January 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- "Truck driver who abused cyclist identified as neo-Nazi connected to United Patriots Front". The Age. 31 August 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- Judith Bessant; Rys Farthing; Rob Watts (2017). The Precarious Generation: A Political Economy of Young People. Taylor & Francis. p. 180. ISBN 978-1-317-28917-3.
- Salim Farrar; Ghena Krayem (2016). Accommodating Muslims Under Common Law: A Comparative Analysis. Routledge. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-317-96422-3.
- "Anti-Islam group protests outside ABC building over Zaky Mallah's Q&A appearance". The Sydney Morning Herald.
- "Far-right anti-Islam group to rally at Victorian Parliament House". The Age.
- Worrall, Allison. "Anti-Islam group beheads dummy in protest of Bendigo mosque". The Age. Retrieved 2015-10-04.
- Ceranic, Irena (13 July 2017). "Muslim woman hit me first with shopping bag, man accused of beer bottle assault tells court". ABC News. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
- Menagh, Joanna (13 July 2017). "Perth man found guilty of assaulting Muslim woman after throwing beer bottle at her". ABC News. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
- "Priest stabbed in neck in Melbourne church". news.com.au. 19 March 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
- "Inside the far-right Q Society's explosive dinner, where Muslims are fair game". The Age. 10 February 2017. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
- "LGBTI groups condemn homophobic comments at far-right Q Society meeting". The Guardian. 11 February 2017. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
- Corporate or institutional Author (11 February 2017). "I do not incite hate speech I expose it". Retrieved 11 February 2017.
- "Anti-Islam group Q Society dinner disrupted by protesters in Melbourne – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 10 February 2017. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
- Zhou, Naaman (11 May 2017). "Four Muslim women allegedly punched outside university in Sydney". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
- Marsden, Harriet (3 June 2017). "Muslim schoolgirls in hijabs 'asked to leave careers show because people felt threatened'". The Independent. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
- Stahnke et al. 2008, p. 12.
- Stahnke et al. 2008, p. 7.
- Z. Husain & D. M. Rosenbaum (2004). "Perceiving Islam: The Causes and Consequences of Islamophobia in the Western Media". In Santosh C. Saha. Religious fundamentalism in the contemporary world: critical social and political issues. Lexington Books. pp. 177–8. ISBN 0-7391-0760-7.
- Statement by Dr. Haris Silajdžić Chairman of the Presidency Bosnia and Herzegovina, Head of the Delegation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. at the 63rd Session of the General Assembly on the occasion of the General Debate, Summary, 23 September 2008, pp. 2.
- "ICTY: The attack against the civilian population and related requirements". Archived from the original on February 19, 2009.
- "After anti-Muslim attack, Brazilians shower victim with love". DAWN. 25 August 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- Stahnke 2011, p. 5.
- "Canada: Mosque Attack Provokes Fear and Anxiety". Human Rights Watch. 2017-01-31. Retrieved 2017-02-14.
- Muslim groups want action from U of T, University of Toronto News, March 16, 2006 Archived April 11, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- "GTA woman has niqab pulled off in assault". CBC.
- "Discrimination experienced by Muslims in Ontario".
- John Geddes. "Canadian anti-Muslim sentiment is rising, disturbing new poll reveals". Macleans.ca. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- Graeme Hamilton. "Quebec values charter sending tolerance, civilized discussion out the window". National Post.
- 2013 ODIHR Hate Crime Report (PDF) (Report). National Council of Canadian Muslims.
- "Bomb threat called in on North Vancouver mosque". Vancouver Sun.
- "Mosque in Chateauguay target of bomb threat". CTV News.
- "Man with sword stopped by stun gun outside Islamic centre". CBC News.
- 2014 ODIHR Hate Crime Report (PDF) (Report). National Council of Canadian Muslims.
- "Muslim students attacked in apparent Kingston, Ont., hate crime". CBC.
- "Muslim convert attacked while wearing niqab in Toronto". Globe and Mail.
- "Shitty Remarks, a Torched Mosque and Other Ways Canadians Responded to the Paris Attacks".
- "Mosque fire in Peterborough was hate crime, say police". Toronto Star.
- "London, Ont. man suffers concussion in alleged hate attack". CBC.
- "Attack on Western University student from Iran is a 'wake-up call' for city, mayor says". London Free Press.
- Barbash, Fred (1 December 2016). "He 'just kept hitting me with the bat': Canadian Muslim teen brutally beaten by white men". The Washington Post. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- (in French) St. Pierre, Jean (26 October 2016). "La mosquée de Sept-Îles vandalisée". Le Journal de Québec. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
- Russell, Graham (January 30, 2017). "Québec City mosque shooting: six dead as Trudeau condemns 'terrorist attack'". The Guardian. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
- Ashifa Kassam; Jamiles Lartey (January 30, 2017). "Québec City mosque shooting: six dead as Trudeau condemns 'terrorist attack'". The Guardian. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
Witnesses reported seeing two men dressed in black and wearing ski masks walking into the mosque and opening fire. One watched as one of the gunmen began shooting at "everything that was moving"
- Feith, Jesse (January 31, 2017). "Why no terrorism charges in Quebec mosque shooting? It would place extra burden on prosecutors: experts". National Post. Postmedia Network. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
- Hawkins, Derek; Freeman, Alan (January 30, 2017). "6 killed, 8 injured by gunmen who invaded Quebec City mosque". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
- "Quebec City mosque attack: Six dead and eight injured". Al Jazeera. January 30, 2017. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
- Horowitz, Donald L. (2001). The Deadly Ethnic Riot. University of California Press. p. 58. ISBN 9780520224476. Retrieved 11 May 2017.
