The ISO international standard ISO 9 establishes a system for the transliteration into Latin characters of Cyrillic characters constituting the alphabets of many Slavic and non-Slavic languages.[1]

The major advantage ISO 9 has over other competing systems is its univocal system of one character for one character equivalents (by the use of diacritics), which faithfully represents the original spelling and allows for reverse transliteration, even if the language is unknown.

Earlier versions of the standard, ISO/R 9:1954, ISO/R 9:1968 and ISO 9:1986, were more closely based on the international scholarly system for linguistics (scientific transliteration), but have diverged in favour of unambiguous transliteration over phonemic representation. The edition of 1995 supersedes the edition of 1986.[1]

ISO 9:1995, or GOST 7.79 System A

[2] The standard features three mapping tables: the first covers contemporary Slavic languages, the second older Slavic orthographies (excluding letters from the first), and the third non-Slavic languages (including most letters from the first). Several Cyrillic characters included in ISO 9 are not available as pre-composed characters in Unicode, neither are some of the transliterations; combining diacritical marks have to be used in these cases. Unicode, on the other hand, includes some historic characters that are not dealt with in ISO 9.

The following combined table shows characters for various Slavic, Iranian, Romance, Turkic, Uralic, Mongolic, Caucasian, Tungusic, Paleosiberian and other languages of the former USSR which are written in Cyrillic.

