Heights of presidents and presidential candidates of the United States

A record of the heights of the Presidents of the United States and presidential candidates is useful for evaluating what role, if any, height plays in presidential elections. Some observers have noted that the taller of the two major-party candidates tends to prevail, and argue this is due to the public's preference for taller candidates.[1]

The tallest U.S. President was Abraham Lincoln at 6 feet 4 inches (193 centimeters), while the shortest was James Madison at 5 feet 4 inches (163 centimeters).

Donald Trump, the current President, is 6 feet 3 inches (191 centimeters),[2] and Mike Pence, the current Vice-President, is 5 feet 10 inches (178 centimeters).[3]

U.S. Presidents by height order

RankNo.PresidentHeight (in)Height (cm)references
116Abraham Lincoln6 ft 4 in 193 cm[4]
236Lyndon B. Johnson6 ft 3 12 in 192 cm[5][6][7]
345Donald Trump6 ft 3 in 191 cm[2][8]
43Thomas Jefferson6 ft 2 12 in 189 cm[9][10]
51George Washington6 ft 2 in 188 cm[11]
21Chester A. Arthur6 ft 2 in 188 cm[9]
32Franklin D. Roosevelt6 ft 2 in 188 cm[9]
41George H. W. Bush6 ft 2 in 188 cm[9][12]
42Bill Clinton6 ft 2 in 188 cm[9][12][13][14][15][16]
107Andrew Jackson6 ft 1 in 185 cm[9][17]
35John F. Kennedy6 ft 1 in 185 cm [9][18]
40Ronald Reagan6 ft 1 in 185 cm[9]
44Barack Obama6 ft 1 in 185 cm [19][20]
145James Monroe6 ft 0 in 183 cm [9][21]
10John Tyler6 ft 0 in 183 cm [9]
15James Buchanan6 ft 0 in 183 cm [9]
20James A. Garfield6 ft 0 in 183 cm [9]
29Warren G. Harding6 ft 0 in 183 cm [9]
38Gerald Ford6 ft 0 in 183 cm [9][22]
2027William Howard Taft5 ft 11 12 in 182 cm [23]
31Herbert Hoover5 ft 11 12 in 182 cm [24]
37Richard Nixon5 ft 11 12 in 182 cm [9][22]
43George W. Bush5 ft 11 12 in 182 cm [16][25][26][27]
2422, 24Grover Cleveland5 ft 11 in 180 cm [9]
28Woodrow Wilson5 ft 11 in 180 cm [9][28]
2634Dwight D. Eisenhower5 ft 10 12 in 179 cm [9]
2714Franklin Pierce5 ft 10 in 178 cm [9]
17Andrew Johnson5 ft 10 in 178 cm [9]
26Theodore Roosevelt5 ft 10 in 178 cm [9][21]
30Calvin Coolidge5 ft 10 in 178 cm [9]
3139Jimmy Carter5 ft 9 12 in 177 cm [9][22]
3213Millard Fillmore5 ft 9 in 175 cm [9]
33Harry S. Truman5 ft 9 in 175 cm [9]
3419Rutherford B. Hayes5 ft 8 12 in 174 cm [9][29]
359William Henry Harrison5 ft 8 in 173 cm [9]
11James K. Polk5 ft 8 in 173 cm [9][30]
12Zachary Taylor5 ft 8 in 173 cm [9][21]
18Ulysses S. Grant5 ft 8 in 173 cm [31]
396John Quincy Adams5 ft 7 12 in 171 cm [32]
402John Adams5 ft 7 in 170 cm [9][33]
25William McKinley5 ft 7 in 170 cm [9]
428Martin Van Buren5 ft 6 in 168 cm [34]
23Benjamin Harrison5 ft 6 in 168 cm [35]
444James Madison5 ft 4 in 163 cm [9][36]

Electoral success as a function of height

Various folk wisdoms about U.S. presidential politics put forward the view that the taller of the two major-party candidates always wins or almost always wins since the advent of the televised presidential debate.

There is more data if the relationship of electoral success to height difference starts from the year 1900, rather than from the beginning of televised debates. In the twenty-eight presidential elections between 1900 and 2011, eighteen of the winning candidates have been taller than their opponents, while eight have been shorter, and two have been of the same height. On average the winner was 1.0 inch (2.5 cm) taller than the loser.