- "Tibetans, Muslim Huis clash in China". CNN. 2003-02-23. Retrieved 2010-01-15.
- "Police shut Muslim quarter in Lhasa". CNN. LHASA, Tibet. 28 March 2008. Archived from the original on April 4, 2008.
- "Ethnic Clashes Over Gansu Mosque". Radio Free Asia. October 8, 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- "17 Muslims killed in communal strife in Central African Republic". Dawn. 25 June 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
- "Christian anti-Balaka militants kill 25 worshippers in mosque in Central African Republic". Daily Sabah. 14 October 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
- Racism and racial discrimination on rise around the world, UN expert warns, UN NEWS CENTRE, March 7, 2006
- Stahnke et al. 2008, p. 11.
- "France's burqa ban: women are 'effectively under house arrest'". Guardian. 19 September 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2012.
- "Charlie Hebdo terror spree spawns anti-Muslim attacks throughout France". New York Daily News. 13 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "Terrorist Organization Profile: Masada, Action and Defense Movement". MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base. Retrieved 25 March 2010.
- Greenhouse, Steven (20 December 1988). "Immigrant Hostel Bombed in France". New York Times. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- AP (20 December 1988). "Blasts Wreck Immigrant Home in France; 1 Dead". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- Fysh, P.; Wolfreys, J. (31 January 2003). The Politics of Racism in France. Springer. p. 38. ISBN 9780230288331. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- Reuters (20 March 2012). "TIMELINE-Attacks on Jews, Muslims in France since 1980". Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
- "Vandals target Paris mosque". The Guardian. February 22, 2005.
- "French Muslim war graves defaced". BBC News. April 6, 2008. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
- O., M. (13 December 2009). "Desecration of a mosque in France". Ennahar Online English. Hydra – Alger: El Athir For the Press. Retrieved 16 December 2009.
- "Anti-Muslim graffiti found on French mosque". Associated Press. 13 December 2009. Archived from the original on December 18, 2009. Retrieved 16 December 2009.
- "Anti-Muslim Graffiti Found on French Mosque". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. 13 December 2009. Retrieved 16 December 2009.
- Stahnke 2011, p. 4.
- Sabin, Lamiat (17 January 2015). "Moroccan man in France killed at home in front of wife in 'horrible Islamophobic attack'". The Independent. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
- "Corsica march: Hundreds defy protest ban after Muslim prayer hall attack". BBC. Retrieved 2016-01-04.
- Fenton, Siobhan (13 March 2017). "LGBT activist 'kidnapped and raped by man angry at Donald Trump being mocked'". The Independent. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- "French far-right group arrested over alleged plot to attack Muslims". The Independent. Retrieved 2018-06-29.
- "Thousands of Germans Rally for the Slain Turks". The New York Times. June 4, 1993.
- Pidd, Helen; Harding, Luke (16 November 2011). "German neo-Nazi terrorists had 'hitlist' of 88 political targets". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
- Germany, SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg. "Braune Zelle Zwickau: Neonazi-Terroristen hinterließen Geständnis auf DVD - SPIEGEL ONLINE - Panorama". Retrieved 23 December 2016.
- "SPIEGEL.TV - Web-TV der SPIEGEL Gruppe". Retrieved 23 December 2016.
- "Woman killed in courtroom bloodbath was pregnant". The Local. 3 July 2009. Archived from the original on 7 December 2009. Retrieved 7 December 2009.
- Connolly, Kate (10 May 2016). "One dead, three injured in knife attack at train station near Munich". The Guardian. Berlin, Germany. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
- "Gejagt von Wahnvorstellungen und Islam-Angst". Wolfsburger-Allgemeine (in German). 7 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
- "Amokläufer David S.: Einsam, krank und fest entschlossen" [Gunman David S.: decided lonely, sick and laid]. Der Spiegel (in German). 24 July 2016. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
- Hell, Peter; Lutteroth, Jule; Neumann, Conny (24 July 2016). "Münchner Amokläufer David S.: Er nannte sich Hass" [Munich spree killer David S.: He identified as 'Hate']. Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- "Munich gunman was far-right racist: media reports". The Local. 27 July 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- Connolly, Kate (27 July 2016). "Munich gunman saw sharing Hitler's birthday as 'special honour'". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- "Germany: Dresden mosque bombed in 'xenophobic' attack". Al Jazeera. 27 September 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "German police detain suspect in Dresden mosque attack". The Times of Israel. 9 December 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- Carey, John (2005). International Humanitarian Law. BRILL. pp. 68 69. ISBN 9781571052674.
- Barchard, David. "THE FEARLESS AND SELF-RELIANT SERVANT" (PDF): 27 28 29 30 31.
- "Greece: Refugees attacked and in 'hellish conditions' on Kos". Amnesty International. 4 September 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2017.
- "The moment a teenage girl was stoned to death for loving the wrong boy". World news. Daily Mail. 2007-05-03. Retrieved 2007-05-21.
- "Iraq: Amnesty International appalled by stoning to death of Yezidi girl and subsequent killings". Amnesty International. April 27, 2007. Archived from the original on June 6, 2008.
- Freedom Lost by Mark Lattimer, December 13, 2007 in The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-10-23
- George J. Church,"When Fury Rules", Time 7 March 1994 (subscription required)
- "West Bank mosque fire 'was arson'". BBC News. 6 May 2010.
