ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO). It contains codes for diseases, signs and symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or diseases.[1] Work on ICD-10 began in 1983, in 1990 it was endorsed by the Forty-third World Health Assembly, and was first used by member states in 1994.[1]

The code set in the base classification allows for more than 14,400 different codes, and permits the tracking of many new diagnoses compared to ICD-9. Through the use of optional sub-classifications[2] the number of codes can be expanded to over 16,000. Some national editions expand the code set even further; ICD-10-CM, for example, has over 70,000 codes.[3]

The WHO provides detailed information about ICD online, and makes available a set of materials online, such as an ICD-10 online browser,[4] ICD-10 Training, ICD-10 online training,[5] ICD-10 online training support,[6] and study guide materials for download.

The International version of ICD is the base classification for the national modifications of ICD. The adapted versions may differ in a number of ways.


The following is a list of ICD-10 codes.[7]

International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision
Chapter Blocks Title
I A00–B99 Certain infectious and parasitic diseases
II C00–D48 Neoplasms
III D50–D89 Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism
IV E00–E90 Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases
V F00–F99 Mental and behavioural disorders
VI G00–G99 Diseases of the nervous system
VII H00–H59 Diseases of the eye and adnexa
VIII H60–H95 Diseases of the ear and mastoid process
IX I00–I99 Diseases of the circulatory system
X J00–J99 Diseases of the respiratory system
XI K00–K93 Diseases of the digestive system
XII L00–L99 Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue
XIII M00–M99 Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
XIV N00–N99 Diseases of the genitourinary system
XV O00–O99 Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium
XVI P00–P96 Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period
XVII Q00–Q99 Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities
XVIII R00–R99 Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified
XIX S00–T98 Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes
XX V01–Y98 External causes of morbidity and mortality
XXI Z00–Z99 Factors influencing health status and contact with health services
XXII U00–U99 Codes for special purposes

National adoptions

Some 27[8][9] countries use ICD-10 for reimbursement and resource allocation in their health system. Some have made modifications to ICD to better accommodate this use of ICD-10. The article below makes reference to some of these modifications. The unchanged international version of ICD-10 is used in about 110 countries for performing cause of death reporting and statistics.

The national versions may differ from the base classification in the level of detail, incomplete adoption of a category,[10] or the addition of procedure codes. For example; the ICD-10 Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) used in the US has some 93,000 codes,[11] compared to the ~16,000 within the international version.


Brazil introduced ICD-10 in 1996.


Canada introduced ICD-10-CA in 2000.[12] Canada implemented ICD-10 in a staggered fashion across nine of the 10 provinces between the years of 2001 and 2004. As data was returned, comparison was undertaken of information classified by ICD-9 and ICD-10, beginning with volumes and length of stay within major diagnostic groups.

The large scale realignment of individual diagnostic and procedural codes demanded close analysis of the impacts to existing indicators of healthcare delivery. Using data reported in 2001 and 2002,the Canadian Institute for Health Information, an independent organization that works with the federal government, tabulated the input. Rigorous statistical analysis was conducted to evaluate the comparability of ICD-9 codes to ICD-10 codes as they pertained to the Canadian version of diagnostic groups, Case Mix Groups (CMGs), which are used in the patient classification system to group together patients with similar characteristics.


China adopted ICD-10 in 2002.[13]

Czech Republic

The Czech Republic adopted ICD-10 in 1994, one year after official release from WHO.[14] The Czech Republic uses the international version without any local modifications. The Czech Republic adopted all updates to the international version (namely in 2004,2010,2011,2012).


France introduced a clinical addendum to ICD-10 in 2005. See also website of the ATIH.