The claims about taller candidates winning almost all modern presidential elections is still pervasive, however. Examples of such views include:

  • In Ray Bradbury's 1953 dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451, when Mildred and her friends talk about the success of one presidential candidate over the other in a recent election, they talk only about the attractiveness of the winning candidate over the loser. One of their points is "You just don't go running a little short man like that against a tall man."
  • A 1988 article in the Los Angeles Times fashion section about a haberdasher devoted to clothing shorter men included a variation of the tale: "Stern says he just learned that Dukakis is 5 feet, 8 inches. 'Did you know,' he adds, noticeably disappointed, 'that since 1900 the taller of the two candidates always wins?'"[37]
  • A 1997 book called How to Make Anyone Fall in Love with You discusses the issue in a section about the importance of height: "What about height? One assumes the taller the better, because our culture venerates height. In fact, practically every president elected in the United States since 1900 was the taller of the two candidates."[38]
  • A chapter titled "Epistemology at the Core of Postmodernism" in the 2002 book Telling the Truth: Evangelizing Postmodernisms makes this observation: "I remember the subversive effect the observation had on me that in every U.S. presidential race, the taller of the two candidates had been elected. It opened up space for a counterdiscourse to the presumed rationality of the electoral process."[39]
  • A 1975 book called First Impressions: The Psychology of Encountering Others notes: "Elevator Shoes, Anyone? One factor which has a far-reaching influence on how people are perceived, at least in American society, is height. From 1900 to 1968 the man elected U.S. president was always the taller of the two candidates. (Richard Nixon was slightly shorter than George McGovern.)"[40]
  • A 1978 book titled The Psychology of Person Identification states: "They also say that every President of the USA elected since the turn of the [20th] century has been the taller of the two candidates (Jimmy Carter being an exception)."[41]
  • A 1999 book, Survival of the Prettiest by Nancy Etcoff, repeated a version of the legend in a section on the power of heights: "...Since 1776 only [two Presidents,] James Madison and Benjamin Harrison[,] have been below-average height. The easiest way to predict the winner in a United States election is to bet on the taller man: in this century you would have had an unbroken string of hits until 1972 when Richard Nixon beat George McGovern."[42]

A comparison of the heights of the winning presidential candidate with the losing candidate from each election since 1789 is provided below to evaluate such views.