- Lappin, Yaakov (10 June 2010), "Mosque vandals 'influenced by flotilla'", The Jerusalem Post, retrieved 13 August 2010
- Hassan Shaalan (22 August 2012). "In wake of lynch, Arabs fear the streets". Ynetnews.
- "Israeli settlers kidnap, burn and kill Palestinian boy in Jerusalem". 2 July 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- Zion, Ilan Ben & Gross, Judah Ari (3 December 2015). "Israel Arrests Jewish Terror Suspects in Deadly Firebombing". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
Police and Shin Bet security service agents recently arrested multiple Jewish terror suspects who may have been involved in the fatal firebombing of the Dawabsha family home in the Palestinian village of Duma…
- Hovel, Revital (17 July 2017). "Israeli Christian Charged With Murdering His Teen Daughter Over Relationship With Muslim". Haaretz. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
- Charu Gupta and Mukul Sharma (July 1996). "Communal constructions: media reality vs real reality". Race & Class 38 (1). doi:10.1177/030639689603800101. Retrieved 2013-02-08
- Shani, Ornit (2007). Communalism, Caste and Hindu Nationalism: The Violence in Gujarat. Cambridge University Press. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-521-72753-2.
- Corporation, British Broadcasting (11 May 2005). "Gujarat riot death toll revealed". BBC.
- "NIA to nail Hindu radicals in Malegaon chargesheet - Times Of India". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 2013-05-13. Retrieved 2013-09-28.
- "Ajmer blast case: Two 'RSS pracharaks' sentenced life imprisonment".
- "India jails Hindu radicals for life over Ajmer Sharif shrine blast".
- "5 killed, 80 injured in blasts in Gujarat, Maharashtra towns". Press Trust of India. 29 September 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
- "Troops deployed to quell deadly communal clashes between Hindus, Muslims in north India". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 9 September 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
- Adrija Bose (2013-09-08). "Firstpost India IBN7 journalist killed in UP communal riots, Army clamps curfewIBN7 journalist killed in UP communal riots, Army clamps curfew". Firstpost. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- Ahmed Ali Fayyaz (2013-09-08). "9 killed in communal riots in Muzaffarnagar, curfew clamped, army deployed". The Indian Express. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- "Fresh clashes in UPs Muzaffarnagar leave 26 dead, Army deployed in affected areas". The Hindustan Times. 2013-09-07. Archived from the original on 2013-09-09. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- "Rebels kill 23 in Assam for not voting for Bodos". Times of India. 3 May 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- "25 people held in Pune techie murder case". The Indian Express. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
- "Techie dies after attack by Hindutva group". The Hindu. 4 June 2014.
- "Indian man lynched over beef rumours". BBC News. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
- "Dadri: Outrage after mob lynches man for allegedly consuming beef". The Indian Express. 1 October 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
- "Indian mob kills man over beef eating rumour". Al Jazeera. 1 October 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
- "Bisara faces political polarisation". Deccan Herald. 3 October 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
- Abraham, Bobins (19 March 2016). "Two Muslim Cattle Traders Hanged To Death In Jharkhand By Suspected 'Cattle-Protection Vigilantes'". India Times. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
- "Another Dadri-like incident? Two Muslims herding cattle killed in Jharkhand; five held". Zee News. 19 March 2016. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
- Mishra, Alok K N (19 March 2016). "2 Muslims herding buffaloes thrashed hanged in Jharkhand". The Times of India. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
- "Gujarat communal clash: Mob came thrice, bigger each time, says survivor". The Indian Express. 27 March 2017. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
- Raj, Suhasini (5 April 2017). "Hindu Cow Vigilantes in Rajasthan, India, Beat Muslim to Death". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- Dey, Sanjoy (7 April 2017). "Muslim man tied to tree, beaten to death for being in love with Hindu woman". The Hindustan Times. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
- Hussain, Zarir; Birsel, Robert (2 May 2017). "Mob in India Lynches Two Muslims Over Suspected Cow Theft". The New York Times. Guwahati, India. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
- "Muslims on India train assaulted 'because they ate beef'". BBC News. 24 June 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
- "Muslim family attacked with iron rods, robbed by 30-35 men on a train in UP". Times Now. 14 July 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
- "Muslims flee Indian village after singer killed in argument with Hindu priest - police". Reuters. 11 October 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- "East Timor". Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- "Mengenal Sosok Intelijen Anti-Islam (3) - Salam Online". 13 December 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- "Mengenal Sosok Intelijen Anti-Islam (2) - Salam Online". 8 December 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- "Mengenal Sosok Intelijen Anti-Islam (1) - Salam Online". 8 December 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- "Jelang Ajal, Sang 'Islam Phobi' Theo Syafei Diserang Kanker Otak Langka - VOA-ISLAM.COM". Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-05-05. Retrieved 2014-05-04.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-05-05. Retrieved 2014-05-04.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-05-05. Retrieved 2014-05-04.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-05-05. Retrieved 2014-05-04.
- Stahnke et al. 2008, p. 13.
