Hoe (food)

Type Raw fish
Place of origin Korea
Associated national cuisine Korean cuisine
Cookbook: Hoe  Media: Hoe
Korean name
Hanja ;
Revised Romanization hoe
McCune–Reischauer hoe
IPA [hwe̞]

Hoe (; 膾/鱠) refers to several varieties of raw food dishes in Korean cuisine.[1]


There are uncooked hoe () as well as blanched sukhoe (숙회).[2][3]


Hoe (), the raw fish or meat dish, can be divided into saengseon-hoe (생선회), filleted raw fish, and yukhoe (육회), sliced raw meat.[4][5] Saengseon-hoe (생선회) can be either hwareo-hoe (활어회) made from freshly killed fish, or seoneo-hoe (선어회) made using aged fish. Mulhoe (물회) is a cold raw fish soup.[6]


Sukhoe (숙회) is a blanched fish, seafood, meat, or vegetable dish. Ganghoe (강회) is a dish of rolled and tied ribbons made with blanched vegetables such as water dropworts and scallions.[7]


Hwareo-hoe (활어회) is prepared by filleting freshly killed fish, while seoneo-hoe (선어회) is made with aged fish in a similar way as Japanese sashimi: removing the blood and innards and ageing the fish at a certain temperature before filleting.[8][9] Fish or seafood hoe is often served with gochujang-based dipping sauces, such as cho-gochujang (chili paste mixed with vinegar) and ssamjang (chili paste mixed with soybean paste). Hoe is often eaten wrapped in ssam (wrap) vegetables, such as lettuce and perilla leaves. After eating hoe at a restaurant, maeun-tang (spicy fish stew) made with the bones, head, and the remaining meat of the fish, can be served as an add-on dish.


Historians assume the tradition of eating hoe was imported from China to Korea early in the Three Kingdoms Period (57 BC-668 AD), facilitated by frequent exchanges between China and Korea on the Korean peninsula. According to the Confucian Analects, written in the 1st century BC, Confucius said, "Do not shun rice that is well clean; do not shun kuai that is thinly sliced" (食不厭精,膾不厭細).[10] While the term kuai () originally referred to finely sliced raw fish or other meats such as beef or lamb, since the Qing and Han Dynasties it has referred mainly to raw fish.

With the popularization of Buddhism in Korea, beginning in the middle of the Three Kingdoms Period, and running late into the Goryeo Dynasty (918–1392), the consumption of fish and other meat products (including hoe) declined. As the influence of Buddhism waned in the late Goryeo Dynasty period, the consumption of hoe began to lose its stigma.

During the Joseon Dynasty, the state promoted Confucianism, and, as Confucius was known to have enjoyed eating raw meat, hoe consumption greatly increased.[11]

Today, the consumption of raw meat or seafood in Chinese cuisine is rare outside of a few regions, such as Chaozhou where dishes such as yusheng are popular.

See also


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