Comparative table of heights of United States presidential candidates

  Taller candidate was elected   Shorter candidate was elected 
  Winner and opponent were of the same height  Comparison data unavailable 
ElectionWinner
in Electoral College
HeightMain opponent(s)
during election
HeightDifference
2016Donald Trump[2]6 ft 3 in 191 cm Hillary Clinton*[43]5 ft 5 in 165 cm10 in26 cm
2012Barack Obama6 ft 1 in 185 cmMitt Romney[44]6 ft 1 12 in 187 cm½ in2 cm
2008Barack Obama6 ft 1 in 185 cmJohn McCain[45]5 ft 9 in 175 cm4 in10 cm
2004George W. Bush5 ft 11 12 in 182 cmJohn Kerry[22]6 ft 4 in 193 cm4½ in11 cm
2000George W. Bush5 ft 11 12 in 182 cmAl Gore*[12][46]6 ft 1 in 185 cm1½ in3 cm
1996Bill Clinton6 ft 2 in 188 cmBob Dole[47]6 ft 1 12 in 187 cm½ in1 cm
1992Bill Clinton6 ft 2 in 188 cmGeorge H.W. Bush6 ft 2 in 188 cm0 in0 cm
1988George H.W. Bush6 ft 2 in 188 cmMichael Dukakis[48]5 ft 8 in 173 cm6 in15 cm
1984Ronald Reagan6 ft 1 in 185 cmWalter Mondale[12]5 ft 11 in 180 cm2 in5 cm
1980Ronald Reagan6 ft 1 in 185 cmJimmy Carter5 ft 9 12 in 177 cm3½ in8 cm
1976Jimmy Carter5 ft 9 12 in 177 cmGerald Ford6 ft 0 in 183 cm2½ in6 cm
1972Richard Nixon5 ft 11 12 in 182 cmGeorge McGovern[22][49]6 ft 1 in 185 cm1½ in3 cm
1968Richard Nixon5 ft 11 12 in 182 cmHubert Humphrey[49]5 ft 11 in 180 cm½ in2 cm
1964Lyndon B. Johnson6 ft 3 12 in 192 cmBarry Goldwater[49]5 ft 11 in 180 cm4½ in12 cm
1960John F. Kennedy6 ft 1 in 185 cmRichard Nixon5 ft 11 12 in 182 cm1½ in3 cm
1956Dwight D. Eisenhower5 ft 10 12 in 179 cmAdlai Stevenson II[49]5 ft 10 in 178 cm½ in1 cm
1952Dwight D. Eisenhower5 ft 10 12 in 179 cmAdlai Stevenson II5 ft 10 in 178 cm½ in1 cm
1948Harry S. Truman5 ft 9 in 175 cmThomas Dewey[48][49]5 ft 8 in 173 cm1 in2 cm
1944Franklin D. Roosevelt6 ft 2 in 188 cmThomas Dewey5 ft 8 in 173 cm6 in15 cm
1940Franklin D. Roosevelt6 ft 2 in 188 cmWendell Willkie[49][50]6 ft 2 12 in 189 cm½ in1 cm
1936Franklin D. Roosevelt6 ft 2 in 188 cmAlfred Landon[49]5 ft 11 in 180 cm3 in8 cm
1932Franklin D. Roosevelt6 ft 2 in 188 cmHerbert Hoover5 ft 11 12 in 182 cm2½ in6 cm
1928Herbert Hoover5 ft 11 12 in 182 cmAl Smith[49]5 ft 11 in 180 cm½ in2 cm
1924Calvin Coolidge5 ft 10 in 178 cmJohn W. Davis[49]5 ft 11 in 180 cm1 in2 cm
1920Warren G. Harding6 ft 0 in 183 cmJames M. Cox[51]5 ft 6 in 168 cm6 in15 cm
1916Woodrow Wilson5 ft 11 in 180 cmCharles Evans Hughes[49]5 ft 10 in 178 cm1 in2 cm
1912Woodrow Wilson5 ft 11 in 180 cmWilliam Howard Taft
Theodore Roosevelt
5 ft 11 12 in
5 ft 10 in
182 cm
178 cm
½ in
1 in
2 cm
2 cm