- Renaud, Egreteau (19 October 2009). "Burma (Myanmar) 1930–2007". SciencePo. Mass Violence and Resistance – Research Network. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
- Democratic Voice of Burma, Media conference ( 19–20 July, Oslo) Burmese Media: Past, present and future by U Thaung (Mirror/Kyae Mon news paper Retired Chief Editor)
- Yegar Muslims; p. 32, paragraph 4; p. 36, paragraph 1, lines 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15
- "Riots In Burmese History". CNN. 20 June 2012. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
- Archived 24 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- Archived 13 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Myanmar gov't refutes accusations of religious persecution, discrimination in Rakhine incident – Xinhua | English.news.cn". News.xinhuanet.com. 22 August 2012. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- "The Dark Side of Transition: Violence Against Muslims in Myanmar" (PDF). The International Crisis Group. 1 October 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Wirathu's 'Buddhist Woman Raped' Facebook Post Stokes Anti-Muslim Violence in Mandalay". International Business Times UK. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
- "Curfew imposed in Myanmar's second-largest city after riots – Channel NewsAsia". Archived from the original on 2014-07-05. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
- "Curfew imposed in Myanmar as gang violence escalates". Myanmar News. Net. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
- "Mob burns down mosque in Myanmar". Al Jazeera. 2 July 2016. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- "Myanmar: Rohingya Muslim Stoned To Death By Buddhist Mob". Outlook. 5 July 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
- Lewis, Simon (5 July 2017). "Mob kills Rohingya Muslim with bricks in street attack as violence against group intensifies in Burma". The Independent. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
- Stoter, Brenda (16 March 2016). "Netherlands mosque attacks and rising Islamophobia". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
- "Men jailed for arson attack on mosque, it was a terrorist act says court". DutchNews.nl. 27 October 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
- "Dutch court convicts 5 men for mosque arson attack". Fox News. 27 October 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
- "Islamic Centre set on fire in Netherlands". The Nation. 29 December 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
- Christys, Patrick; Mowat, Laura (29 December 2016). "NETHERLANDS IN FLAMES: Islamic centre burnt down in suspected arson attack". The Daily Express. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
- "Eksplosjonen i Oslo sentrum 22. juli 2011" [The explosion in Oslo 22 July 2011] (in Norwegian). 23 July 2011. Archived from the original on 17 April 2012. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
- "Dette er Breivik tiltalt for" [Breivik's indictment] (in Norwegian). NRK. 7 March 2012.
- "Oslo government district bombing and Utøya island shooting July 22, 2011: The immediate prehospital emergency medical service response". Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine. 26 January 2012.
- "Læring for bedre beredskap; Helseinnsatsen etter terrorhendelsene 22. juli 2011" (in Norwegian). 9 March 2012. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013.
- "Slik skaffet han politiuniformen" [How he obtained the uniform]. NRK (in Norwegian). 24 July 2011.
- "Slik var Behring Breivik kledd for å drepe" [How Behring Breivik was dressed to kill]. Dagbladet (in Norwegian). 20 November 2011.
- "Terrorofrene på Utøya og i Oslo". Verdens Gang (in Norwegian). Schibsted ASA. Archived from the original on 9 September 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
- "Navn på alle terrorofre offentliggjort". Verdens Gang (in Norwegian). Schibsted ASA. 29 July 2011. Archived from the original on 23 November 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
- "En av de sårede døde på sykehuset" [One of the wounded died in hospital]. Østlendingen (in Norwegian). 24 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- Sindre Bangstad. "After Anders Breivik's conviction, Norway must confront Islamophobia". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-07-24.
- "AFP: Norway remembers 77 victims a month after massacre". Google. 21 August 2011. Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
- Starla Muhammad (19 August 2011). "Tragedy in Norway Borne Out of Seeds of Racism and Intolerance in UK, EU". New America Media. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
- Godfrey, Hannah (19 August 2011). "Utøya island shooting victims return to scene of Breivik's killing spree". The Guardian. London.
- Birnbaum, Elisa; Goodman, David J. (22 July 2011). "At Least 80 Are Dead in Norway Shooting". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
- Majul, Cesar Adib (2015). The Contemporary Muslim Movement in the Philippines. BookBaby. p. 50. ISBN 9781483555584. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
- Larousse, William (2001). A Local Church Living for Dialogue: Muslim-Christian Relations in Mindanao-Sulu, Philippines 1965-2000. Gregorian Biblical BookShop. p. 136. ISBN 8876528792.
- Landis, Dan; Albert, Rosita D. (2012). Handbook of Ethnic Conflict: International Perspectives. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 79. ISBN 1461404487.
- "1,500 Moro massacre victims during Martial Law honored". Mindanews. 26 September 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
- Santos, Chyna (11 April 2015). "Violence in Mindanao". The Guidon. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
- "Christian militia kills five Muslims in Philippines". Dawn. 3 November 2008. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
- "Islamophobia in Russia". Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- "More Racism in Russia". Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- "Institute for War and Peace Reporting". 26 June 2002. Archived from the original on 26 June 2002.
- "Страница не найдена « Мануфактурный вестник Mosnews.com". 9 September 2012. Archived from the original on 9 September 2012.
- Danilova, Maria (August 22, 2006). "2 Accused of Hate Crime in Moscow Blast". The Washington Post.
- "Moscow attack 'may be race hate'". BBC News. August 22, 2006.
- Stahnke et al. 2008, p. 8.
- By MICHAEL SCHWIRTZJUNE 9, 2008 (2008-06-09). "Family identifies son in Russian beheading video - The New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
- "Midwee07". www.island.lk.
- Gunawardena, Charles A. (25 March 2018). "Encyclopedia of Sri Lanka". Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd – via Google Books.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-29. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
- "-- Daily News Online Edition - Sri lanka :: Print Page". archives.dailynews.lk.
