Holy League (1684)
The Holy League (Latin: Sacra Ligua) of 1684 was an alliance organized by Pope Innocent XI to oppose the Ottoman Empire in the Great Turkish War. The League's initial members were the Papal States, the Holy Roman Empire under Habsburg Emperor Leopold I, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth of John III Sobieski, and the Venetian Republic; the Tsardom of Russia joined the League in 1686. The alliance lasted until the Treaty of Karlowitz brought an end to the war in 1699.
Pope Innocent was aided by Capuchin Friar Marco d'Aviano during the formation of the League, and the Friar was prominent in defending Vienna. The events to the League's creation and the 1683 Battle of Vienna are fictionalized in the film September Eleven 1683.
- "1684: The Holy League of Blessed Pope Innocent XI". History.info. Archived from the original on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
- Roman, Eric (2003). Austria-Hungary & the Successor States: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present (Online-Ausg. ed.). New York: Infobase Pub. p. 587. ISBN 9780816074693.
- John B. Wolf, The Emergence of the Great Powers: 1685-1715 (1951), pp 15-53.
- Nelia Hyndman-Rizk (2012). Pilgrimage in the Age of Globalisation: Constructions of the Sacred and Secular in Late Modernity. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 44. ISBN 9781443839570.