Hard Rock Stadium

Hard Rock Stadium
Exterior, August 2017
Former names Joe Robbie Stadium
Pro Player Park
Pro Player Stadium
Dolphins Stadium
Dolphin Stadium
Land Shark Stadium
Dolphin Stadium
Sun Life Stadium
New Miami Stadium
Address 347 Don Shula Drive
Location Miami Gardens, Florida
Coordinates 25°57′29″N 80°14′20″W / 25.95806°N 80.23889°W / 25.95806; -80.23889Coordinates: 25°57′29″N 80°14′20″W / 25.95806°N 80.23889°W / 25.95806; -80.23889
Parking 26,718 cars
Owner South Florida Stadium, LLC
(a subsidiary of the Miami Dolphins)[2]
Capacity 64,767 (Football)[3][4]
Record attendance 80,120
(2013 BCS National Championship Game)
Surface Platinum TE Paspalum
Broke ground December 1, 1985
Opened August 16, 1987
Construction cost US$115 million
($248 million in 2017 dollars[5])
Architect Populous (then HOK Sport); HOK (2016 renovation)
Project manager George A. Fuller Company[6]
Structural engineer Bliss & Nyitray Inc.
Services engineer Blum Consulting Engineers
General contractor Huber, Hunt & Nichols[7]
Miami Dolphins (NFL) (1987–present)
Russell Athletic Bowl (NCAA) (1990–2000)
Miami Marlins (MLB) (1993–2011)
Orange Bowl (NCAA) (1996–present)
Florida Atlantic Owls (NCAA) (2001–2002)
Miami Hurricanes (NCAA) (2008–present)
Miami Open (tennis) (2019–)

Hard Rock Stadium is a multipurpose football stadium located in Miami Gardens, Florida, a city north of Miami. It is the home stadium of the Miami Dolphins of the National Football League (NFL). Hard Rock Stadium also plays host to the Miami Hurricanes football team during their regular season. The facility also hosts the Orange Bowl, an annual college football bowl game. It was the home to the Florida Marlins of Major League Baseball (MLB) from 1993 to 2011.

The stadium has hosted five Super Bowls (XXIII, XXIX, XXXIII, XLI and XLIV), the 2010 Pro Bowl,[8] two World Series (1997 and 2003), four BCS National Championship Games (2001, 2005, 2009, 2013), the second round of the 2009 World Baseball Classic, and WrestleMania XXVIII. The stadium will host Super Bowl LIV in 2020[9] and the College Football Playoff National Championship in 2021.[10]

Starting in 2019, the stadium will host the Miami Open tennis tournament, played in March.

The facility opened in 1987 as Joe Robbie Stadium and has been known by a number of names since: Pro Player Park, Pro Player Stadium, Dolphins Stadium, Dolphin Stadium, Land Shark Stadium, and Sun Life Stadium. Its current naming rights are owned by Hard Rock Cafe International.

History and facts

Conception and construction

For their first 21 seasons, the Miami Dolphins played at the Orange Bowl. Joe Robbie, the team's founder, led the financing campaign to build a new home for the team. He believed it was only a matter of time before a Major League Baseball team came to South Florida. At his request, the stadium was built so only minimal renovations would be necessary to ready it for a baseball team. Most notably, the field was made somewhat wider than is normally the case for an NFL stadium. The wide field also made it fairly easy to convert the stadium for soccer.

Because of this design decision, the first row of seats was 90 ft (27 m) from the sideline in a football configuration, considerably more distant than the first row of seats in most football stadiums (the closest seats at the new Soldier Field, for instance, are 55 ft (17 m) from the sideline at the 50-yard line). This resulted in a less intimate venue for football compared to other football facilities built around this time, as well as to the Orange Bowl.

At the time it opened in 1987, the stadium was located in an unincorporated area within Miami-Dade County, and had a Miami address. Miami Gardens was incorporated on May 13, 2003.[11]


The first preseason game for the Dolphins was played on August 16, 1987 against the Chicago Bears. The first regular season game was scheduled for September 27, a week 3 game against the New York Giants; this game was canceled and not made up due to the 1987 players strike. The first regular season NFL game played there was a 42–0 Dolphins victory over the Kansas City Chiefs on October 11, 1987. The game was in the middle of the 1987 NFL strike, and was played with replacement players. The first game with union players was on October 25 of that year, a 34-31 overtime loss to the Buffalo Bills. The stadium hosted its first Monday Night Football game on December 7 of that year, a 37–28 Dolphins victory over the New York Jets.