- THE NORTHEAST SECRETARIAT ON HUMAN RIGHTS (NESOHR) Archived 2014-01-08 at the Wayback Machine.. Massacres of Tamils (1956-2008)p. 14–15. Chennai: Manitham Publishers, 2009. ISBN 978-81-909737-0-0
- "Reports". Archived from the original on 14 February 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- The New York Times, Tamils Kill 110 Muslims at 2 Sri Lankan Mosques, 5 August 1990
- The Times, Tamils kill 116 Muslims, 13 August 1990
- Associated Press, Tamil Rebels Order Muslims to Leave City, 17 June 1995
- "Hindu On Net "A timely and prudent step by the LTTE"". Archived from the original on 2004-12-07. Retrieved 2006-04-30.
- "Sri Lanka: Deliberate killings of Muslim and Tamil villagers in Polonnaruwa". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 2011-02-22.
- "Sri Lanka's forgotten massacre". BBC News. 3 August 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
- Letter sent by the Permanent Representative of Sri Lanka to the Centre for Human Rights, Government of Sri Lanka, 9 August 1994
- "South Asia Intelligence Review (SAIR), Weekly Assessments & Briefings". www.satp.org.
- "For a place in the sun". The Hindu. 15 Jul 2001.
- Information Laboratories (Pvt.) Ltd. (1998-02-12). "The Sunday Times News/Comment Section". Sundaytimes.lk. Retrieved 2014-01-14.
- "Interplay between competition for scarce resources and identity issues in the May 2001 Riots of Mawanella" (PDF). www.slageconr.net.
- "THE MAY 2001 RIOTS IN MAWANELLA: A SOCIOLOGICAL ACCOUNT" (PDF). www.dlib.pdn.ac.lk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-01-15.
- "SOUTH ASIA INTELLIGENCE REVIEW Weekly Assessments & Briefings Volume 5, No. 12, October 2, 2006". South Asia Terrorism Portal. Retrieved 2006-10-02.
- Colombage, Dinouk (17 June 2014). "n Pictures: Sri Lanka hit by religious riots". Al Jazeera.
- "Sri Lankan riots spark international concern". Gulf Times. Agence France-Presse. 16 June 2014.
- Karunarathne, Waruni (22 June 2014). "The Human Tragedy Of Aluthgama". The Sunday Leader.
- "Religious Riots Kill 3 Muslims in Sri Lanka". Voice of America. 16 June 2014.
- Athas, Iqbal; Hume, Tim (20 June 2014). "Fear, shock among Sri Lankan Muslims in aftermath of Buddhist mob violence". CNN.
- "Sri Lanka police hit back after media flak over deadly riots". The Times of India. Agence France-Presse. 22 June 2014.
- "Muslim businesses stay shut in Colombo after ethnic riots". Oman Tribune. Agence France-Presse. 19 June 2014. Archived from the original on 8 February 2015.
- "Sectarian violence in south declared off-limits for media". Reporters Without Borders. 17 June 2014.
- "La Policía investiga la acción neonazi en la mezquita de la M-30". El Mundo. 23 March 2016.
- "Dos 'ultras' pegan una patada en Barcelona a una embarazada con 'niqab'". ultimahora.es. 7 September 2016.
- "Varios jóvenes atacan a una mujer musulmana en Madrid". La Vanguardia. 24 August 2017.
- Adetunji, Jo (22 October 2010). "Swedish police hunt gunman targeting immigrants". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
- "Sweden hit by third assault on mosque". Financial Times.
- "Sweden hit by third mosque arson attack in a week". straitstimes.com.
- "Tre dödsoffer: Vuxen, elev och gärningsman" [Three deaths: adult, student and perpetrator]. Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). 22 October 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
- "Sweden sword attack: Two dead after masked attacker strikes". BBC News. 22 October 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
- "Tredje offret död efter skolattacken". expressen.se.
- Altuntas, Atila (21 February 2017). "Arson attack on Islamic center in Sweden". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
- "Man with alleged Nazi links admits driving his car into a refugee demonstration in Malmö". The Local. 14 June 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- "Moschee-Schütze hat auch Ex-Kollegen getötet". 20 Minuten. 20 December 2016.
- "Swiss shooting: Three wounded near Zurich Islamic centre". BBC. December 19, 2016.
- "Three injured in gun attack on Zurich mosque". The Guardian. December 19, 2016. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- Islamische Zentralrat Schweiz (20 December 2016). "Offene Fragen nach Anschlag auf Zürcher Moschee".
- Vikram Dood (13 July 2005). "Islamophobia blamed for attack". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
- "Muslim teenager stabbed during attack on UK mosque". Arabic News. 10/3/2006. Archived from the original on 2013-10-22. Retrieved 2010-04-04. Check date values in:
- Stahnke et al. 2008, p. 10.
- Siddique, Haroon (16 October 2009). "Man convicted of killing Qatari student". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
- Islamic charity fire 'deliberate' BBC News, 6 July 2009
- "Ex-soldiers jailed for mosque attack". BBC News. 2013-12-20. Retrieved 2018-03-28.
- "Ukrainian student in one man racist reign of terror targeting Black Country mosques". Express & Star. 22 October 2013.
