Islam in the United Kingdom

British Muslims
Regions with significant populations
Greater London, West Midlands, North West England
English, Urdu, Sylheti, Bengali, Arabic, Punjabi, Somali, Turkish, Persian, Kurdish, Gujarati, Pashto[1]
Majority Sunni, minority Shi'a

Islam is the second largest religion in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, with results from the United Kingdom Census 2011 giving the UK Muslim population in 2011 as 2,786,635, 4.4% of the total population.[2] The vast majority of Muslims in the United Kingdom live in England: 2,660,116 (5.02% of the population). 76,737 Muslims live in Scotland (1.45%), 45,950 in Wales (1.50%), and 3,832 in Northern Ireland (0.21%). London has the greatest population of Muslims in the country.[3][4][5]

In 2011 it was reported that the United Kingdom could have as many as 100,000 converts to Islam,[6] of which 66% were women. Islam is the fastest growing religious confession in the UK and its adherents have the lowest average age out of all the major religious groups.[7] Between 2001 and 2009 the Muslim population increased almost 10 times faster than the non-Muslim population.[8] The majority of Muslims in United Kingdom belong to the Sunni denomination,[9] while smaller numbers are Shia. In terms of national heritage, the largest groups of British Muslims are Pakistanis and Bangladeshis.[10][11] Smaller groups are Indians, Arabs, Kurds, Turks and Africans.


The earliest evidence of Islamic influence in England dates to the 8th century, when Offa, the Anglo-Saxon king of Mercia, minted a coin with an Islamic inscription, largely a copy of coins issued by a contemporary Muslim ruler, Caliph Al-Mansur.[12] In the 16th century, Muslims from North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia were present in London, working in a range of roles, from diplomats and translators to merchants and musicians.[13] See Islam in England for more information on Muslims in England prior to the United Kingdom's founding in 1707.

Bengal (now Bangladesh and West Bengal), an affluent province of Mughal India with a Muslim majority and Hindu minority, and globally dominant in industries such as textile manufacturing and shipbuilding, was conquered by the British East India Company at the Battle of Plassey in 1757.[14][15][16] The plunder of Bengal directly contributed to the Industrial Revolution in Britain,[14][15][16][17] with the capital amassed from Bengal used to invest in British industries such as textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution and greatly increase British wealth, while at the same time leading to deindustrialization and famines in Bengal.[14][15][16] With the establishment of British India, the British Empire ruled over a large Muslim population.[18][19][20]

The first group of Muslims to come to the UK in significant numbers, in the 18th century, were lascars (sailors) recruited from the Indian subcontinent, largely from the Bengal region, to work for the East India Company on British ships, some of whom settled down and took local wives.[21] Due to the majority being lascars, the earliest Muslim communities were found in port towns. Naval cooks also came, many of them from the Sylhet Division of the Bengal Presidency in British India (now in Bangladesh). One of the most famous early Asian immigrants to England was the Bengali Muslim entrepreneur Sake Dean Mahomet, a captain of the East India Company who in 1810 founded London's first Indian restaurant, the Hindoostanee Coffee House. He is also reputed for introducing shampoo and therapeutic massage to the United Kingdom.[22]

Between 1803 and 1813, there were more than 10,000 lascars from the Indian subcontinent visiting British port cities and towns.[23] By 1842, 3,000 lascars visited the UK annually, and by 1855, 12,000 lascars were arriving annually in British ports. In 1873, 3,271 lascars arrived in Britain.[24] Throughout the early 19th century lascars visited Britain at a rate of 1,000 every year,[23] which increased to a rate of 10,000 to 12,000 every year throughout the late 19th century.[25][26] At the beginning of World War I, there were 51,616 South Asian lascars working on British ships, the majority of whom were of Bengali descent.[27] In 1932, the Indian National Congress survey of 'all Indians outside India' (which included modern Pakistani and Bangladeshi territories) estimated that there were 7,128 Indians living in the United Kingdom.