The Dolphins have played eight playoff games in the stadium, including the 1992 AFC Championship Game, which the team lost to the Buffalo Bills, 29–10. The Dolphins are 5–3 in playoff games held here, losing the most recent one in January 2009, against the Baltimore Ravens.

The team is unbeaten here against the Minnesota Vikings (3–0), Los Angeles/San Diego Chargers (7–0), Los Angeles/St. Louis Rams (4–0), and Washington Redskins (4–0); they are winless here against the Dallas Cowboys (0–3) and New York Giants (0–3). The Chargers are 0-8 overall in the stadium, also losing Super Bowl XXIX to the San Francisco 49ers.

The Marlins move in

In 1990, Wayne Huizenga purchased 50% of then-Joe Robbie Stadium and became the point man in the drive to bring Major League Baseball (MLB) to South Florida. That effort was rewarded in July 1991, when the Miami area was awarded an MLB expansion franchise. The new team was named the Florida Marlins, and placed in the National League. On January 24, 1994, Huizenga acquired the remaining 50% of the stadium to give him 100% ownership. Since 1991, several million dollars have been spent to upgrade and renovate the stadium.

The first Marlins game played at then-Joe Robbie Stadium was on April 5, 1993, a 6–3 victory over the Los Angeles Dodgers.

Renovations and configurations

After Huizenga bought part of the stadium, it was extensively renovated to accommodate a baseball team, as part of his successful bid to bring baseball to South Florida. Purists initially feared the result would be similar to Exhibition Stadium in Toronto; when the Toronto Blue Jays played there from 1977 to 1989, they were burdened with seats that were so far from the field (over 800 feet in some cases) that they weren't even sold during the regular season. However, Robbie had foreseen Miami would be a likely location for a new or relocated MLB team, and the stadium was designed to make any necessary renovations for baseball as seamless as possible.

Aside from baseball renovations, the stadium underwent some permanent renovations. In April 2006, the stadium unveiled two Daktronics large video boards, the largest in professional sports at the time.[12] The east display measured 50 ft (15 m) high by 140 ft (43 m) wide, and the west end zone display measured 50 ft (15 m) high by 100 ft (30 m) wide. A new 2,118-foot (646 m)-long LED ribbon board, again the largest in the world at the time, was also installed. These have since been surpassed in size.[12]

In addition, the upgrades included vastly widened 40,000-square-foot (3,700 m2) concourses on the stadium's north and south sides. Bars, lounges and other amenities were also added. The renovation had three phases, with the second and third phases of renovation taking place after the Marlins left the stadium. These remaining phases included adding a roof to shield fans from the rain, which caused the relocation of the video boards to the top corners of the upper deck, as well as remodeling the sidelines of the lower bowl to narrow the field and bring seats closer, ending its convertibility to baseball. The orange colored seats were also replaced with teal colored ones.[13]

The stadium contains 10,209 club seats and 216 suites. When the Marlins played at the stadium, 2,400 of the club seats and 216 suites were available.

A privately funded $350 million stadium renovation project began in January 2015. The project plan allowed the stadium to be used for football games during the 2015 season and was completed for the 2016 football season.[14] Stadium upgrades included video boards in each corner of the stadium, additional suites, and an open-air canopy over the main seating areas.[15] As part of the renovation, the stadium's seating capacity was reduced from 75,000 to 65,000 seats. Personal seat licenses were not used, and a preview center opened at the stadium in February 2015 to help current and prospective season ticket holders select their ticket packages. Luxury packages were used in place of PSL revenue to help finance the stadium. Thirty-two four-seat pods were installed located in the lower bowl at the south 30-yard lines, with an additional 16 pods at the south end zone.[16] The pods feature a living room arrangement, including premium furniture and television screens that show the NFL RedZone channel and NFL programming.[17]