- "Man admits pulling niqab off Muslim woman in Sunderland". The Guardian. 6 February 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
- Kelly, Karon (6 February 2017). "Man pulled veil from Muslim woman's face in Sunderland race attack". Sunderland Echo. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
- Bulman, May (4 July 2017). "Man who ripped off woman's veil while shouting "You f***ing stupid Muslim" is jailed". The Independent. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
- Kentish, Ben (8 February 2017). "Man charged with racially aggravated assault on Muslim woman who lost unborn twins". The Independent. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "Man jailed for pregnant woman attack at Bletchley Co-op". BBC News. 22 May 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
- Osborne, Samuel (12 December 2016). "Forest Hill stabbing: Attacker shouted 'I want to kill a Muslim' while chasing passengers". The Independent. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- Bulman, May (17 December 2016). "Mosque sprayed with Islamophobic graffiti in 'worrying' attack in Scotland". The Independent. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- Dearden, Lizzie (16 December 2016). "Muslim woman dragged along pavement by hijab in London hate crime attack". The Independent. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- Revesz, Rachael (23 May 2017). "Mosque attacked by arsonists in Oldham in suspected revenge attack for Manchester bombing". The Independent. Retrieved 22 September 2017.
- "British PM May Condemns 'Sickening' Attack on Muslims". Voice of America. 19 June 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- Ganesh, Bharath (19 June 2017). "Finsbury Park attack shows the harm Islamophobia continues to inflict on Muslim communities". The Conversation. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- "Finsbury Park attack: Muslim leaders denounce 'most violent manifestation' of Islamophobia". The Daily Telegraph. 19 June 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- Bilefsky, Dan (19 June 2017). "London Attack Near Mosque Investigated as Terrorism". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- "Finsbury Park mosque: Man dies as van hits worshippers". Al Jazeera English. 19 June 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- Finnegan, Stephanie (26 June 2017). "Muslim knocked unconscious by thugs who then vandalised his home with racist graffiti quoting Katie Hopkins' "final solution" tweet". Daily Mirror. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
- Keeling, Neal (26 June 2017). "Boy, 13, battered by racist gang while he played in the park, after they asked 'are you a P**i?'". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
- Bardsley, Andrew (11 September 2017). "Man set his dog on Muslims and ordered it to bite them during 'campaign of racism'". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
- Dodd, Vikram (27 October 2017). "Muslim woman hit by car in Leicester was hate crime victim, police say". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Yarwood, Sam; Smithers, Dominic. "Man attacked from behind and stabbed in the neck as he arrived at a mosque for evening prayers". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
- "Muslim surgeon stabbed outside mosque has 'totally forgiven' attacker". The Daily Telegraph. 26 September 2017. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
- Britton, Paul (10 October 2017). "Boy, 12, who stamped on Muslim schoolboy's head in race hate gang attack warned he could be locked up". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
- Linenthal, Edward. The Unfinished Bombing: Oklahoma City in American Memory. pp. 77–78. ISBN 0-19-516107-6.
- "Arab American Institute 2001 report submitted to the United States Commission on Civil Rights" (PDF). Arab American Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-26.
- Oswald, Debra L. (September 2005). "Understanding Anti-Arab Reactions Post-9/11: The Role of Threats, Social Categories, and Personal Ideologies". Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 35 (9): 1775–1799. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2005.tb02195.x.
- "'Vibes Made Man Kill... and Confess, Police Say". The New York Times. 1 April 2003. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- "Hate crime reports up in wake of terrorist attacks". US News. CNN. September 17, 2001. Archived from the original on June 20, 2010. Retrieved 2008-04-04.
- "SRK detained at Newark airport over 'Khan' name (Second Lead)". Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- "The world sees Muslims differently: Mahesh Bhatt". The Times Of India. 15 August 2009.
- "Anti-Islam course in U.S. military part of 'wider problem': activists". Al-Arabiya. 2012-05-14.
- "U.S. military embarrassed by Islamophobic lectures". The Hindu. 2012-05-11.
- Fawzia Afzal-Khan, Islamophobia in America, CounterPunch, Weekend Edition August 24–26, 2012.
- Kolsy, Uzma (August 14, 2012). "There's a crime wave targeting houses of worship, most of them Muslim. Is something sinister at work?". Salon.
- Gould, Eric D.; Klor, Esteban F. (2015-07-01). "The Long-run Effect of 9/11: Terrorism, Backlash, and the Assimilation of Muslim Immigrants in the West". The Economic Journal: n/a–n/a. doi:10.1111/ecoj.12219. ISSN 1468-0297.
- "Remembering Victims of Hate Crimes". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 2013-07-05.
- "Sodhi murder trial begins". Rediff.com. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
- Williams, Timothy (18 July 2011). "The Hated and the Hater, Both Touched by Crime". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
- Fanelli, James (16 September 2007). "MUSLIM BIZ GAL BEATEN". Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- "Warnings against Quran burning plan". Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- Pastor Terry Jones: 'We will not burn the Quran' - US news - Security - msnbc.com. MSNBC (November 9, 2010). Retrieved April 30, 2011.
- Gainesville's Dove World Outreach Center denied it is responsible for violence in Afghanistan over its burning of the Quran, Gainesville.com (April 1, 2011). Retrieved April 30, 2011.
- "Taxi driver stabbed after passenger asks if he's Muslim". CNN. August 26, 2010.
- Karoub, Jeff; Watson, Julie (February 2, 2011). "Mosque plot suspect planted bomb in airport in '85". The Washington Times. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
- Jeff Karoub (April 8, 2011). "Mosque plot suspect calls case absurd". Associated Press.
- "California man jailed in alleged attempt to blow up Dearborn mosque". Detroit Free Press. Archived from the original on February 3, 2011.
