|Minister of the Interior, Building and Community|
Assumed office |
14 March 2018
|Preceded by||Thomas de Maizière (Interior)|
|Leader of the Christian Social Union|
Assumed office |
25 October 2008
Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg |
|Preceded by||Erwin Huber|
|President of Germany|
17 February 2012 – 18 March 2012
|Preceded by||Christian Wulff|
|Succeeded by||Joachim Gauck|
|President of the Bundesrat|
1 November 2011 – 31 October 2012
|Preceded by||Hannelore Kraft|
|Succeeded by||Winfried Kretschmann|
|Minister President of Bavaria|
27 October 2008 – 13 March 2018
|Preceded by||Günther Beckstein|
|Succeeded by||Ilse Aigner (Acting)|
|Minister of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection|
22 November 2005 – 27 October 2008
|Preceded by||Renate Künast|
|Succeeded by||Ilse Aigner|
|Minister of Health|
6 May 1992 – 26 October 1998
|Preceded by||Gerda Hasselfeldt|
|Succeeded by||Andrea Fischer|
|Member of the Bundestag|
5 October 1980 – 27 October 2008
|Preceded by||Karl Heinz Gierenstein|
|Succeeded by||Reinhard Brandl|
Horst Lorenz Seehofer|
4 July 1949
|Political party||Christian Social Union|
Horst Lorenz Seehofer (born 4 July 1949) is a German politician serving as Leader of the Christian Social Union (CSU) since 2008 and Minister of the Interior, Building and Community since 2018 under Chancellor Angela Merkel. From 2008 to 2018, he was Minister President of Bavaria; he also served as President of the Bundesrat between 2011 and 2012.
First elected to the Bundestag in 1980, he served as Federal Minister for Health and Social Security from 1992 to 1998 and as Federal Minister of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection in the cabinet of Angela Merkel from 2005 to 2008. In October 2008 he became Leader of the CSU and the 18th Minister President of Bavaria. From 1 November 2011 until 31 October 2012 he served as President of the Bundesrat and ex officio deputy to the President of Germany. Because of that he was Acting President of Germany after the resignation of President Christian Wulff on 17 February 2012 and before the election of Joachim Gauck as Wulff's successor on 18 March 2012.
A staunch opponent of Chancellor Angela Merkel's refugee policy, Seehofer has threatened to file a formal complaint against the Merkel government's refugee policy with Germany's Constitutional Court and is a proponent of a federal cap on the number of refugees the German government is to take in. Seehofer strongly opposes the potential admission of Turkey into the European Union, citing its status as a member of the "Muslim world".
Early life and education
After secondary school, Seehofer started working as civil servant in the local administration in Ingolstadt.
Federal Minister and Member of the Bundestag (1980–2008)
Seehofer served as member of the German federal parliament (Bundestag) from 1980 until 2008.
In 1993, Seehofer ordered that Germany's 117-year-old Federal Health Agency be dissolved following a review of how the government in the 1980s handled the cases of thousands of hemophiliacs who were infected through blood contaminated with HIV. The Health Ministry took over the agency's responsibilities. Also, Seehofer announced that Germany would contribute to an emergency fund for victims of the scandal. In the context of the crisis, he came under considerable pressure to resign.
Seehofer became deputy chairman of the CDU/CSU parliamentary group of the Bundestag in October 1998, which was led at the time by Wolfgang Schäuble. He served as Health Minister Ulla Schmidt's counterpart in negotiating the cross-party healthcare bill of 2003. Because of his disagreement with CDU leader Angela Merkel on flat-rate contributions (Gesundheitsprämie) to the federal health insurance he resigned from his post on 22 November 2004 but remained the deputy chairman of the CSU and kept his mandate. After joining the Bundestag Seehofer kept his mandate as a directly elected delegate (Direktkandidat) from his Constituency Ingolstadt. At the 2005 federal election he received 65.9 percent of the votes in his district.
Seehofer was appointed Federal Minister of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection in the cabinet of Angela Merkel and stayed in office from 2005 to 2008.
Minister President of Bavaria (2008–2018)
After his party lost more than 17% of the popular vote in the Bavarian state elections of 2008, incumbent Minister-President Günther Beckstein and Chairman of the CSU, Erwin Huber, announced their resignations. Seehofer was quickly proposed as their successor. At a party convention on 25 October he was affirmed as the new Chairman of the CSU with 90% of the votes, and on 27 October he was elected Minister-President by the Landtag with votes from the Free Democratic Party, forming the first coalition government in Bavaria since 1962.