1908William Howard Taft5 ft 11 12 in 182 cmWilliam Jennings Bryan[52][53][54][55]5 ft 11 in 180 cm½ in2 cm
1904Theodore Roosevelt5 ft 10 in 178 cmAlton B. Parker[49]5 ft 9 in 175 cm1 in3 cm
1900William McKinley5 ft 7 in 170 cmWilliam Jennings Bryan5 ft 11 in 180 cm4 in10 cm
1896William McKinley5 ft 7 in 170 cmWilliam Jennings Bryan5 ft 11 in 180 cm4 in10 cm
1892Grover Cleveland5 ft 11 in 180 cmBenjamin Harrison5 ft 6 in 168 cm5 in12 cm
1888Benjamin Harrison5 ft 6 in 168 cmGrover Cleveland*5 ft 11 in 180 cm5 in12 cm
1884Grover Cleveland5 ft 11 in 180 cmJames G. Blaine[56]5 ft 11 in 180 cm0 in0 cm
1880James A. Garfield6 ft 0 in 183 cmWinfield Hancock[57]6 ft 1 12 in 187 cm1½ in4 cm
1876Rutherford B. Hayes5 ft 8 12 in 174 cmSamuel Tilden*[58]5 ft 10 in 178 cm1½ in4 cm
1872Ulysses S. Grant5 ft 8 in 173 cmHorace Greeley[59]5 ft 10 in 178 cm2 in5 cm
1868Ulysses S. Grant5 ft 8 in 173 cmHoratio Seymour   
1864Abraham Lincoln6 ft 4 in 193 cmGeorge B. McClellan[60]5 ft 8 in 173 cm8 in20 cm
1860Abraham Lincoln6 ft 4 in 193 cmJohn C. Breckinridge[61]
Stephen A. Douglas[62]
6 ft 2 in
5 ft 4 in
188 cm
163 cm
2 in
12 in
5 cm
30 cm
1856James Buchanan6 ft 0 in 183 cmMillard Fillmore
John C. Frémont[63]
5 ft 9 in
5 ft 9 in
175 cm
175 cm
3 in
3 in
8 cm
8 cm
1852Franklin Pierce5 ft 10 in 178 cmWinfield Scott[64]6 ft 5 in 196 cm7 in18 cm
1848Zachary Taylor5 ft 8 in 173 cmLewis Cass[65]5 ft 8 12 in 174 cm½ in1 cm
1844James K. Polk5 ft 8 in 173 cmHenry Clay[66]6 ft 1 in 185 cm5 in12 cm
1840William Henry Harrison5 ft 8 in 173 cmMartin Van Buren5 ft 6 in 168 cm2 in5 cm
1836Martin Van Buren5 ft 6 in 168 cmHugh Lawson White[67]
William Henry Harrison
5 ft 11 in
5 ft 8 in
180 cm
173 cm
5 in
2 in
12 cm
5 cm
1832Andrew Jackson6 ft 1 in 185 cmHenry Clay6 ft 1 in 185 cm0 in0 cm
1828Andrew Jackson6 ft 1 in 185 cmJohn Quincy Adams5 ft 7 12 in 171 cm5½ in14 cm
1824John Quincy Adams5 ft 7 12 in 171 cmWilliam H. Crawford[68][69]
Andrew Jackson**
Henry Clay
6 ft 3 in
6 ft 1 in
6 ft 1 in
191 cm
185 cm
185 cm
7½ in
5½ in
5½ in
20 cm
14 cm
14 cm
1820James Monroe6 ft 0 in 183 cm     
1816James Monroe6 ft 0 in 183 cmRufus King    
1812James Madison5 ft 4 in 163 cmDeWitt Clinton[70]6 ft 3 in 191 cm11 in28 cm
1808James Madison5 ft 4 in 163 cmCharles C. Pinckney5 ft 9 in 175 cm5 in12 cm
1804Thomas Jefferson6 ft 2 12 in 189 cmCharles C. Pinckney5 ft 9 in 175 cm5½ in14 cm
1800Thomas Jefferson6 ft 2 12 in 189 cmJohn Adams5 ft 7 in 170 cm7½ in19 cm
1796John Adams5 ft 7 in 170 cmThomas Jefferson6 ft 2 12 in 189 cm7½ in19 cm
1792George Washington6 ft 2 in 188 cm     
1789George Washington6 ft 2 in 188 cm     

