Inscriptional Pahlavi

Inscriptional Pahlavi
Inscribed stone block from the Paikuli inscription
Type
Languages Middle Iranian languages
Time period
171–38 BC
Parent systems
Aramaic alphabet
Direction Right-to-left
ISO 15924 Phli, 131
Unicode alias
Inscriptional Pahlavi
U+10B60U+10B7F

Inscriptional Pahlavi is the earliest attested form of Pahlavi scripts, and is evident in clay fragments that have been dated to the reign of Mithridates I (r. 171–38 BC). Other early evidence includes the Pahlavi inscriptions of Arsacid era coins and rock inscriptions of Sassanid kings and other notables such as Kartir.


Letters

Inscriptional Pahlavi used 19 non-joining letters:[1][2]

Name[A]ImageTextIPA[3]NameImageTextIPANameImageTextIPA
Aleph𐭠/a/, /ā/Heth𐭧/h/, /x/Samekh𐭮/s/, /h/
Beth𐭡/b/, /w/Teth𐭨/ṭ/Pe𐭯/p/, /b/, /f/
Gimel𐭢/g/, /y/Yodh𐭩/y/, /ē̆/, /ī̆/, /ǰ/Sadhe𐭰/č/, /ǰ/, /z/
Daleth𐭣/d/, /y/Kaph𐭪/k/, /g/Shin𐭱/š/
He𐭤/h/Lamedh𐭫/l/, /r/Taw𐭲/t/, /d/
Waw-ayin-resh𐭥/w/, /ʿ/, /r/Mem-qoph𐭬/m/, /q/
Zayin𐭦/z/Nun𐭭/n/
  1. ^ Letter names are based on the corresponding Imperial Aramaic characters[1]

Numbers

Inscriptional Pahlavi had its own numerals:

Value123410201001000
SignImage
Text 𐭸𐭹𐭺𐭻𐭼𐭽𐭾𐭿

Numbers are written right-to-left. Numbers without corresponding numerals are additive. For example, 24 is written as 𐭽𐭻 (20 + 4).[1]

Unicode

Inscriptional Pahlavi script was added to the Unicode Standard in October, 2009 with the release of version 5.2.

The Unicode block for Inscriptional Pahlavi is U+10B60–U+10B7F:

Inscriptional Pahlavi[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
 0123456789ABCDEF
U+10B6x 𐭠 𐭡 𐭢 𐭣 𐭤 𐭥 𐭦 𐭧 𐭨 𐭩 𐭪 𐭫 𐭬 𐭭 𐭮 𐭯
U+10B7x 𐭰 𐭱 𐭲 𐭸 𐭹 𐭺 𐭻 𐭼 𐭽 𐭾 𐭿
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 11.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

References

  1. 1 2 3 Everson, Michael; Pournader, Roozbeh (2007-08-24). "L2/07-207R: Proposal for encoding the Inscriptional Parthian, Inscriptional Pahlavi, and Psalter Pahlavi scripts in the SMP of the UCS" (PDF).
  2. Livinsky, BA; Guang‐Da, Zhang; Samghabadi, R Shabani; Masson, Vadim Mikhaĭlovich (March 1999), Dani, Ahmad Hasan, ed., History of civilizations of Central Asia, Multiple history, 3. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, p. 89, ISBN 978-81-208-1540-7.
  3. Daniels, Peter T.; Bright, William, eds. (1996). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press, Inc. p. 518. ISBN 978-0195079937.
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