During the term 2011–2012, Seehofer served as President of the German Bundesrat. As such, he acted as Acting President of Germany between Christian Wulff's resignation on 17 February 2012 and the election of Joachim Gauck on 18 March 2012.
Under Seehofer's leadership, the State of Bavaria took to the Federal Constitutional Court in 2012 in order to dispute the legality of Germany's post-World War II system of financial redistribution among the country's 16 states. Bavaria, a beneficiary of the system until 1988, had paid more in 2011 than it got out in the 40 years it was a net recipient. The State of Hesse, another per-capita contributor, joined the lawsuit.
Also under Seehofer's leadership, the CSU won an absolute majority in the 2013 state elections, heralding strong momentum for the conservative parties in the federal elections the following week. Together with Angela Merkel and Sigmar Gabriel, he later led the negotiations to form a coalition government on the national level. In late 2013, Seehofer won a record 95.3 percent of the party's votes to continue as chairman.
In early 2015, under pressure from younger rivals, Seehofer announced he would retire at the next state elections in 2018. Later that year, when was chosen the fifth time as leader of the CSU, he received 87.2 percent of the vote, some 8 percent down on the result he achieved in 2013.
In August 2016, Seehofer said he may break with party unity and run a separate campaign in the 2017 national elections, a move widely seen as an effort to keep pressure on Merkel to shift to a more restrictive refugee policy in the European migrant crisis. He also announced to stay on as CSU leader beyond 2018. When the CSU's share of the vote in Bavaria fell 10 percentage points compared with 2013, to below 39 per cent, Seehofer faced demands to resign. On 4 December 2017, he announced to step down as Minister President and not running as leading candidate in the 2018 state elections; instead, he said he would hand over the office to Markus Söder in the first quarter of 2018.
Return to federal cabinet (2018–present)
On 1 March 2018, Seehofer confirmed that he will be in Merkel's cabinet if the SPD party members vote in favour of the coalition. He took over the role of Interior Minister. A policy Seehofer announced is that he has a "master plan for faster asylum procedures, and more consistent deportations." He wants a "zero tolerance" policy toward criminals. On 15 March 2018, Seehoher stated that he disagreed with the belief that the Islamic faith is part of German culture. He noted that certain public holidays correspond to certain church holidays.
In June 2018, Seehofer backed down from a threat to bypass Chancellor Angela Merkel in a disagreement over immigration policy Until she comes back on July 1 during while she attempts to find a solution at European level.
On 1 July 2018, Seehofer offered to resign after rejecting Chancellor Angela Merkel's EU migration deal. On 2 July 2018, however, Seehofer and Merkel announced they had settled their differences and agreed to instead accept a compromise of tighter border control. As a result of the agreement, Seehofer agreed to not resign.
In 2010, remarks made by Seehofer according to which Turkish and Arab migrants were no longer needed in Germany were strongly criticized by the Turkish community and by Chancellor Angela Merkel's government.
In 2011, Seehofer took the debate further when he said those who wanted to stay in Germany should be ready to sign up to German values. He proposed a change to the Bavarian Constitution so that the authorities in the state would be under obligation to help with the integration process but that minorities, too, should be prepared to actively support the integration process.
In late 2015, Seehofer and the CSU sharply criticized Chancellor Angela Merkel's refugee policy, as the party's home turf of Bavaria was the main entry point for refugees and other migrants arriving in Germany. Under pressure from Seehofer and his allies, Merkel later restricted cash benefits for refugees and added Kosovo, Albania and Montenegro to the list of "safe" countries to which migrants can be returned. He repeatedly called on the federal government to set a cap on the number of refugees Germany should be taking in, saying that the country was able to manage only "200,000 applicants [per year] for asylum … at the most." Seehofer later threatened to file a complaint against the government's refugee policy with Germany's Constitutional Court.
In December 2010 and November 2011, Seehofer was the first Minister-President of Bavaria who visited the neighbouring Czech Republic; this was considered an important step in the dispute over the expulsion of the Sudeten Germans after the Second World War. In February 2013, Seehofer received Petr Nečas as the first Czech Prime Minister for an official visit to Bavaria.