By 1911, the British Empire had a Muslim population of 94 million, larger than the empire's 58 million Christian population.[20] By the 1920s, the British Empire included roughly half of the world's Muslim population.[19] More than 400,000 Muslim soldiers of the British Indian Army fought for Britain during World War I, where 62,060 were killed in action,[28] and half a million Muslim soldiers of the British Indian Army fought for Britain against the Nazis in World War II.[29] David Lloyd George, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1916 to 1922, stated: "we are the greatest Mahomedan power in the world and one-fourth of the population of the British Empire is Mahomedan. There have been no more loyal adherents to the throne and no more effective and loyal supporters of the Empire in its hour of trial." This statement was later reiterated by Gandhi in 1920.[18]

The Shah Jahan Mosque in Woking was the first purpose-built mosque, built in 1889. In the same year Abdullah Quilliam installed a mosque in a terrace in Liverpool, which became the Liverpool Muslim Institute.[30][31] The first mosque in London was the Fazl Mosque established in 1924, commonly called the London mosque. The growing number of Muslims resulted in the establishment of more than 1,500 mosques by 2007.[32]

Muslim mass immigration to Britain began after World War II, as a result of the destruction and labour shortages caused by the war.[33][34] Muslim migrants from former British colonies, predominantly India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh,[33] were recruited in large numbers by government and businesses to rebuild the country.[35] Large numbers of doctors recruited from India and Pakistan, encouraged by health minister Enoch Powell in the early 1960s, also played a key role in the establishment of the NHS health service.[36]

British Asian Muslims faced discrimination and racism following Enoch Powell's Rivers of Blood speech and the establishment of the National Front in the late 1960s. This included overt racism in the form of Paki bashing, predominantly from white power skinheads, the National Front, and the British National Party, throughout the 1970s and 1980s.[37] Drawing inspiration from the Indian independence movement, the black power movement, and the anti-apartheid movement, young British Pakistani and British Bangladeshi activists began a number of anti-racist Asian youth movements in the 1970s and 1980s, including the Bradford Youth Movement in 1977, the Bangladeshi Youth Movement following the murder of Altab Ali in 1978, and the Newham Youth Movement following the murder of Akhtar Ali Baig in 1980.[38]

The publication of Salman Rushdie's novel The Satanic Verses in 1988 caused major controversy. A number of Muslims in Britain condemned the book for blasphemy. On 2 December 1988, the book was publicly burned at a demonstration in Bolton attended by 7,000 Muslims, followed by a similar demonstration and book-burning in Bradford on 14 January 1989.[39]


Muslim population of England and Wales
1961 50,000    
1971 226,000+352.0%
1981 553,000+144.7%
1991 950,000+71.8%
2001 1,600,000+68.4%
2011 2,706,066+69.1%
2014 3,046,607+12.6%

The Muslim population of England and Wales has grown consistently since World War II. Sophie Gilliat-Ray attributes the recent growth to "recent immigration, the growing birth rate, some conversion to Islam.[42]

Census YearNumber
of Muslims
Population of
England and Wales
(% of population)
per mosque
2014 (estimate)3,047,0005.41,750 (2015)[43]1,741

According to recent projections the Muslim population in the UK in the year 2050 is likely to number around 13 million [44]

The top 20 local authorities in England and Wales with the highest percent of Muslims in 2011[45] were:

Several large cities have one area that is a majority Muslim even if the rest of the city has a fairly small Muslim population. In addition, it is possible to find small areas that are almost entirely Muslim: for example, Savile Town in Dewsbury.[46]

In 2015 Muhammad was the most commonly given name for baby boys in England and Wales, if variant spellings are considered.[47][lower-alpha 1]

Initial limited mosque availability meant that prayers were conducted in small rooms of council flats until the 1980s when more and larger facilities became available. Some synagogues and community buildings were turned into mosques and existing mosques began to expand their buildings. This process has continued down to the present day with the East London Mosque recently expanding into a large former car park where the London Muslim Centre is now used for prayers, recreational facilities and housing.[50][51] Most people regard themselves as part of the ummah, and their identity is based on their religion rather than their ethnic group.[52] Cultural aspects of a 'Bengali Islam' are seen as superstition and as un-Islamic.[52]

The 2001 census recorded that there were 179,733 Muslims who described themselves as 'white'. 65% of white Muslims described themselves as "other white", and would likely have originated from locations such as Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Adygea, Chechnya, Albania, Turkey, Bulgaria, the region of East Macedonia and Thrace in Northern Greece, and the Republic of Macedonia. The remainder of white Muslims are converts and mostly identified themselves as White British and White Irish.