Germany: ICD-10-GM (German Modification)[15]


A Korean modification has existed since 2008.[16]


The Dutch translation of ICD-10 is ICD10-nl, which was created by the WHO-FIC Network in 1994.[17] There is an online dictionary.[18]


The ministry of health of Russia ordered in 1997 to transfer all health organizations to ICD-10.[19]

South Africa

ICD-10 was implemented in July 2005 under the auspice of the National ICD-10 Implementation Task Team which is a joint task team between the National Department of Health and the Council for Medical Schemes.[20]


The current Swedish translation of ICD-10 was created in 1997. A clinical modification has added more detail and omits codes of the international version in the context of clinical use of ICD:

The codes F64.1 (Dual-role transvestism), F64.2 (Gender identity disorder of childhood), F65.0 (Fetishism), F65.1 (Fetishistic transvestism), F65.5 (Sadomasochism), F65.6 (Multiple disorders of sexual preference) are not used in Sweden since 1 January 2009 according to a decision by the present Director General of The National Board of Health and Welfare, Sweden. The code O60.0 (Preterm labor without delivery) is not used in Sweden; instead, since 1 January 2009, the Swedish extension codes to O47 (False labor) are recommended for use.


First published in 1998, the ICD-10-TM (Thai Modification) is a Thai language version of ICD-10. Maintenance and development of ICD-10-TM is the responsibility of the Thai Health Coding Center (THCC), a department of the Thai Ministry of Public Health. The current version of ICD-10-TM is based on the 2016 version of ICD-10. An unusual feature of the index of ICD-10-TM is that it is bilingual, containing both Thai and English trails.[21]

Along with Czechoslovakia and Denmark; Thailand was one of the first adopters of ICD-10 for coding purposes.

United Kingdom

ICD-10 was first mandated for use in the UK in 1995.[22] In 2010 the UK Government made a commitment to update the UK version of ICD-10 every three years.[23] On 1 April 2016, following a year's delay,[23] ICD-10 5th Edition[note 1] replaced the 4th Edition as the mandated diagnostic classification within the UK.[24]

United States

The US has used ICD-10-CM since October 1, 2015.[25] This national variant of ICD-10 was provided by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and the use of ICD-10-CM codes are now mandated for all inpatient medical reporting requirements. There are over 70,000 ICD-10-CM codes, which is up from around 14,000 ICD-9-CM codes.[25]

The use of ICD-10 for coding of death certificates and mortality data was mandated in the United States beginning in 1999.[26]

The deadline for the United States to begin using Clinical Modification ICD-10-CM for diagnosis coding and Procedure Coding System ICD-10-PCS for inpatient hospital procedure coding was set at October 1, 2015,[27][28] which is a year later than a previous 2014 deadline.[29] Before that 2014 deadline, the previous deadline has been a year before that on October 1, 2013.[30][31] All HIPAA "covered entities" were required to make the change; a pre-requisite to ICD-10-CM is the adoption of EDI Version 5010 by January 1, 2012.[32] Enforcement of 5010 transition by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), however, was postponed by CMS until March 31, 2012, with the federal agency citing numerous factors, including slow software upgrades.[33] The implementation of ICD-10-CM has been subject to previous delays. In January 2009, the date was pushed back by two years, to October 1, 2013, rather than an earlier proposal of October 1, 2011.[34]

The US also has the ICD-10 Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS),[35] a coding system that contains 76,000 procedure codes that is not used by other countries.


Two of the most common complaints about the ICD-10-CM are 1) the long list of potentially relevant codes for a given condition (such as rheumatoid arthritis) which can be confusing and reduce efficiency and 2) the seemingly absurd conditions assigned codes (such as W55.22XA: Struck by cow, initial encounter and V91.07XA: Burn due to water-skis on fire, initial encounter).[36][37]

See also


  1. The numbering system of editions only refers to those used in the UK; not those issued by WHO. For example, whilst the 5th edition is based on ICD-10 version:2016, the 4th edition was based on the version from 2010 (skipping the versions of ICD-10 from 2014 and 2015).