ISO 9:1995, GOST 7.79 System A
Cyrillic Latin Unicode Description
Аа Aa
Ӓӓ Ää 00C400E4 a diaeresis
Ӓ̄ӓ̄ Ạ̈ạ̈ 00C4+032300E4+0323 a diaeresis and dot below
Ӑӑ Ăă 01020103 a breve
А̄а̄ Āā 01000101 a macron
Ӕӕ Ææ 00C600E6 ae ligature
А́а́ Áá 00C100E1 a acute
А̊а̊ Åå 00C500E5 a ring
Бб Bb
Вв Vv
Гг Gg
Ѓѓ Ǵǵ 01F401F5 g acute
Ғғ Ġġ 01200121 g dot
Ҕҕ Ğğ 011E011F g breve
Һһ 1E241E25 h dot
Дд Dd
Ђђ Đđ 01100111 d macron
Ее Ee
Ӗӗ Ĕĕ 01140115 e breve
Ёё Ëë 00CB00EB e diaeresis
Єє Êê 00CA00EA e circumflex
Жж Žž 017D017E z caron
Җҗ Ž̦ž̦ 017D+0326017E+0326 z caron and comma below[3]
Ž̧ž̧ 017D+0327017E+0327 z caron and cedilla[3]
Ӝӝ Z+0304z+0304 z macron
Ӂӂ Z+0306z+0306 z breve
Зз Zz
Ӟӟ Z+0308z+0308 z diaeresis
Ӡӡ Źź 0179017A z acute
Ѕѕ 1E901E91 z circumflex
Ии Ii
Ӣӣ Īī 012A012B i macron
И́и́ Íí 00CD00ED i acute
Ӥӥ Îî 00CE00EE i circumflex
Йй Jj
Іі Ìì 00CC00EC i grave
Її Ïï 00CF00EF i diaeresis
І̄і̄ Ǐǐ 01CF (012C)01D0 (012D) i caron (or breve)
Јј ǰ J+030C01F0 j caron
Ј̵ј̵ J+0301j+0301 j acute
Кк Kk
Ќќ 1E301E31 k acute
Ӄӄ 1E321E33 k dot below
Ҝҝ K+0302k+0302 k circumflex
Ҡҡ Ǩǩ 01E801E9 k caron
Ҟҟ K+0304k+0304 k macron
Ққ K+0326k+0326 k comma below[3]
Ķķ 01360137 k cedilla[3]
К̨к̨ K+0300k+0300 k grave
Ԛԛ Qq
Лл Ll
Љљ L+0302l+0302 l circumflex
Ԡԡ L+0326l+0326 l comma below[3]
Ļļ 013B013C l cedilla[3]
Мм Mm
Нн Nn
Њњ N+0302n+0302 n circumflex
Ңң N+0326n+0326 n comma below[3]
Ņņ 01450146 n cedilla[3]
Ӊӊ 1E461E47 n dot below
Ҥҥ 1E441E45 n dot
Ԋԋ Ǹǹ 01F801F9 n grave
Ԣԣ Ńń 01430144 n acute
Ӈӈ Ňň 01470148 n caron
Н̄н̄ N+0304n+0304 n macron
Оо Oo
Ӧӧ Öö 00D600F6 o diaeresis
Өө Ôô 00D400F4 o circumflex
Ӫӫ Őő 01500151 o double acute
Ӧ̄о̄̈ Ọ̈ọ̈ 00D6+032300F6+0323 o diaeresis and dot below
Ҩҩ Òò 00D200F2 o grave
О́о́ Óó 00D300F3 o acute
О̄о̄ Ōō 014C014D o macron
Œœ Œœ 01520153 oe ligature
Пп Pp
Ҧҧ 1E541E55 p acute
Ԥԥ P+0300p+0300 p grave
Рр Rr
Сс Ss
Ҫҫ Șș 02180219 s comma below[3]
Şş 015E015F s cedilla[3]
С̀с̀ S+0300s+0300 s grave
Тт Tt
Ћћ Ćć 01060107 c acute
Ԏԏ T+0300t+0300 t grave
Т̌т̌ Ťť 01640165 t caron
Ҭҭ Țț 021A021B t comma below[3]
Ţţ 01620163 t cedilla[3]
Уу Uu
Ӱӱ Üü 00DC00FC u diaeresis
Ӯӯ Ūū 016A016B u macron
Ўў Ŭŭ 016C016D u breve
Ӳӳ Űű 01700171 u double acute
У́у́ Úú 00DA00FA u acute
Ӱ̄ӱ̄ Ụ̈ụ̈ 00DC+032300FC+0323 u diaeresis and dot below
Үү Ùù 00D900F9 u grave
Ұұ U+0307u+0307 u dot
Ӱ̄ӱ̄ Ụ̄ụ̄ 016A+0323016B+0323 u macron and dot below
Ԝԝ Ww
Фф Ff
Хх Hh
Ҳҳ H+0326h+0326 h comma below[3]
1E281E29 h cedilla[3]
Цц Cc
Ҵҵ C+0304c+0304 c macron
Џџ D+0302d+0302 d circumflex
Чч Čč 010C010D c caron
Ҷҷ C+0326c+0326 c comma below[3]
Çç 00C700E7 c cedilla[3]
Ӌӌ C+0323c+0323 c dot below
Ӵӵ C+0308c+0308 c diaeresis
Ҹҹ Ĉĉ 01080109 c circumflex
Ч̀ч̀ C+0300c+0300 c grave
Ҽҽ C+0306c+0306 c breve
Ҿҿ C̨̆c̨̆ C+0328+0306c+0328+0306 c ogonek[3] and breve
Шш Šš 01600161 s caron
Щщ Ŝŝ 015C015D s circumflex
Ъъ ʺ 02BA modifier letter double prime[4]
Ыы Yy
Ӹӹ Ÿÿ 017800FF y diaeresis
Ы̄ы̄ Ȳȳ 02320233 y macron
Ьь ʹ 02B9 modifier letter prime[4]
Ээ Èè 00C800E8 e grave
Әә A+030Ba+030B a double acute
Ӛӛ Àà 00C000E0 a grave
Юю Ûû 00DB00FB u circumflex
Ю̄ю̄ Û̄û̄ 00DB+030400FB+0304 u circumflex with macron
Яя Ââ 00C200E2 a circumflex
Ґґ G+0300g+0300 g grave
Ѣѣ Ěě 011A011B e caron
Ѫѫ Ǎǎ 01CD01CE a caron
Ѳѳ F+0300f+0300 f grave
Ѵѵ 1EF21EF3 y grave
Ӏ 2021 double dagger
ʼ ` 0060 spacing grave
ˮ ¨ 00A8 spacing diaeresis


Here is an example transliteration. The text in Cyrillic is the chorus of the hymn of the Russian Federation:

Славься, Отечество наше свободное,
Братских народов союз вековой,
Предками данная мудрость народная!
Славься, страна! Мы гордимся тобой!
Slavʹsâ, Otečestvo naše svobodnoe,
Bratskih narodov soûz vekovoj,
Predkami dannaâ mudrostʹ narodnaâ!
Slavʹsâ, strana! My gordimsâ toboj!

GOST 7.79 System B

[2] GOST 7.79 contains two transliteration tables.