In an interview with news magazine Der Spiegel in late 2014, Seehofer warned Germany's foreign minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier and his fellow Social Democrats (SPD) against pursuing a more friendly approach towards Russia in the Ukrainian crisis, arguing that "if Mr. Steinmeier is pursuing his own form of diplomacy alongside the chancellor, that would be highly dangerous." He added that, even within his own party, there was already too much friendly sentiment towards Russia that had to be kept in check. However, in 2015, he held that it would be "Realpolitik" to try to involve Russia in tackling global crises. In early 2016, his joint visit with Edmund Stoiber to Moscow for talks with Russian President Vladimir Putin was met by harsh criticism, even from CDU politicians. By early 2017, Seehofer reiterated his calls to lift the EU sanctions against Russia.
In 2012, Seehofer demanded that the German constitution be changed to permit referendums on decisions to deepen European integration and transfer powers to European institutions. That same year, he criticized International Monetary Fund managing director Christine Lagarde's proposal for measures that would result in a mutualization of Eurozone debt, arguing that shared liability for sovereign debt and a banking union would remove pressure from governments to carry out economic policy changes.
In 2013, Seehofer made Peter Gauweiler a deputy leader of the CSU in a bid to court the party's euro critics; however, Gauweiler quit after two years in protest against the extension of Greece's aid program.
- German Forum for Crime Prevention (DFK), Ex-Officio Member of the Board of Trustees (since 2018)
- Deutsches Museum, Member of the Board of Trustees
- Committee for the preparation of the Reformation anniversary 2017, Member of the Board of Trustees
- Hanns Seidel Foundation, Member of the Board
- Sudetendeutsche Stiftung, Member of the Board of Trustees
- Bayerische Landesstiftung, ex-officio Member of the Board of Trustees (2008–2018)
- Bavarian Research Foundation, ex-officio Member of the Board of Trustees (2008–2018)
- German Energy Agency (DENA), Member of the Supervisory Board (−2008)
- ZDF, Member of the board of directors (2010–2014)
Seehofer is married to Karin Seehofer and resides in the Ingolstadt district of Gerolfing. A father of three, Seehofer failed in a 2007 bid for the CSU leadership when it emerged that he had a daughter born out of wedlock, from an extramarital affair with a much younger staffer of the German Bundestag. After a period of indecision, he opted to return to his wife.
In 2002, Seehofer survived a serious myocarditis. His health again became a subject of public debate when he collapsed during a speech at a party event in early 2015.
- "Germany's Seehofer, Merkel Ally, Elected Bavarian State Premier". Bloomberg. 27 October 2008. Retrieved 2011-07-09.
- Andrea Thomas (20 November 2015), Angela Merkel, CSU’s Horst Seehofer Clash Over German Policy for Migrants Wall Street Journal.
- Michelle Martin (31 January 2016), Bavarian leader defends planned visit to Putin in Moscow Reuters.
- Ruth Bender (14 January 2016), Bavarian Town Protests Merkel’s Refugee Policy With Busload of Migrants Wall Street Journal.
- Judy Dempsey (9 March 2011), Merkel Ally Assails Turkey on Human Rights International Herald Tribune.
- Ben Hall and Chris Bryant (9 April 2009), France and Germany play politics with accession Financial Times.
- Toby Vogel (5 February 2014), Horst Seehofer – Alpha male European Voice.
- German Agency Says It Erred in H.I.V. Case New York Times, 15 October 1993.
- Craig R. Whitney (13 November 1993), Germany to Pay Victims in AIDS Blood Scandal New York Times.
- Stephen Kinzer (5 November 1993), Fear of H.I.V.-Infected Blood Spreads Past German Borders New York Times.
- Bertrand Benoit (17 October 2005), Angela Merkel’s cabinet Financial Times.
- "Bavaria's CSU leader quits after election blow". Reuters. 30 September 2008. Retrieved 2011-07-09.
- "Second CSU leader quits, raising risks for Merkel". Reuters. 1 October 2008. Retrieved 2011-07-09.
- "Bundesratspräsident nimmt Befugnisse des Bundespräsidenten wahr". Bundesrat. 17 February 2012. Archived from the original on 11 August 2013. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
- "President Wulff resigns". The Local. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
- "Staatsoberhaupt Seehofer" (in German). Süddeutsche Zeitung. 18 February 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-20.
- "Horst Seehofer ist kommissarisches Staatsoberhaupt" (in German). Welt Online. 17 February 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-20.
- "Porträt: Seehofer kommissarisches Staatsoberhaupt" (in German). Zeit Online. 17 February 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-20.