- Detroit free Press: "Experts: M-80s dangerous, but can't blow up a mosque" Archived February 4, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- Santora, Marc (29 December 2012). "Woman Is Charged With Murder as a Hate Crime in a Fatal Subway Push". www.nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
- Lindelof, Bill (22 December 2016). "Man convicted in slaying of Iraqi artist at Florin Road Home Depot". The Sacramento Bee. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- Magagnini, Stephen (28 March 2014). "Family mourns artist who fled violence in Iraq only to be killed in a Sacramento parking lot". The Sacramento Bee. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- "Interfaith vigil held for slain teen Abdisamad Sheikh-Hussein". 41 Action News. December 7, 2014. Archived from the original on 9 December 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
- "FBI investigating the death of somali american teen as a possible hate crime". i24news.tv. Retrieved December 28, 2014.
- "Community mourns somali muslim death in Kansas city". The Guardian. Retrieved December 28, 2014.
- Cleary, Tom (16 May 2015). "Robert Doggart: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know". Heavy. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- Peterson, Zack (26 January 2017). "Tennessee man accused of plot to blow up Muslim community heading to trial". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- Lopez, Pablo (24 October 2016). "Fresno man on trial for beating a Sikh, thinking victim was ISIS". The Fresno Bee. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
- Harvard, Sarah A. (1 July 2016). "2 Muslim Men Were Shot Near Minneapolis Mosque, Police Are Investigating as Hate Crime". Mic. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- Roberts, Dave (July 19, 2016). "Indian immigrant says attacker yelled 'ISIS,' profanities at him before attacking". KETV. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- "Queens Imam Murder: Oscar Morel Charged With Killing of Maulama Akonjee". Newseek. August 16, 2016. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
- Kestler D'Amours, Jillian (August 18, 2016). "Man killed in suspected 'anti-Arab hate crime'". al-Jazeera.
- "Man Arrested in Fatal Stabbing of Bangladeshi Woman Some Called 'Hate Crime'". NBC News. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
- "NYPD Investigates Possible Hate Crime in Fatal Stabbing of Bangladeshi Woman". NBC News. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
- Hyman, Alyssa; Keegan, Charlie (6 February 2017). "Suspect charged in Fort Pierce mosque arson sentenced to 30 years". WPTV. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- Laughland, Oliver (22 February 2017). "Kansas town reels months after foiled mosque bombing: 'I'm still scared'". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
- Meyers, Shawnya (21 February 2017). "Two Arrested In Connection To Fort Smith Mosque Vandalism". 5News. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- del Valle, Lauren. "2 Muslim women, babies attacked in alleged hate crime". CNN. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
- "Islamic Center of Owensboro vandalized with paint". WHAS-TV. 14 November 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
- Marusak, Joe (23 December 2016). "Muslim kindergarten student assaulted by teacher at CMS elementary school, civil rights group claims". The Charlotte Observer. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- Gettys, Travis (25 November 2016). "Drunken Pittsburgh man sucker punches oblivious Indian man he mistook for 'sand n****r'". The Charlotte Observer. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- Jouvenal, Justin (27 February 2017). "Va. man charged with hate crime after using Muslim slurs, biting victim's face, police say". The Washington Post. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
- "Muslim woman pushed down NYC stairs, called "terrorist"". CBS News. 5 December 2016. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- Stevens, Matt; Hamilton, Matt (12 December 2016). "Man stabs worshiper near Simi Valley mosque in hate crime, police allege". Los Angeles Time. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- "Redmond mosque vandalized for second time in a month". Los Angeles Time. 17 December 2016. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- Reyna, Rikki; Dimon, Laura; Annese, John (19 December 2016). "Homeless man throws coffee at Muslim woman, calls her 'terrorist' in Manhattan Dunkin' Donuts". New York Daily News. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- "Shattered windows and bacon investigated as hate crime toward Islamic Center of Davis". ABC10. 22 January 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
- Locke, Cathy (24 January 2017). "Burglary, vandalism of Woodland restaurant investigated as hate crime". The Sacramento Bee. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
- Mele, Christopher (16 January 2017). "Man Kicked J.F.K. Airport Worker Wearing Hijab, Prosecutor Says". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- Resnik, Max (1 February 2017). "Roseville Islamic center tagged with hate speech graffiti". KCRA-TV. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
- "CAIR calling for FBI, local police to investigate after they say local mosque was vandalized". NBC. 11 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- Brennan, Christopher; Sommerfeldt, Chris (23 February 2016). "Kansas man accused of fatally shooting Indian engineer after shouting 'get out of my country'". New York Daily News. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- Day, Matt (4 March 2017). "Sikh man in Kent says he was told, 'Go back to your own country' before he was shot". The Seattle News. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
- "Hate crime suspect beats Salem restaurant employee with pipe". KPTV. 10 March 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
- Raj, Yashwant (13 March 2017). "Man tries to burn store run by Indian-Americans in US, says they are 'Arabs'". The Hindustan Times. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
- Wang, Amy B (12 March 2017). "A man assumed a store's Indian owners were Muslim. So he tried to burn it down, police say". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
- Csillag, Ron (31 March 2017). "Canadian JDL Member Charged in D.C. Beating of Palestinian-American". The Canadian Jewish News. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- Sanchick, Myra (11 April 2017). ""Beat me like an animal:" Muslim woman says attacker ripped off her hijab, cut her with knife". Fox 6 News. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- Henriksen, Erik (26 May 2017). "Following Hate Speech, Two Dead and One Wounded at Hollywood Transit Center". The Portland Mercury. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
- Marco, Tony; Chavez, Nicole; Hanna, Jason (May 27, 2017). "Man shouting 'anti-everything slurs' kills 2 in Portland, police say". CNN. Retrieved May 27, 2017.
