In the United Kingdom the term "inner city" has been used as a euphemism for lower-income residential districts in the city center and nearby areas. Sociologists sometimes turn this euphemism into a formal designation, applying the term "inner city" to such residential areas, rather than to geographically more central commercial districts. Some inner city areas of American cities have undergone gentrification, especially since the 1990s.
- "BBC - Higher Bitesize Geography - Urban : Revision, Page4". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
- "State of Metropolitan America, Part II, "Race and Ethnicity"" (PDF). brookings.edu. p. 62. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 May 2010. Retrieved 7 April 2018. (Brookings Institution) and its analysis in Gurwitt, Rob (July 2008). "Atlanta and the Urban Future". Governing. Retrieved April 5, 2010. — see example in Demographics of Atlanta: Race and ethnicity
- Harrison, P. (1985) Inside the Inner City: Life Under the Cutting Edge. Penguin: Harmondsworth. This book takes Hackney in London as a case study of inner city urban deprivation.