Islam is the third-largest religious group of British Indian people, after Hinduism and Sikhism.[53] 8% of UK Muslims are of Indian descent,[54] principally those whose origins are in Gujarat, West Bengal, Telangana and Kerala. Gujarati Muslims from the Surat and Bharuch districts started to arrive from the 1940s when India was under British colonial rule, settling in the towns of Dewsbury and Batley in Yorkshire and in parts of Lancashire.


The single largest group of Muslims in the United Kingdom are of Pakistani descent. Pakistanis from Mirpur District were one of the first South Asian Muslim communities to permanently settle in the United Kingdom, arriving in Birmingham and Bradford in the late 1940s. Immigration from Mirpur grew from the late 1950s, accompanied by immigration from other parts of Pakistan especially from Punjab, particularly from the surrounding villages of Faisalabad, Sahiwal, Sialkot, Jhelum, Gujar Khan and Gujarat, in addition to from the north-west Punjab including the chhachhi Pathans and Pashtuns from Attock District, and some from villages of Ghazi, Nowshera and Peshawar. There is also a fairly large Punjabi community from East Africa found in London. People of Pakistani extraction are particularly notable in West Midlands (Birmingham), West Yorkshire (Bradford), London (Waltham Forest, Newham and Redbridge), Lancashire/Greater Manchester, East Midlands/Nottingham and several industrial towns such as Luton, Slough, High Wycombe and Oxford.


People of Bangladeshi descent are the second largest Muslim community (after Pakistanis), 15% of Muslims in England and Wales are of Bangladeshi descent, one of the ethnic groups in the UK with the largest proportion of people following a single religion, being 92% Muslim.[55] The majority of these Muslims come from the Sylhet region of Bangladesh, mainly concentrated in London (Tower Hamlets and Newham), Luton, Birmingham and Oldham. The Bangladeshi Muslim community in London forms 24% of the Muslim population, larger than any other ethnic group.[56] There are groups which are active throughout Bangladeshi communities such as The Young Muslim Organization. It is connected to the Islamic Forum Europe, associated with the East London Mosque and the London Muslim Centre – all of which have connections with the Bangladesh Islamic party, the Jamaat-e-Islami. Other groups also attract a few people, the Hizb ut-Tahrir – which calls for the Khilafah (caliphate) and influences by publishing annual magazines, and lectures through mainly political concepts,[57] and the other which is a movement within Sunni Islam is the Salafi – who view the teachings of the first generations as the correct one,[58] and appeals to younger Muslims as a way to differentiate themselves towards their elders.[50][59] Other large groups include another Sunni movement, the Barelwi – mainly of a Fultoli movement (led by Abdul Latif Chowdhury in Bangladesh), and the Tablighi Jamaat – which is a missionary and revival movement,[60] and avoids political attention. All these groups work to stimulate Islamic identity among local Bengalis or Muslims and particularly focus on the younger members of the communities.[51][61][62]


The United Kingdom, with 43,532 Somalia-born residents in 2001,[63] and an estimated 101,000 in 2008,[64] is home to the largest Somali community in Europe. A 2009 estimate by Somali community organisations puts the Somali population figure at 90,000 residents.[65] The first Somali immigrants were seamen and traders who arrived in small numbers in port cities in the late 19th century, although most Somalis in the UK are recent arrivals. Further more Somali European such as from Holland or Denmark have been emigrating in recent years.[65] Established Somali communities are found in Bristol, Cardiff, Liverpool and London, and newer ones have formed in Leicester, Manchester and Sheffield.[66][67][68][69]


There are large numbers of Gujarati Muslims in Dewsbury, Blackburn (including Darwen), Bolton, Preston, Nottingham, Leicester, Nuneaton, Gloucester and London (Newham, Waltham Forest and Hackney).