- Windsor, Morgan (28 May 2017). "Portland fatal stabbings point to rise in hate speech, civil rights advocates say". ABC News. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
- Chuck, Elizabeth (2017-08-05). "Bomb blast shakes Minnesota mosque as worshipers prepare for prayers". NBC News. Retrieved 2017-08-09.
- Parascandola, Rocco (14 September 2017). "Drunken bigot attacks Jewish mom, daughter he mistook for Muslims at Queens subway station: 'Get out of my country'". New York Daily News. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- "US college football players charged in anti-Muslim beating". Middle East Eye. 19 September 2017. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
- "Mission to Vietnam Advocacy Day (Vietnamese-American Meet up 2013) in…". 5 February 2015. Archived from the original on 5 February 2015.
- Taylor, Philip (December 2006). "Economy in Motion: Cham Muslim Traders in the Mekong Delta" (PDF). The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology. Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. 7 (3): 237–250. doi:10.1080/14442210600965174. ISSN 1740-9314. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
- Airline checks claim of 'Muslim while flying' discrimination Archived 2008-10-13 at the Wayback Machine. CNN November 21, 2006.
- Mutiny as passengers refuse to fly until Asians are removed – Mail on Sunday. 20 August 2006
- Exclusive: Malaga Jet mutiny pair's shock at plane ejection – The Daily Mirror. 23 August 2006.
- Removal of men from holiday flight condemnedThe Guardian. 21 August 2006 Archived 4 August 2012 at Archive.is
- Muslim pilot kicked off jet in terror alert – Manchester Evening News. 11 August 2006
- Muslim pilot reveals shock at being ordered off flight Archived 2008-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. – The Independent. 22 August 2006
- "U.S. Muslims outraged after imams kicked off plane", The Washington Post, 22 November 2006.
- http://www.washingtontimes.com, The Washington Times. "Probes dismiss imams' racism claim". Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- Gardner, Amy (2 January 2009). "9 Muslim Passengers Removed From Jet". Retrieved 15 January 2017 – via washingtonpost.com.
- Gardner, Amy; Hsu, Spencer S. (3 January 2009). "Airline Apologizes For Booting 9 Muslim Passengers From Flight". Retrieved 15 January 2017 – via washingtonpost.com.
- Lauren Gambino. "Southwest Airlines criticized after incidents involving Middle Eastern passengers". the Guardian.
- "Southwest Airlines accused of profiling Muslims". The Economist. 23 November 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- Erika Howsare (2006-12-19). "Anti-Muslim letter goes out to hundreds – not all are amused". Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved December 20, 2006.
- "Congressman Will Not Apologize for IslamophobiaBy The Associated Press". Associated Press. 2006-12-21. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved December 21, 2006.
- Patrik Jonsson (2005-07-20). "Raise your right hand and swear to tell the truth... on the Koran?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved January 22, 2007.
- Vikram Dood (21 October 2006). "White pupils less tolerant, survey shows". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
- "Muslim students 'more tolerant'". BBC News. 11 October 2006. Retrieved 2010-04-05.
- 'Muslim Massacre' Creator Tucks Tail, Apologizes Kotaku.com, 14 September 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
- Muslim Massacre Creator: My Apology Was Fake | GamePolitics Archived 2013-10-17 at the Wayback Machine.
- Steinback, Robert (Summer 2011). "Jihad Against Islam". The Intelligence Report (142). Southern Poverty Law Center.
- Siemaszko, Corky (February 25, 2011). "Southern Poverty Law Center lists anti-Islamic NYC blogger Pamela Geller, followers a hate group". New York Daily News.
- "Stop the Islamization of America (SIOA)". Extremism. Anti-Defamation League. September 14, 2010. Archived from the original on May 2, 2012. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
- "Free-speech free-for-all". New York Post. Oct 6, 2012.
- Ashwaq Masood (Oct 4, 2012). "Pro-Muslim Subway Ads to Hang Near Anti-Jihad Ads". New York Times.
- Jewish Council for Public Affairs. "JCPA Condemns Bigoted, Divisive, and Unhelpful Anti-Muslim Ads". JCPA. Retrieved September 21, 2012.
- Fawzia Afzal-Khan, CounterPunch, Weekend Edition August 24–26, 2012.
- New anti-Muslim ads up in NYC subway stations, CBS News, January 9, 2013.
- Emily Anne Epstein, New Anti-Islam Ads to Debut This Month, Now With 25% More MTA Disclaimer, The New York Observer, December 7, 2012.
- Matt Flegenheimer (Dec 13, 2012). "Controversial Group Plans More Ads in Subway Stations". New York Times.
- Murtaza Hussain, Anti-Muslim violence spiraling out of control in America, Al-Jazeera, December 31, 2012.
- Wajahat Ali, Death by brown skin, Salon, December 31, 2012.
- Stahnke, Tad; LeGendre, Paul; Grekov, Innokenty; McClintock, Michael (2008), "Violence Against Muslims: 2008 Hate Crime Survey" (PDF), Human Rights First, New York City, United States, retrieved 23 March 2017
- Stahnke, Tad (2011), "Violence Against Muslims: 2011 Hate Crime Survey" (PDF), Human Rights First, New York City, United States, retrieved 8 April 2017
- Calacal, Celisa (1 December 2015). "The Growing List Of Anti-Islam Incidents Since Paris". Think Progress. Retrieved 8 April 2017.