- Rainer Buergin (17 July 2012), Bavaria to Challenge Germany’s Postwar System of State Finances Bloomberg Business.
- Joseph de Weck (5 February 2013), Richest German States Challenge System of Paying for Poor Bloomberg Business.
- CSU Triumph: Bavarian Vote Gives Merkel Pre-Election Boost Spiegel Online, 16 September 2013.
- Paul Carrel (30 October 2015), Horst Seehofer: Merkel ally turned menace-in-chief Reuters.
- Stefan Wagstyl (7 October 2015), Bavarian ally proves a thorn in Merkel’s side on refugees Financial Times.
- Bavarian premier Seehofer re-elected CSU party leader Deutsche Welle, 21 November 2015.
- Rainer Buergin (1 August 2016), Merkel’s Bavarian Ally Hints at Snub of Chancellor in 2017 Vote Bloomberg News.
- Joern Poltz and Paul Carrel (24 April 2017), Merkel ally Seehofer staying on for 'difficult' German election Reuters.
- Guy Chazan (27 September 2017), Bavarian party chief faces resignation calls over poll result Financial Times.
- Guy Chazan (4 December 2017), Bavarian PM Horst Seehofer steps down in CSU power struggle Handelsblatt
- Emily Schultheis (4 December 2017), Seehofer to quit as Bavarian premier to end power struggle Politico Europe.
- "CSU's Horst Seehofer confirms he will join Angela Merkel's cabinet". Deutsche Welle. 1 March 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
- "Germany's future interior minister Horst Seehofer vows to increase deportations". Deusche Welle. 11 March 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
- Staudenmaier, Rebecca (16 March 2018). "German Interior Minister Horst Seehofer: 'Islam doesn't belong to Germany'". Deusche Welle. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
- Germany’s Merkel Secures Deal on Migrants, Averts Government Collapse The Wall Street Journal
- Nadine Schmidt and Judith Vonberg (2 July 2018). "Germany's Merkel makes deal with interior minister on migration dispute". CNN International Edition. edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 2018-07-03.
- Judy Dempsey (11 October 2010), German Politician Makes Anti-Immigrant Remarks International Herald Tribune.
- Janosch Delcker (6 January 2016), Merkel and Seehofer play nice, but alliance is under strain Politico Europe.
- Michael Nienaber (22 November 2014), Merkel ally warns SPD against own diplomacy towards Russia Reuters.
- Stefan Wagstyl and Roula Khalaf (26 November 2014), Merkel offers Russia trade talks olive branch Financial Times.
- Nikolaus Blome, Peter Müller, Christian Neef, Ralf Neukirch and Christoph Schult (25 November 2014), Relations at Rock Bottom: Cracks Form in Berlin Over Russia Stance Der Spiegel.
- Arne Delfs (21 November 2015), Merkel's Bavarian Ally Plans Putin Visit in Bid for Global Stage Bloomberg Business.
- Andrea Shalal (28 January 2017), Merkel's Bavarian ally calls for quick end to Russian sanctions Reuters.
- Rainer Buergin (29 June 2012), Lagarde Wrong to Urge Mutualized Debt, Germany’s Seehofer Says Bloomberg Business.
- Rainer Buergin and Patrick Donahue (31 March 2015), German Euro Critic Quits Merkel Caucus in Greece Protest Bloomberg Business.
- 2005 Annual Report KfW.
- Board of Trustees German Forum for Crime Prevention (DFK).
- Marc Hujer (20 February 2014), Family Affair: The Klitschko Brothers' Most Important Fight Der Spiegel.
- Seehofer wird Ehrendoktor in Siebenbürgen Münchner Merkur.
- Seehofer ist jetzt ein chinesischer Professor Abendzeitung, 29 April 2010.
- Weil erhält Orden "Stern von Italien" Die Welt, 12 January 2015.
- Ministerpräsident Weil erhält hohen Orden der Italienischen Republik State Chancellery of Lower Saxony, press release of 12 January 2015.
- Joseph Nasr (19 January 2016), Leader of Merkel's Bavarian allies collapses at party event Reuters.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Horst Seehofer.|
| Minister of Health
| Minister of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection
| Minister President of Bavaria
| President of the Bundesrat
| President of Germany
Thomas de Maizière
as Minister of the Interior
| Minister of the Interior, Building and Community
|Party political offices|
| Leader of the Christian Social Union