Turks first began to emigrate in large numbers from the island of Cyprus for work and then again when Turkish Cypriots were forced to leave their homes during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974. Turks then began to come from Turkey for economic reasons. Recently, smaller groups of Turks have begun to immigrate to the United Kingdom from other European countries.[70] In 2011, there was a total of about 500,000 people of Turkish origin in the UK,[71] made up of approximately 150,000 Turkish nationals and about 300,000 Turkish Cypriots.[72] Furthermore, in recent years, there has been a growing number of ethnic Turks with German, or Dutch citizenship immigrating to Britain. Turkish-speaking Muslims have also come to Britain from parts of the Balkans where they make up a large, indigenous ethnic and religious minority dating to the period of Ottoman rule, particularly Bulgaria, the province of East Macedonia and Thrace in Northern Greece, the Republic of Macedonia, and Romania. Although some of these Balkan Turks, like the Pomaks of southern Bulgaria and Northern Greece, are actually the descendants of Ottoman-era converts to Islam, and are therefore sometimes defined as (e.g.) Bulgarian Muslims and Greek Muslims; the vast majority are the descendants of Turkish settlers dating to the early Ottoman period. Even many of those of non-Turkish origin have adopted the Turkish language and identity, through a combination of educational links with Turkey, intermarriage with Turkish Muslims, and assimilation into mainstream Turkish culture. The majority of Turks live in the greater London area.[73]


Aside from North African Arabs, often referred to as Maghrebis (mentioned below), people of Arab origin in Britain are the descendants of Arab immigrants to Britain from a variety of Arab states, including Yemen, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt and Palestine. Most British Arabs are Sunni Muslim, although some – such as those of southern Iraqi and southern Lebanese origin – are Shi'ite. A smaller number belong to one of the Eastern Christian denominations, such as Coptic Orthodox and Maronite or Syriac Orthodox Arabs from the Levant and Egypt. The main Arab Muslim communities in the UK live in the Greater London area, with smaller numbers living in Manchester, Liverpool, and Birmingham. There are also sizable and very long-established communities of Muslim Yemenis in the United Kingdom in among other places Cardiff and the South Shields area near Newcastle.

North African both Berbers & Arabs from the Maghreb (English: western) Although data is scarce, Maghrebis make up a substantial community in Europe and the United Kingdom. Britain has far fewer of Maghrebis than France, The Netherlands or Spain, where the majority of Muslims are Maghrebi.[74]


A 2009 government paper estimated the Nigerian Muslim community as 12,000 to 14,000.[75] The community is concentrated in London.

Nigerian Muslims in the UK are represented by several community organizations including the Nigeria Muslim Forum.[76]


Demographics of British Muslims (JPR), 2017[77]
Non-denominational Sunni
Other Sunni
Other form of Islam

An August 2017 survey by the Bertelsmann Stiftung foundation found that among British Muslims, 75% were Sunni and 8% were Shia.[78] A September 2017 survey by the Institute for Jewish Policy Research (JPR) found that among British Muslims, 77% were Sunni, 5% were Shia, 1% were Ahmadiyya, and 4% were members of other denominations. 14% of British Muslims said they didn't know or refused to answer the survey.[79]


In 2015, The Economist stated that were 2.3 million Sunnis in the UK.[80]

Among British Sunnis in 2017, 66.7% were just non-denominational Sunni, 5.9% were Barelvi, 5.0% were Salafis, 4.1% were Deobandi, and 18.3% adhered to another Sunni Islam denomination.[81]

The majority of British mosques are Sunni, including Deobandi, Barelvis and Salafi. In 2010 the affiliation of the mosques was: 44.6% Deobandi, 28.2% Barelvi and other Sufi, 5.8% Salafi, 2.8% Maudoodi-inspired; of the remainder many were part of other Sunni traditions or unaffiliated, while 4.2% were Shi'a (4%). The majority of mosque managers are of Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin, with many Gujarati, and fewer Arab, Turkish and Somali managed entities.[82]


In 2015, The Economist stated that were 400,000 Shias in the UK.[80]

Shia mosques are usually Twelvers but also cater for Zaydis and the 50,000-strong Ismaili community;[83] they usually include facilities for women. Various Shia mosques include the Husseini Islamic Centre in Stanmore, Harrow which acts as one of the main Shia Muslim mosques in Britain. Others include Al Masjid ul Husseini in Northolt, Ealing, and Imam Khoei Islamic Centre in Queens Park, Brent. Across the country Manchester, Birmingham and London have the most Shia residents.