System A
one Cyrillic character to one Latin character, some with diacritics – identical to ISO 9:1995
System B
one Cyrillic character to one or many Latin characters without diacritics
GOST 7.79 System B
Cyrillic Roman Note
Аа Aa
Бб Bb
Вв Vv
Гг Gg
Ѓ/Ґѓ/ґ G`g` ѓ in Macedonian, ґ in Ukrainian
Дд Dd
Ее Ee
Ёё Yoyo in Russian and Belarusian
Єє Yeye in Ukrainian
Жж Zhzh
Зз Zz
Sѕ Z`z` in Macedonian
Ии I, Y`i, y` not in Belarusian, y` for Ukrainian
Й/Јй/ј Jj ј in Macedonian
Іі I, I`i, i` i` only before vowels for Old Russian and Old Bulgarian
Її Yiyi in Ukrainian
Кк Kk
Ќќ K`k` in Macedonian
Лл Ll
Љљ L`l` in Macedonian
Мм Mm
Нн Nn
Њњ N`n` in Macedonian
Оо Oо
Пп Pp
Рр Rr
Сс Ss
Тт Tt
Уу Uu
Ўў U`u` in Belarusian
Фф Ff
Хх Xx
Цц Cz, Ccz, с c before i, e, y, j
Чч Chch
Џџ Dhdh in Macedonian
Шш Shsh
Щщ Shh, Shtshh, sht shh for Russian and Ukrainian, sht for Bulgarian
Ъъ A`a`, `` two grave accents for Russian, a` for Bulgarian
Ыы Y`y` in Russian and Belarusian
Ьь ` grave accent
Ээ E`e` in Russian and Belarusian
Юю Yuyu not in Macedonian
Яя Yaуа not in Macedonian
' apostrophe
Ѣѣ Yeуе in Old Russian and Old Bulgarian
Ѳѳ Fhfh in Old Russian and Old Bulgarian
Ѵѵ Yhyh in Old Russian and Old Bulgarian
Ѫѫ O`о` in Old Bulgarian

This standard (System B) appears to have been used in 2014 for the transliteration of street names on street signs in Moscow; its unusual appearance and non-intuitive sound values gave rise to criticism in the media.[5]

National adoptions

The verbatim translated text of ISO 9 is adopted as an inter-state standard in the countries listed below (the national designation is shown in parentheses). Other transcription schemes are also used in practice, though.


ISO Recommendation No. 9, published 1954 and revised 1968, is an older version of the standard, with different transliteration for different Slavic languages, reflecting their phonemic differences. It is closer to the original international system of slavist scientific transliteration.

The languages covered are Bulgarian, Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Serbian and Macedonian. ISO 9:1995 is shown for comparison.

ISO/R 9:1954, ISO/R 9:1968 and ISO 9:1995
Cyrillic 1954 1968 1995 Note
А а A a A a A a
Б б B b B b B b
В в V v V v V v
Г г G g G g, H h G g h for Belarusian and Ukrainian, g else (see table below)
Ґ ґ Ġ ġ G g G̀ g̀ in Ukrainian
Д д D d D d D d
Ѓ ѓ Ǵ ǵ Ǵ ǵ Ǵ ǵ in Macedonian
Ђ ђ Đ đ Đ đ Đ đ in Serbian
Е е E e E e E e
Ё ё Ë ë Ë ë Ë ë in Russian and Belarusian
Є є Je je Je je Ê ê in Ukrainian
Ж ж Ž ž Ž ž (Zh zh) Ž ž see table below
З з Z z Z z Z z
Ѕ ѕ Dz dz Dz dz Ẑ ẑ in Macedonian
И и I i, Y y I i, Y y I i not in Belarusian, y for Ukrainian, i else (see table below)
I і I i I i, Ī ī Ì ì not in Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian, archaic in Russian (see table below)
Ї ї Ji ji Ï ï Ï ï in Ukrainian
Й й J j J j (Ĭ ĭ) J j not in Serbian and Macedonian (see table below)
Ј ј J j J j J̌ ǰ in Serbian and Macedonian
К к K k K k K k
Л л L l L l L l
Љ љ Lj lj Lj lj L̂ l̂ in Serbian and Macedonian
М м M m M m M m
Н н N n N n N n
Њ њ Nj nj Nj nj N̂ n̂ in Serbian and Macedonian
О о O o O o O o
П п P p P p P p
Р р R r R r R r
С с S s S s S s
Т т T t T t T t
Ќ ќ Ḱ ḱ Ḱ ḱ Ḱ ḱ in Macedonian
Ћ ћ Ć ć Ć ć Ć ć in Serbian
У у U u U u U u
Ў ў Ŭ ŭ Ŭ ŭ Ŭ ŭ in Belarusian
Ф ф F f F f F f
Х х H h Ch ch, H h (Kh kh) H h h for Serbian and Macedonian, ch else (see table below)
Ц ц C c C c (Ts ts) C c see table below
Ч ч Č č Č č (Ch ch) Č č see table below
Џ џ Dž dž Dž dž D̂ d̂ in Serbian and Macedonian
Ш ш Š š Š š (Sh sh) Š š see table below
Щ щ Šč šč, Št št Šč šč, Št št (Shch shch) Ŝ ŝ not in Belarusian, Serbian and Macedonian, št for Bulgarian, šč else (see table below)
Ъ ъ Ă ă, " Ă ă, ʺ ʺ not in Serbian and Macedonian, archaic in Belarusian and Ukrainian, ă for Bulgarian, ʺ else (see table below)
Ы ы Y y Y y Y y Russian and Belarusian
Ь ь ʹ ʹ ʹ not in Serbian and Macedonian
Ѣ ѣ Ě ě Ě ě Ě ě not in Serbian and Macedonian, archaic else
Э э Ė ė Ė ė È è in Russian and Belarusian
Ю ю Ju ju Ju ju (Yu yu) Û û not in Serbian and Macedonian (see table below)
Я я Ja ja Ja ja (Ya ya) Â â not in Serbian and Macedonian (see table below)
", ’ in Belarusian and Ukrainian, archaic in Russian, ’ in Macedonian
Ѫ ѫ Ȧ ȧ Ȧ ȧ, ʺ̣ Ǎ ǎ archaic in Bulgarian (see table below)
Ѳ ѳ Ḟ ḟ Ḟ ḟ F̀ f̀ archaic in Russian
Ѵ ѵ Ẏ ẏ Ẏ ẏ Ỳ ỳ archaic in Russian
ъ and ѫ are not transliterated at the end of a word (where it occurred in the pre-1945 orthography).
Russian and Belarusian
ъ is not transliterated at the end of a word (where it occurred in the pre-1918 orthography).