Notes:

* Lost the electoral vote, but received more popular votes

** Lost the House of Representatives vote, but received the most popular votes and a plurality of electoral votes; however, not the majority needed to win.

† Ran unopposed

Extremes

The tallest president elected to office was Abraham Lincoln (6 ft 3 34 in or 192.4 cm). Portrait artist Francis Bicknell Carpenter supplies the information for Lincoln:

Mr. Lincoln's height was six feet three and three-quarter inches "in his stocking-feet." He stood up one day, at the right of my large canvas, while I marked his exact height upon it.[4]

A disputed theory holds that Lincoln's height is the result of the genetic condition multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b (MEN2B); see medical and mental health of Abraham Lincoln.[71]

Only slightly shorter than Lincoln was Lyndon B. Johnson (6 ft 3 12 in or 192 cm), the tallest President who originally entered office without being elected directly. The shortest President elected to office was James Madison (5 ft 4 in or 163 cm); the shortest President to originally enter the office by means other than election is tied between Millard Fillmore and Harry S. Truman (both were 5 ft 9 in or 175 cm).

The tallest unsuccessful presidential candidate (who is also the tallest of all presidential candidates) is Winfield Scott, who stood at 6 ft 5 in (196 cm) and lost the 1852 election to Franklin Pierce, who stood at 5 ft 10 in (178 cm). The second tallest unsuccessful candidate is John Kerry, at 6 ft 4 in (193 cm). The shortest unsuccessful presidential candidate is Stephen A. Douglas, at 5 ft 4 in (163 cm). The next shortest is Hillary Clinton, who lost the 2016 election and is 5 ft 5 in (165 cm).