The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community (AMC) established itself in the UK in 1912 and is thus the longest standing Muslim community in the UK. The UK and worldwide headquarters of the AMC are currently situated on the grounds of 'The London Mosque' (Masjid Fazl), London's first Mosque (1926), in the Southfields area of South-West London. The AMC also has the largest Muslim youth organisation, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Youth Association (Majlis Khuddamul Ahmadiyya) in the UK (membership of 7,500) and the largest Muslim women's organisation, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Women's Association (Lajna Imaila), in the UK (membership of 10,000).[84]


Position in society

Poverty and wealth

According to analysis based on the 2011 census, Muslims in the United Kingdom face poor standards of housing, poorer levels of education and are more vulnerable to long-term illness,[87] and that Muslims in the UK had the highest rate of unemployment, the poorest health, the most disability and fewest educational qualifications among religious groups.[88] The figures were, to some extent, explained by the fact that Muslims were the least well-established group, having the youngest age profile.[88]

Conversely, it was estimated in 2008 that there were approximately 10,000 Muslim millionaires in the UK.[89] There are 13,400 Muslim-owned businesses in London, creating more than 70,000 jobs and representing just over 33 per cent of Small to Medium Enterprises in London.[90]

Law and Order

The proportion of Muslims in the UK prison population rose from 8% in 2002 to 15% in 2016.[91] A 2010 report by the Chief inspector of prisons stated that 30% of the Muslim prisoners interviewed had converted to while in prison, some of whom were "convenience Muslims" who adopted the religion in order to get benefits available only to Muslims.[92]


In 2011, 24.0 per cent of British Muslims had degree level qualifications, compared to 27.2 per cent of the population as a whole.[87] 25.6 per cent of Muslims had no qualifications, compared to the national average of 22.7 per cent.[87] In 2006, it was found that approximately 53% of British Muslim youth chose to attend university.[93] This was higher than the figure for Christians (45%) and the non-religious (32%) but lower than for Hindus (77%) and Sikhs (63%).[93]

There are around 140 Muslim faith schools in the UK, twelve of them being state-funded.[94] In 2008, 86.5% of pupils attending Muslim schools achieved five GCSEs, compared to a figure of 72.8% of Roman Catholic schools and 64.5% of secular schools.[95]

In 2016, Tauheedul Islam Girls' High School in Blackburn with Darwen was ranked first in the Government's new Progress 8 league table, with Tauheedul Islam Boys' High School coming in second place.[96] Some Islamic schools have been accused of promoting extremist versions of Islam.[97]

Islamic scholars and leaders

Several notable Muslim religious leaders and scholars are based in the UK, including:


Muslims are playing an increasingly prominent role in political life.[98] Fifteen Muslim MPs were elected in the June 2017 general election,[99] and there are twelve Muslim peers in the House of Lords (there have historically been about fourteen, starting with Lord Stanley, a peer that lived in the 19th century).

The vast majority of British Muslims vote for the Labour Party,[100] however there are some high-profile Conservative Muslims, including former Minister for Faith and Communities and former Co-Chairman and the Conservative Party Sayeeda Warsi,[101] described by The Guardian as a 'rising star' in the Tory party.[102] The Guardian stated that "The treasury minister is highly regarded on the right and would be the Tories' first Muslim leader." Salma Yaqoob is the former leader of the left-wing Respect Party.[103] Sayeeda Warsi, who was the first Muslim to serve in a British cabinet, was appointed by David Cameron in 2010 as a minister without portfolio. She was made a senior minister of state in 2012. In August 2014 she resigned over the government's approach to the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict.[104]

Muslim political parties in Britain have included the People's Justice Party (UK), a Pakistani and Kashmiri party that won city council seats in Manchester in the 2000s,[105] and the unsuccessful Islamic Party of Britain, an Islamist party in Bradford in the 1990s.[106]


There are several Islamic television channels operating in the UK, including British Muslim TV, Muslim Television Ahmadiyya International (MTA International),[107][108] Ummah Channel,[109] Ahlebait TV, and Fadak.