Seating capacity

Permanent seating

The 65,326 permanent seats for football and soccer configurations break down as follows: For the general 19" seats with chair back and armrests, there are 27,397 in the lower deck and 34,736 in the upper deck. There are 10,209 of the bigger club 21" seats with chair back and armrests. In the 193 executive suites with 10, 12, 16, 20, and 24 seats, there are a total of 3,198. There are also 300 seating locations for disabled persons, 150 seats for working press, and 10 radio/TV booths.[18]


The parking around the stadium takes up 140 acres, featuring parking for 24,137 cars, 171 buses, 90 RVs, 85 limousines, and one helipad on site.[18] The parking fee was $30 per car/truck/SUV for the 2013 and 2014 seasons. $40 per car/truck/suv for 2017 yellow section.

Notable events


The stadium has played host to five Super Bowls (1989, 1995, 1999, 2007, and 2010). There has been a kickoff return for a touchdown in each Super Bowl played at the stadium, except in the most recent game. The stadium also hosted the 2010 Pro Bowl.

The 2007 Super Bowl at Dolphin Stadium—when Indianapolis defeated Chicago 29–17—was marred by heavy rains. An estimated 30% of the lower-level seating was empty during the second half.[19]

In 2010, the NFL threatened to take the stadium out of further consideration for a Super Bowl or Pro Bowl unless significant renovations were made. One of the upgrades desired was a roof to protect fans from the elements. In 2012, the Dolphins scrapped plans for pitching a $200-million hotel tax proposal that would have included a partial stadium roof.

In 2016, an open-air canopy was constructed that protects the seating bowl from the elements. The canopy however, does have a football-field sized hole in the middle, and thus does not protect the playing field itself from rain. The renovations were completed by the first Miami Dolphins pre-season home game in September 2016. Previously, since the field runs east–west (rather than north–south as is the case in most other stadiums), the north stands were exposed to the full force of South Florida's oppressive heat early in the season. The issue became so problematic that Stephen Ross, who owns the Dolphins and the stadium, successfully petitioned the NFL to have all September home games start at 4 pm. Although the heat gave the Dolphins a substantial home-field advantage against opponents unaccustomed to the sweltering heat, Ross was willing to give that up in order to ensure a more comfortable environment for fans.[20]

Date Super Bowl Team (Visitor) Points Team (Home) Points Spectators
January 22, 1989XXIIICincinnati Bengals16San Francisco 49ers2075,597
January 29, 1995XXIXSan Diego Chargers26San Francisco 49ers4974,107
January 31, 1999XXXIIIDenver Broncos34Atlanta Falcons1974,803
February 4, 2007XLIIndianapolis Colts29Chicago Bears1774,512
February 7, 2010XLIVNew Orleans Saints31Indianapolis Colts1774,059


The stadium has hosted both the 2009 BCS National Championship Game and the 2013 BCS National Championship Game.[21] The 2013 game between Alabama and Notre Dame set a new attendance record for the facility, with 80,120 on hand to witness Alabama's third BCS Championship in four seasons.[22]

The stadium has hosted the Miami Hurricanes beginning in 2008. The stadium was the home field for the Florida Atlantic Owls (2001–2002).

Between 1990 and 2000, the stadium hosted a bowl game variously known as the Blockbuster Bowl, CarQuest Bowl, and MicronPC Bowl. After 2000, that bowl was moved to Orlando, where it eventually became known as the Russell Athletic Bowl.

The stadium has been the site of the Orange Bowl game since 1996, except for the January 1999 contest between Florida and Syracuse, which had to be moved due to a conflict with a Dolphins playoff game.

Until 2008, the stadium was host (in even numbered years) to the annual Shula Bowl, a game played between the Florida Atlantic University Owls and the Florida International University Panthers, when the game was hosted by FAU as the home team (FIU hosts the game at its own stadium, Riccardo Silva Stadium, every other year). In 2010, the game was moved to Fort Lauderdale's Lockhart Stadium, and in 2011 the Owls opened FAU Stadium on its Boca Raton campus, and started hosting the Shula Bowl there biennially in 2012.