The largest height difference between two presidential candidates (out of the candidates whose heights are known) was in the 1860 election, when Abraham Lincoln stood 12 inches (30 cm) taller than opponent Stephen A. Douglas. The second-largest difference was in the 1812 election, with De Witt Clinton standing 11 inches (28 cm) taller than incumbent James Madison. The 2016 election between Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton has the third largest difference at 10 inches (25 cm), and is notable for being the first time two candidates from major parties are of different genders.

Notes

  1. As some examples, USA TODAY listed height among six criteria for predicting who would win the 2004 election; a Washington Post blog Archived July 29, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. noted the significance of height in physical appearance and its effect on voters. See the discussion of this phenomenon later in the article for further examples.
  2. 1 2 3 Producer, Kevin Liptak, CNN White House. "White House doctor: 'No concerns' about Trump's cognitive ability".
  3. Flores, Reena (September 17, 2016). "Mike Pence releases doctor's note on medical records". CBS News. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
  4. 1 2 Carpenter, Francis B. (1866). Six Months in the White House: The Story of a Picture. Hurd and Houghton. p. 217.
  5. Dallek, Robert (1998). Flawed Giant: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1961–1973. Oxford University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0195054651.
  6. Caro, Robert (1982). The Years of Lyndon Johnson: The Path to Power. New York: Knopf. p. 146. ISBN 978-0394499734.
  7. Dallek, Robert (2003). An Unfinished Life: John F. Kennedy. Little, Brown, and Co. p. 354.
  8. Gabbatt, Adam (January 17, 2018). "A tall tale? Accuracy of Trump's medical report – and new height – questioned". the Guardian. Retrieved August 5, 2018.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Kane, Joseph (1994). Facts about the Presidents: A Compilation of Biographical and Historical Information. New York: H. W. Wilson. pp. 344–45. ISBN 0-8242-0845-5.
  10. Macdonald, Zanne (July 1992). "Physical Descriptions of Thomas Jefferson". Monticello Report. Monticello Research Department. Archived from the original on July 13, 2009. Retrieved May 17, 2009.
  11. Various sources have put Washington's height between 6 ft and 6 ft 3 in. See: Chernow, Ron, Washington: A Life, 2010, The Penguin Press HC ISBN 1-59420-266-4; Wilson, Woodrow, George Washington, 2004, Cosimo, Inc., p. 111; Alden, John Richard, George Washington: A Biography, 1984, Louisiana State University Press, p. 11; Lodge, Henry Cabot, George Washington, Vol. I, 2007, The Echo Library, p. 30; Haworth, Paul Leland, George Washington, Kessinger Publishing, 2004, p. 119; Thayer, William Roscoe, George Washington, 1931, Plain Label Books, p. 65
  12. 1 2 3 4 Page, Susan (June 23, 2004). "Time-tested formulas suggest both Bush and Kerry will win on Nov. 2". USA TODAY. Retrieved May 13, 2009.
  13. Sommers, Paul M. (January 2002). "Is Presidential Greatness Related to Height?". The College Mathematics Journal. 33 (1): 14–16. doi:10.2307/1558973.
  14. Sedghi, Ami (October 18, 2011). "Statesmen and stature: how tall are our world leaders?". The Guardian.
  15. Mathews, Jay (August 3, 1999). "The Shrinking Field". The Washington Post.
  16. 1 2 "Presidential Height Index". The Height Site. Archived from the original on August 23, 2012. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
  17. Remini, Robert V., Andrew Jackson, HarperCollins, 1969, p. 15. ISBN 0-06-080132-8
  18. Hendriks, Steven (2017). "JFK Presidential Library". The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved April 19, 2009.
  19. Office of the Press Secretary (February 28, 2010). "Release of the President's Medical Exam" (PDF). The White House. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 25, 2010. Retrieved March 1, 2010.
  20. Mann, Simon (March 2, 2010). "Fit for duty: Obama gets clean bill of health". Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Digital. Retrieved March 1, 2010.
  21. 1 2 3 Whitcomb, John and Claire Whitcomb, Real Life at the White House, Routledge (UK), 2002. ISBN 0-415-93951-8
  22. 1 2 3 4 5 Tossey, Lisa D. (2004). "Is presidential race a simple matter of standing tall?". The Pendulum Online. Retrieved April 19, 2009.
  23. Sotos, John G. Taft and Pickwick: sleep apnea in the White House. Chest. 2003;124:1133-1142.Online copy
  24. Nash, George H. (1988). The Life of Herbert Hoover. W.W. Norton & Company. p. 365.
  25. "Report on President Bush's Physical Examination". New York Times. August 2, 2006.
  26. "Medical History Summary: President George W. Bush". FindLaw. August 7, 2007. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
  27. Scott, David (October 18, 2011). "GOP Debate: Does height matter in presidential politics?". The Christian Science Monitor.
  28. Levin, Phyllis Lee, Edith & Woodrow: the Wilson White House, New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001. ISBN 0-7432-1158-8 Google Print
  29. Davison, Kenneth E (1972). The Presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, Inc. p. 69. ISBN 0-8371-6275-0.
  30. Behrman, Carol H.James K. Polk, Twenty-First Century Books, 2004. ISBN 0-8225-1396-X
  31. King, Charles, The True Ulysses Grant, Philadelphia & London, J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1914.Google Print
  32. Levy, Debbie,John Quincy Adams, Twenty-First Century Books, 2004, p. 28. ISBN 0-8225-0825-7
  33. Ferling, John E., John Adams: A Life, Owl Books, 1996, ISBN 0-8050-4576-7, p. 169.Google Print
  34. Widmer, Ted and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Edward L. Widmer, Martin Van Buren, Times Books, 2005, p. 2. ISBN 0-8050-6922-4
  35. Loderhouse, Gary and Nelson Price, William Addison Hunter, Legendary Hoosiers: Famous Folks from the State of Indiana, Emmis Books, 1999. ISBN 1-57860-097-9 Google Print