British Muslims are represented in various media positions across different organisations. Notable examples include Mehdi Hasan, the political editor of the UK version of The Huffington Post[110] and the presenter of Al Jazeera English shows The Café and Head to Head,[111] Mishal Husain, a British news presenter for the BBC, currently appearing on BBC World News and BBC Weekend News, Rageh Omaar, special correspondent with ITV and formerly Senior Foreign Correspondent with the BBC and a reporter/presenter for Al Jazeera English,[112] and Faisal Islam, economics editor and correspondent for Channel 4 News.[113]


According to one survey from 2006, around 81% of Muslims think of themselves as Muslim first. Muslims living in Muslim-majority countries also tend to think of themselves as Muslim first rather than identifying with nation states (for example 87% of Pakistanis identify themselves as Muslim first rather than Pakistani).[114] However around 83% of Muslims are proud to be a British citizen, compared to 79% of the general public, 77% of Muslims strongly identify with Britain while only 50% of the wider population do, 86.4% of Muslims feel they belong in Britain, slightly more than the 85.9% of Christians, 82% of Muslims want to live in diverse and mixed neighbourhoods compared to 63% of non-Muslim Britons.[115] In polls taken across Europe 2006, British Muslims hold the most negative view of westerners out of all Muslims in Europe, whilst overall in Britain 63% of British hold the most favourable view of Muslims out of all the European countries (down from 67% the year before).[116]

On religious issues a poll reported that 36% of 16- to 24-year-olds believe if a Muslim converts to another religion they should be punished by death, compared to 19% of 55+ year old Muslims. A poll reported that 59% of Muslims would prefer to live under British law, compared to 28% who would prefer to live under sharia law. 61% of respondents agreed with the statement that homosexuality is wrong and should be illegal.[117][118][119] This appeared to be borne out by a Gallup poll in 2009 of 500 British Muslims, none of whom believed that homosexuality was morally acceptable.[120] Such polls suggest that British Muslims have strongly conservative views on issues relating to extra-marital and/or homosexual sexual acts compared with their European Muslim counterparts – who are markedly more liberal.[120] However, a poll conducted by Demos in 2011 reported that a greater proportion of Muslims (47% – slightly higher than the 46.5% of Christians who agreed with the statement) than other religions agreed with the statement "I am proud of how Britain treats gay people", with less than 11% disagreeing.[121][122][123] On 18 May 2013, just as the bill to legalise same-sex marriages was being prepared to pass into law, over 400 leading Muslims including head teachers and senior representatives of mosques across the country, published an open letter opposing the bill on the grounds that "Muslim parents will be robbed of their right to raise their children according to their beliefs, as homosexual relationships are taught as something normal to their primary-aged children".[124]

A 2013 survey indicated that immigrants from Muslim countries were perceived as integrating less well into British society than immigrants from other countries were.[125] Another poll revealed that 28% of British Muslims hoped that Britain would one day become an Islamic state, while 52% disagreed, and 20% did not venture an opinion either way.[126]


Although sharia is not part of the British legal system, several British establishment figures have supported its use in areas of dispute resolution in Islamic communities. For example, in February 2008 Rowan Williams the Archbishop of Canterbury (the head of the Church of England) lectured at the Royal Courts of Justice on Islam and English Law.[127] In this lecture he spoke of the possibility of using sharia in some circumstances.

