Hu was born in Chongqing. She graduated from the Southwest University of Political Science & Law with a degree in philosophy, and joined the Communist Party of China in February 1976. She also has a master's degree in the history of Chinese legal thought. Upon graduating, she served in the Communist Youth League organization at her alma mater, while serving as a teaching assistant and later an instructor. She was eventually promoted to the party chief of her alma mater. She was then promoted to Deputy Minister of Justice. She was then dispatched to Guangdong to become a part of the provincial party standing committee and head of the provincial organization department. In June 2010, she was named the Deputy Procurator-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate (minister-level).
In April 2017, Hu was named Auditor General of the People's Republic of China, succeeding Liu Jiayi, becoming the first female to hold the position.
Hu is an alternate member of the 17th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, and a full member of the 18th and 19th Central Committees.
| Auditor-General of the National Audit Office