Horizontal square script

Horizontal square
Type
Languages Mongolian, Tibetan, Sanskrit
Creator Zanabazar
Time period
unknown
Parent systems
Direction Left-to-right
ISO 15924 Zanb, 339
Unicode alias
Zanabazar Square

[a] The Semitic origin of the Brahmic scripts is not universally agreed upon.

[b] It is believed that The horizontal square script is based upon Tibetan or 'Phags-pa.

The horizontal square script (Mongolian: Хэвтээ Дөрвөлжин бичиг, Khevtee Dörvöljin bichig or Mongolian: Хэвтээ Дөрвөлжин Үсэг, Khevtee Dörvöljin Üseg ) is an abugida developed by the monk and scholar Zanabazar to write Mongolian. It can also be used to write Tibetan and Sanskrit.[1][2]

It was rediscovered in 1801 and the script's applications during the period of its use are not known. It was also largely based on the Tibetan alphabet, read left to right, and employed vowel diacritics above and below the consonant letters.[3]

Letters

Vowels

TypeLetterNameXML entityNote
Vowel𑨀A𑨀
Vowel sign 𑨁I𑨁
𑨂UE𑨂
𑨃U𑨃
𑨄E𑨄
𑨅OE𑨅
𑨆O𑨆
𑨇AI𑨇or '-I'
𑨈AU𑨈or '-U'
𑨉REVERSED I𑨉for Sanskrit
Vowel length mark𑨊VOWEL LENGTH MARK𑨊

Consonants

LetterNameXML entityNote
𑨋KA𑨋
𑨌KHA𑨌
𑨍GA𑨍
𑨎GHA𑨎
𑨏NGA𑨏
𑨐CA𑨐
𑨑CHA𑨑
𑨒JA𑨒
𑨓NYA𑨓
𑨔TTA𑨔
𑨕TTHA𑨕
𑨖DDA𑨖
𑨗DDHA𑨗
𑨘NNA𑨘
𑨙TA𑨙
𑨚THA𑨚
𑨛DA𑨛
𑨜DHA𑨜
𑨝NA𑨝
𑨞PA𑨞
𑨟PHA𑨟
𑨠BA𑨠or instead of non-initial 𑨭 VA
𑨡BHA𑨡
𑨢MA𑨢
𑨣TSA𑨣
𑨤TSHA𑨤
𑨥DZA𑨥
𑨦DZHA𑨦
𑨧ZHA𑨧
𑨨ZA𑨨
𑨩-A𑨩Mongolian AANG, Tibetan A-CHUNG
𑨪YA𑨪
𑨫RA𑨫
𑨬LA𑨬
𑨭VA𑨭
𑨮SHA𑨮
𑨯SSA𑨯
𑨰SA𑨰
𑨱HA𑨱
𑨲KSSA𑨲

Others

TypeLetterNameXML entityNote
Final consonant mark𑨳FINAL CONSONANT MARK𑨳
Virama𑨴VIRAMA𑨴for Sanskrit and Tibetan
Candrabindu𑨵CANDRABINDU𑨵
𑨶CANDRABINDU WITH ORNAMENT𑨶often with 𑨿
𑨷CANDRA WITH ORNAMENT𑨷often with 𑨿
Anusvara𑨸ANUSVARA𑨸for Sanskrit
Visarga𑨹VISARGA𑨹for Sanskrit
Cluster Letter𑨺CLUSTER-INITIAL LETTER RA𑨺for Tibetan, initial form of 𑨫
𑨻CLUSTER-FINAL LETTER YA𑨻for Tibetan, final form of 𑨪
𑨼CLUSTER-FINAL LETTER RA𑨼for Tibetan, final form of 𑨫
𑨽CLUSTER-FINAL LETTER LA𑨽for Tibetan, final form of 𑨬
𑨾CLUSTER-FINAL LETTER VA𑨾for Tibetan, final form of 𑨭
Head Mark𑨿INITIAL HEAD MARK𑨿
𑩀CLOSING HEAD MARK𑩀
Punctuation𑩁MARK TSHEG𑩁
𑩂MARK SHAD𑩂
𑩃MARK DOUBLE SHAD𑩃
𑩄MARK LONG TSHEG𑩄
Head Mark𑩅INITIAL DOUBLE-LINED HEAD MARK𑩅
𑩆DOUBLE-LINED HEAD MARK𑩆
Subjoiner𑩇SUBJOINER𑩇for producing consonant conjuncts

Unicode

"Zanabazar Square" has been included in the Unicode Standard since the release of Unicode version 10.0 in June 2017. The Zanabazar Square block comprises 72 characters.[4]

The Unicode block for Zanabazar Square is U+11A00–U+11A4F:

Zanabazar Square[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
 0123456789ABCDEF
U+11A0x 𑨀 𑨁 𑨂 𑨃 𑨄 𑨅 𑨆 𑨇 𑨈 𑨉 𑨊 𑨋 𑨌 𑨍 𑨎 𑨏
U+11A1x 𑨐 𑨑 𑨒 𑨓 𑨔 𑨕 𑨖 𑨗 𑨘 𑨙 𑨚 𑨛 𑨜 𑨝 𑨞 𑨟
U+11A2x 𑨠 𑨡 𑨢 𑨣 𑨤 𑨥 𑨦 𑨧 𑨨 𑨩 𑨪 𑨫 𑨬 𑨭 𑨮 𑨯
U+11A3x 𑨰 𑨱 𑨲 𑨳 𑨴 𑨵 𑨶 𑨷 𑨸 𑨹  𑨺  𑨻 𑨼 𑨽 𑨾 𑨿
U+11A4x 𑩀 𑩁 𑩂 𑩃 𑩄 𑩅 𑩆  𑩇 
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 11.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Reference

  1. Shagdarsürüng, Tseveliin (2001). ""Study of Mongolian Scripts (Graphic Study or Grammatology). Enl."". Bibliotheca Mongolica: Monograph 1.
  2. Bareja-Starzyńska, Agata; Byambaa Ragchaa (2012). ""Notes on the Pre-existences of the First Khalkha Jetsundampa Zanabazar according to His Biography Written in the Horizontal Square Script."". Rocznik Orientalistyczny 1.
  3. Pandey, Anshuman (2015-12-03). "L2/15-337: Proposal to Encode the Zanabazar Square Script in ISO/IEC 10646" (PDF). ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2.
  4. "Unicode 10.0.0". Unicode Consortium. June 20, 2017. Retrieved June 21, 2017.

See also

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