[...] it might be possible to think in terms of [...] a scheme in which individuals retain the liberty to choose the jurisdiction under which they will seek to resolve certain carefully specified matters, so that 'power-holders are forced to compete for the loyalty of their shared constituents'

Several months later, Lord Phillips, then Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales supported the idea that sharia could be reasonably employed as a basis for "mediation or other forms of alternative dispute resolution", and explained that "It is not very radical to advocate embracing sharia law in the context of family disputes, for example, and our system already goes a long way towards accommodating the archbishop's suggestion."[128]

In March 2014, The Law Society issued guidance on how to draft sharia-compliant wills for the network of sharia courts which been established to deal with disputes between Muslim families.[129] The guidance was withdrawn later in 2014 following criticism by solicitors and by Chris Grayling, the Justice Secretary.[130]

During recent years sharia councils have been used increasingly in the UK and there are claims some of them act unfairly to women including legitimizing forced marriages and issuing discriminatory divorces to women. There are claims that some women were victims of inequitable decisions. In 2016, the Home Secretary Theresa May said "There is only one rule of law in our country, which provides rights and security for every citizen." An independent review completed 2018 investigated whether Sharia discriminates against women, also "whether, and to what extent, the application of Sharia law may be incompatible with the law in England and Wales".[131] The review concluded that "there is unanimous agreement among the sharia councils themselves that discriminatory practices do occur in some instances within the councils in England and Wales." [132]

Extremist ideology

In June 2017, Jeremy Corbyn, leader of the Labour Party, said that difficult conversations are needed, starting with Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states that have funded and fuelled extremist ideology.[133][134] Tom Brake, Liberal Democrat, foreign affairs spokesman has said that Saudi Arabia provides funding to hundreds of mosques in the UK, espousing a very hardline Wahhabist interpretation of Islam.[135]

Political scientist Olivier Roy argues that the majority of Islamic terrorists are radicals first and are drawn to fundamentalist Islam as a result,[136] whereas fellow political scientist Gilles Kepel argues that terrorists are radicalized by Salafi ideology before choosing violence.[137] Roy has also argued that the burkini bans and secularist policies of France provoked religious violence in France, to which Kepel responded that Britain has no such policies and still suffered several jihadist attacks in 2017 while there were no major attacks in France.[137]

Some preachers in London’s mosques look for Muslim boys who lack clear direction, and set them on the path to radicalisation and terror.[138]

Henry Jackson Society report

In July 2017, a report by the Henry Jackson Society, which was commissioned by the UK government, said that Middle Eastern nations are providing financial support to mosques and Islamic educational institutions, which have been linked to the spread of extremist material with "an illiberal, bigoted Wahhabi ideology".[139][140] The report said that the number of Salafi and Wahhabi mosques in Britain had increased from 68 in 2007 to 110 in 2014.[141]


The British media has been criticised for propagating negative stereotypes of Muslims and fueling anti-Muslim prejudice.[142] In 2006, British cabinet ministers were criticised for helping to "unleash a public anti-Muslim backlash" by blaming the Muslim community over issues of integration despite a study commissioned by the Home Office on white and Asian-Muslim youths demonstrating otherwise: that Asian-Muslim youths "are in fact the most tolerant of all" and that white British youths "have far more intolerant attitudes," concluding that intolerance from the white British community was a greater "barrier to integration."[143][144] Another survey by Gallup in 2009 also found that the Muslim community feels more patriotic about Britain than the general British population,[145][146] while another survey found that Muslims assert that they support the role of Christianity in British life more so than Christians themselves.[147] A survey by ICM Research found that 52% of the Muslims said they believe homosexuality should be illegal which contrasted with the non-Muslim public at 22%. In January 2010, the British Social Attitudes Survey found that the general British public "is far more likely to hold negative views of Muslims than of any other religious group," with "just one in four" feeling "positively about Islam," and a "majority of the country would be concerned if a mosque was built in their area, while only 15 per cent expressed similar qualms about the opening of a church."[148] The "scapegoating" of Muslims by the media and politicians in the 21st century has been compared in the media to the rise of antisemitism in the early 20th century.[149]

