History and composition
Horchata was originally made in north Africa from soaked, ground and sweetened tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus). This form of horchata is now properly called horchata de chufa or, in West African countries such as Nigeria and Mali, kunnu aya. It spread to Iberia (now Spain) with the Muslim conquest, prior to 1000CE. There are 13th-century records of a horchata-like beverage made near Valencia.
From Valencia, where it remained popular, the concept of Horchata was brought to the New World. Here, drinks called agua de horchata or simply horchata came to be made with white rice and cinnamon or Canella instead of tiger nuts. Sometimes these drinks had vanilla added, or were served adorned with fruit.
Today, these and other similarly-flavoured plant milk beverages are sold in various parts of the world as varieties of horchata or kunnu.
Horchata de chufa or kunnu aya
The drink now known as horchata de chufa (also sometimes called horchata de chufas or, in West African countries such as Nigeria and Mali, kunnu aya) is the original form of horchata. It is made from soaked, ground and sweetened tiger nuts. According to researchers at the University of Ilorin, kunnu made from tiger nuts is an inexpensive source of protein.
It remains popular in Spain, where a regulating council exists to ensure the quality and traceability of the product in relation to the Designation of Origin. There, it is served ice-cold as a natural refreshment in the summer, often served with fartons.. Horchata de chufa is also used instead of dairy milk by the lactose-intolerant.
The majority of the Spanish tiger nut crop is utilised in the production of horchata de chufa. Alboraya is the most important production centre.
In rare instances, various forms of aflatoxin may be present in horchata de chufa.
Horchata de arroz
In Alvarado, horchata de arroz is scented with Súchil flowers.
Though horchata de arroz was once typically homemade, it is now available in both ready-to-drink (shelf-stable or refrigerated) and powdered form in grocery stores, principally in the U.S. and Latin America.
Horchata de ajonjolí
Horchata de ajonjolí ("sesame horchata") is made with ground sesame seeds. In Puerto Rico, it is typically made by boiling sugar, vanilla, and cinnamon sticks in water, and then pouring the infusion over ground sesame seeds to be left overnight. The mixture is then strained through a cheesecloth. Some recipes call for added ground rice, ground almonds, evaporated milk, coconut milk, allspice and rum, or barley and lime zest.
Horchata de melón
Horchata de morro
Horchata de morro can be found in Salvadorean restaurants in the U.S.
Semilla de jicaro
In the Central American countries of El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, and Costa Rica, horchata refers to the drink known as semilla de jicaro, made from the jicaro seeds ground with rice and spices such as ground cocoa, cinnamon, sesame seeds, nutmeg, tiger nuts and vanilla. Ground peanuts, almonds and cashews may be added. Because of these ingredients, the horchata is usually strained before serving.
Horchata as a flavor
Horchata as a flavor makes appearances in ice cream, cookies and other sweets, and other products such as Rumchata, an alcoholic tribute to the beverage. Some smoothie shops, cafés, and McDonald's in the U.S. have been experimenting with horchata-flavored frappes.
The name derives from Valencian orxata, probably from ordiata, made from ordi ("barley" < Latin *hordeata < hordeum). The Italian orzata, the French and English orgeat have the same origin, though the beverages themselves have diverged, and are generally no longer made from barley.
Various false etymologies exist – one legend links the origins of the name to James I of Aragon, who, after being given the drink for the first time by a local in Alboraya, was said to have exclaimed in Valencian, "Açò és or, xata!" ("That's gold, darling!").
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