  1. 1 2 "International Classification of Diseases (ICD)". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on November 24, 2010.
  2. "ICD-10 Second Edition Volume 2 – World Health Organization, p15" (PDF). Who.int. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  3. "The switch from ICD-9 to ICD-10: When and why". icd.codes. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  4. "ICD-10 Version:2015". apps.who.int. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  5. "ICD-10 Training Tool". apps.who.int. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  6. "ICD-10-online-training". sites.google.com. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  7. "International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision". World Health Organization. 2010. Retrieved February 26, 2010.
  8. "3M Health Information Services: ICD-10 Overview" (PDF). Eastern Ohio Health Information Management Association. 2009. Retrieved Dec 2, 2015.
  9. France, Francis H. Roger (2001). Case Mix: Global Views, Local Actions : Evolution in Twenty Countries. Amsterdam: IOS Press. ISBN 1 58603 217 8.
  10. National Clinical Coding Standards ICD-10 5th Edition (2017). NHS Digital Clinical Classification Services. April 2017. p. 200.
  11. "ICD – ICD-10-CM – International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-02.
  12. ""ICD10-CA"". Ciha.ca. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  13. "Deloitte Center for Health Solutions" (PDF). Deloitte.com. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  14. "Czech Translation of ICD 10" (PDF). Uzis.cz. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  15. "DIMDI - ICD-10-GM". Dimdi.de. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  16. Kim, Sukil (July 18, 2013). "Use of Classifications in Korea" (PDF). Retrieved Oct 10, 2017.
  17. "WHO-Fic". Rivm.nl. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  18. "Browser". class.who-fic.nl.
  19. "Приказ Минздрава РФ от 27.05.97 № 170 (ред. от 12.01.98) "О переходе органов и учреждений здравоохранения Российской Федерации на Международную статистическую классификацию болезней и проблем, связанных со здоровьем X пересмотра"". zakonbase.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2017-02-11.
  20. Council for Medical Schemes (March 2009), South African ICD-10 Coding Standards (PDF), Republic of South Africa Department of Health, Version 3, retrieved 2016-01-24
  21. "ICD10TM2016VOL1_FINAL". thcc.or.th.
  22. "ICD-10 Classification". Archived from the original on 29 April 2016.
  23. 1 2 "SCCI0021: ICD-10 5th Edition: Change Paper" (PDF). Health & Social Care Information Centre. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
  24. "ICD-10 Updates". Health and Social Care Information Centre. Archived from the original on 9 May 2016.
  25. 1 2 "What is ICD | ICD.Codes". ICD.Codes. Retrieved 2015-12-16.
  26. "A guide to state implementation of icd-10 for mortality". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  27. "Senate Approves ICD-10 Delay, 'Doc Fix'". Healthdatamanagement.com. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  28. "H.R. 4302 (Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014)". U.S. Senate. March 31, 2014
  29. "Administrative Simplification: Adoption of a Standard for a Unique Health Plan Identifier; Addition to the National Provider Identifier Requirements; and a Change to the Compliance Date for the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition (ICD–10–CM and ICD–10–PCS) Medical Data Code Sets". Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services{{inconsistent citations}}. 77 FR 54664 of 5 September 2012. 77 FR 60629 of 4 October 2012.
  30. "International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM)". National Center for Health Statistics. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). December 20, 2010.
  31. "Overview ICD-10". Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.
  32. "HIPAA History". hipaajournal.com.
  33. "Physicians Get Grace Period from CMS on HIPAA 5010 Enforcement". Physicians Practice. November 18, 2011
  34. "Feds Delay ICD-10 for Two Years". The Wall Street Journal. January 15, 2009.
  35. CMS Office of Public Affairs (August 15, 2008). "HHS Proposes Adoption of ICD-10 Code Sets and Updated Electronic Transaction Standards" (Press release). U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Archived from the original on September 17, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-22.
  36. "ICD-10: An Ode to Code - The Rheumatologist". The-rheumatologist.org. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  37. Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Kaye, Alan D.; Singh, Vijay; Boswell, Mark V. (2015). "The Tragedy of the Implementation of ICD-10-CM as ICD-10: Is the Cart Before the Horse or Is There a Tragic Paradox of Misinformation and Ignorance?". Pain Physician. 18 (4): E485–495. ISSN 2150-1149. PMID 26218946.
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