There has also been discrimination by orthodox Sunni Muslims against Ahmadiyya Muslims. In 2014, on the 125 anniversary of the establishment of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, the Community published an advertisement in the Luton on Sunday. Following a written complaint from Dr Fiaz Hussain, co-ordinator of the Preservation of Finality of Prophethood Forum (PFPF), stating that the Ahmadiyya community should not be called "Muslim" because it rejected some of the basic principles of Islam,[150] the paper received a delegation of 'Community Leaders' and shortly afterwards printed an apology disassociating itself from the Ahmadiyya advertisement.[151] Tell MAMA responded by identifying attempts to intimidate or discriminate against Ahmadiyya Muslims "as anti-Muslim in nature".[152] A survey conducted in 2017 revealed widespread opposition to Muslim immigration across UK. 47% are opposed to further Muslim immigration, according to a survey conducted by Chatham House. Furthermore, 55% of Britons believe there is a fundamental clash between Islam and the values of British society, according to a YouGov poll. Various other surveys have also shown that such attitudes amongst all European citizens.[153]


There have been cases of threats,[154] one alleged fatal attack,[155] and non-fatal attacks on Muslims and on Muslim targets, including attacks on Muslim graves[156] and mosques.[157] In January 2010, a report from the University of Exeter's European Muslim Research Centre noted that the number of anti-Muslim hate crimes has increased, ranging from "death threats and murder to persistent low-level assaults, such as spitting and name-calling," for which the media and politicians have been blamed with fueling anti-Muslim hatred.[158][159][160] However, Met Police figures showed an 8.5 per cent fall in anti-Muslim crimes between 2009 and 2012, with a spike in 2013 due to the murder of Lee Rigby.[161]


The emergence of the English Defence League has resulted in demonstrations in English cities with large Muslim populations.[162][163][164][165][166] The EDL is a far-right, anti-Muslim[163][164][167][168][169] street protest movement which opposes what it considers to be a spread of Islamism, Sharia law and Islamic extremism in the United Kingdom.[170][171][172][173][174] The EDL has been described by The Jewish Chronicle as Islamophobic.[175] The group has faced confrontations with various groups, including supporters of Unite Against Fascism (UAF) and Anonymous, of which the latter has also harassed Muslims as well.[176][177][178]

Notable mosques

See also


  1. The Office for National Statistics records "Muhammad" as the twelfth most popular name for baby boys in 2015. "Mohammed" was 29th, "Mohammad" 68th and "Muhammed" 121st. However, according to the ONS all variations are treated separately and ranked as they appear on their birth certificates. "This has been our longstanding approach and it is consistent with international practice."[48]


  1. CT0341_2011 Census - Religion by ethnic group by main language - England and Wales ONS.
  3. "2011 Census: KS209EW Religion, local authorities in England and Wales (Excel sheet 270Kb)" (xls). Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
  4. "Scotland's Census 2011 – National Records of Scotland Table KS209SCa – Religion (UK harmonised)" (PDF). National Records of Scotland. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
  5. "Religion – Full Detail: QS218NI" (xls). Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
  6. "BBC News – Converting to Islam – the white Britons becoming Muslims". BBC News. Archived from the original on 21 February 2012.
  7. 'UK Census: religion by age, ethnicity and country of birth' Archived 6 May 2016 at Wikiwix 16 May 2013, Ami Sedghi, The Guardian
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Further reading

  • Koenig, Matthias. "Incorporating Muslim migrants in Western nation states—a comparison of the United Kingdom, France, and Germany." in Marian Burchardt & Ines Michalowski, eds., After Integration (Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, 2015) pp. 43–58.
  • Lewicki, Aleksandra, and Therese O’Toole. "Acts and practices of citizenship: Muslim women’s activism in the UK. "Ethnic and Racial Studies 40#1 (2017): 152-171.
  • Lewicki, Aleksandra. Social Justice Through Citizenship?: The Politics of Muslim Integration in Germany and Great Britain (Springer, 2014).
  • Lewis, Valerie A., and Ridhi Kashyap. "Piety in a Secular Society: Migration, Religiosity, and Islam in Britain." International Migration 51#3 (2013): 57-66.
  • Model, Suzanne, and Lang Lin. "The cost of not being Christian: Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims in Britain and Canada." International Migration Review 36#4 (2002): 1061-1092.
  • Peach, Ceri, and Richard Gale. "Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs in the new religious landscape of England." Geographical Review 93#4 (2003): 469-490.
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