  36. Phillips, Louis, Ask Me Anything About the Presidents, HarperCollins, 1992. ISBN 0-380-76426-1
  37. Los Angeles Times, March 25, 1988, pg. 7
  38. Lowndes, Leil, How to Make Anyone Fall in Love with You, McGraw-Hill Professional, 1997, pp.174-175. ISBN 0-8092-2989-7 Google Print
  39. Telling the Truth: Evangelizing Postmoderns, edited by D.A. Carson, Zondervan, 2002, p. 83. ISBN 0-310-24334-3 Google Print
  40. Kleinke, Chris L., First Impressions: The Psychology of Encountering Others, Prentice-Hall, 1975, p. 13. ISBN 0-13-318428-5 Google Print
  41. Clifford, Brian R. and Ray Bull, The Psychology of Person Identification, Routledge & K. Paul, 1978, p. 115. ISBN 0-7100-8867-1. Print
  42. Etcoff, Nancy, Survival of the Prettiest, New York, Anchor Books, 1999. ISBN 0-385-47942-5
  43. Mathews, Jay (September 24, 2015). "Is Hillary Clinton getting taller? Or is the Internet getting dumber?". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  44. "Obama and Romney Stack Up on BMI, Physical Fitness, and More". Huffington Post. November 6, 2012. p. 7. Archived from the original on October 27, 2012. Retrieved February 6, 2012. height: 6'1.5, weight: 184 lbs, BMI: 23.9
  45. "John McCain Medical Records" (PDF). The Washington Post. May 23, 2008. p. 7. Retrieved February 23, 2009. height: 175.3 CM, weight: 78.93 KG, BMI: 25.68
  46. "The Shrinking Field". The Washington Post. August 3, 1999. Retrieved April 27, 2009.
  47. The Washington Post listed Dole at 6'2"/1.88 m, USA TODAY listed him at 6'1"/1.85 m
  48. 1 2 Dowd, Maureen (June 21, 1992). "Where They Stand". The New York Times. Retrieved May 13, 2009.
  49. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Gillis, John S. (1982). Too Tall, Too Small. Champaign, Illinois: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Inc. p. 20. ISBN 0-918296-15-3.
  50. "Wendell Willkie". imdb.com. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
  51. Morris, Charles E. (1920). Progressive Democracy of James M. Cox. The Bobbs-Merrill Company. p. 9.
  52. Gillis, Too Tall, Too Small, p. 20. Lists his height as 5 ft 10 in (178 cm).
  53. Edwards, Rebecca; DeFeo, Sarah (2000). "William Jennings Bryan". 1896: The Presidential Campaign. Vassar College. Retrieved April 20, 2009. Lists his height as 5 ft 10 in (178 cm).
  54. Wilson, Charles Morrow (1970). The Commoner: William Jennings Bryan. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday. p. 40. Lists his height as 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) during his second year in college.
  55. Springen, Donald K. (1991). William Jennings Bryan: Orator of Small-Town America. Greenwood Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-313-25977-1. Lists his height as 6 ft 0 in (183 cm).
  56. Records of his height have been difficult to obtain. In one biography, he was described as "just under six feet in height". While not a definitive record of his height, this description does allow us to presume he was at least comparable in height to Cleveland. See Crawford, Thomas Clark (1893). James G. Blaine: A Study of his Life and Career, from the Standpoint of a Personal Witness of the Principal Events in his History. Edgewood Publishing Co. p. 26. Retrieved June 26, 2009.
  57. Jordan, David M. (1988). Winfield Scott Hancock: A Soldier's Life. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-253-36580-5.
  58. Bigelow, John (1895). The Life of Samuel Tilden (vol. 1). New York: Harper and Brothers. p. 283.
  59. Stoddart, Henry Luther (1946). Horace Greeley: Printer, Editor, Crusader. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. p. 38.
  60. Eckenrode, Hamilton James; Bryan Conrad (1941). George B. McClellan, the man who saved the Union. University of North Carolina Press. p. 2. Retrieved June 26, 2009.
  61. Davis, William C. (1974). Breckinridge: Statesman, Soldier, Symbol. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-8071-0068-4.
  62. Johanssen, Robert W. (1973). Stephen A. Douglas. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 4.
  63. Life of John Charles Fremont. New York: Greeley & McElrath. 1856. p. 31. Retrieved July 6, 2009.
  64. Heidler, David Stephen (2004). Encyclopedia of the War of 1812. Naval Institute Press. p. 464. ISBN 1-59114-362-4. Retrieved May 17, 2009.
  65. According to Cass's biography, he was "about five foot eight or nine inches". See Woodford, Frank B. (1950). Lewis Cass: The Last Jeffersonian. New Brunswick and New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. p. 32.
  66. Seymour, Chas C. B. (1858). Self-made men. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 137. Retrieved July 6, 2009.
  67. Scott, Nancy N. (1856). A Memoir of Hugh Lawson White, Judge of the Supreme Court of Tennessee, Member of the Senate of the United States, etc., etc. Michigan: J. B. Lippincott & Co. p. 243. Retrieved June 25, 2009.
  68. Mooney, Chase Curran (1974). William H. Crawford, 1772-1834. Michigan: University of Kentucky Press. p. 7. ISBN 0-8131-1270-2. Retrieved June 25, 2009.
  69. One biography of Crawford describes his stature as being "considerably over six feet". See Butler, Benjamin F. (1824). Sketches of the Life and Character of William H. Crawford. Albany: Packard and Benthuysen. p. 35.
  70. Cornog, Evan, The Birth of Empire: DeWitt Clinton and the American Experience, 1769-1828, ISBN 0-19-514051-6
  71. Sotos, John G. (2008). The Physical Lincoln. Mt. Vernon Book Systems. ISBN 978-0-9818193-2-7.

References

  • Kane, Joseph (1993). Facts about the Presidents: A Compilation of Biographical and Historical Information. New York: H. W. Wilson. ISBN 0-8242-0845-5. 
  • Sommers, Paul M. (January 2002). "Is Presidential Greatness Related to Height?". The College Mathematics Journal. 33 (1): 1416. doi:10.2307/1558973. 
  • Gillis, John S. (1982). Too Tall, Too Small. Champaign, Illinois: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Inc. ISBN 0-918296-15-3. 
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