ISO/R 9:1968 permits some deviations from the main standard. In the table below, they are listed in the columns sub-standard 1 and sub-standard 2.

  • The first sub-standard defines some language-dependent transliterations for Russian (ru), Ukrainian (uk), Belarusian (be) and Bulgarian (bg).
  • The second sub-standard permits, in countries where tradition favours it, a set of alternative transliterations, but only as a group.
Cyrillic ISO/R 9:1968
variant 1 main variant 2
гh (uk, be)g
иy (uk)i
іi (uk, be)ī
хch (uk, be, ru)hkh
щšt (bg)ščshch
ъă (bg)ʺ
ѫȧ (bg)ʺ̣

See also


  1. 1 2 "ISO 9:1995: Information and documentation -- Transliteration of Cyrillic characters into Latin characters -- Slavic and non-Slavic languages". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 13 Apr 2012.
  2. 1 2 ГОСТ 7.79-2000: Система стандартов по информации, библиотечному и издательскому делу. Правила транслитерации кирилловского письма латинским алфавитом [GOST 7.79-2000: System of standards on information, librarianship and publishing. Rules of transliteration of Cyrillic script by Latin alphabet] (in Russian). Retrieved 13 Apr 2012. - authentic Russian version of ISO 9
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 The “informative” Annex A of ISO 9:1995 uses ISO 5426 0x52 hook to left which can be mapped to Unicode’s comma below U+0326 (while the ISO 5426 also has 0x50 cedilla which can be mapped to Unicode’s cedilla U+0327), it also uses ISO 5426 0x53 hook to right which can be mapped to Unicode’s ogonek U+0328. See for example’s ISO 5426 mapping to Unicode or Joan M. Aliprand’s Finalized Mapping between Characters of ISO 5426 and ISO/IEC 10646-1.
  4. 1 2 ISO 5426 mapping to Unicode; Joan M. Aliprand: Finalized Mapping between Characters of ISO 5426 and ISO/IEC 10646-1; The Unicode Standard: Spacing Modifier Letters.
  5. Москва готовится к оккупации, иначе происходящее не объяснить ("Moscow is preparing for occupation - otherwise one can't explain what goes on")
  6. "Система стандартов по информации, библиотечному и издательскому делу (СИБИД), действующих в Республике Беларусь", item 55 (Sistema standartov po informacii, bibliotečnomu i izdatel'skomu delu (SIBID), dejstvuûŝih v Respublike Belarus')
  7. "Kazakhstan adopts new version of Latin-based Kazakh alphabet". The Astana Times. 26 February 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
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