In 2017 it was announced that the stadium would host the 2021 College Football Playoff National Championship game.

WrestleMania XXVIII

On February 9, 2011, The Miami Herald announced that Miami had won the right to host WrestleMania in 2012.[23] WWE later officially announced the event in a press conference held at the Fontainebleau Miami Beach.[24] WrestleMania XXVIII was the second Wrestlemania event that was hosted in the state of Florida, the fourth open-air event, and the third event to be held entirely outdoors.[23] For hosting the event, WWE received a $250,000 cash incentive from the Miami-Dade Sports Commission raised through grants and sponsorships.

The event, which took place on April 1, 2012, drew a record 78,363 fans in attendance. Also, at the time, the event set a new record for the highest-grossing live event in WWE history, grossing $8.9 million.[25]

The crowd witnessed the end of an era as The Undertaker defeated Triple H in a Hell in a Cell match, with WWE Hall of Famer Shawn Michaels as special guest referee. Also, CM Punk retained the WWE Championship against Chris Jericho. Miami native The Rock defeated John Cena in the 'Once in a Lifetime' main event set one year in advance but, they would face each other again at Wrestlemania 29 for the WWE World Heavyweight Championship WrestleMania XXVIII earnered 1,217,000 buys,[26] making it at the time, the most purchased wrestling event in history, surpassing WrestleMania 23's buyrate of approximately 1.2 million, with global gross sales in excess of $67 million.[27]


Two National League Division Series have been played at the stadium:

Two National League Championship Series have been played at Hard Rock Stadium:

Two World Series have been played at Hard Rock Stadium:

When the Marlins began play in 1993, baseball capacity was initially reduced to 47,662, with most of the upper level covered with a tarp. In addition to Huizenga's desire to create a more intimate atmosphere for baseball, most of the seats in the upper level would have been too far from the field to be of any use during the regular season. The stadium's baseball capacity was further reduced over the years, and finally settled at 38,560 seats. However, the Marlins would usually open the entire upper level for the postseason. In the 1997 World Series, the Marlins played before crowds of over 67,000 fans, some of the highest postseason attendance figures in MLB history, only exceeded by Cleveland Stadium, home of the Cleveland Indians during the 1948 and 1954 World Series, old Yankee Stadium prior to its mid 1970s renovation, and the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, the temporary home of the Los Angeles Dodgers (before Dodger Stadium was opened) in the 1959 World Series.

Although it was designed from the ground up to accommodate baseball, it was never a true multipurpose stadium. Rather, it was built as a football stadium that could convert into a baseball stadium. Most of the seats in the baseball configuration were pointed toward center field – where the 50-yard line would have been in the football configuration. As a result, even with the reduced capacity, the sight lines for baseball left much to be desired. This was particularly evident during the Marlins' World Series appearances in 1997 and 2003. Some portions of left and center field were not part of the football playing field, and fans sitting in the left field upper-deck seats were unable to see these areas except on the replay boards. Even with the reduced capacity, during years the Marlins were not contending, they often drew crowds of 5,000 or fewer—a total that looked even smaller due to the spacious environment.

The stadium was notorious for its poor playing conditions. The lights were not located in optimal positions for baseball visibility. During August and September, when the Dolphins (and later, the Hurricanes) shared the stadium, the field conditions were, according to both Marlins and visiting players, among the worst in the majors. Indeed, several Marlins players said that at times, they "couldn't wait to go on the road." Visiting teams hated coming to the stadium as well. For instance, when the Atlanta Braves came to the stadium for the last time in 2011, Dan Uggla, who played for the Marlins from 2006 to 2010, said that he was probably the only Brave who was going to miss it.[28][29][30] The stadium's problems as a baseball venue became even more stark as time wore on, as the Marlins' tenure in the stadium coincided with a wave of new, baseball-only parks. When the Marlins began play in 1993, the stadium was one of 14 that hosted both a Major League Baseball team and a professional football team. But by the time the Marlins left the stadium, it was one of only three in the majors (and the only National League stadium) that played host to both a baseball team and an NFL or CFL team. The others were the Oakland Coliseum and Toronto's Rogers Centre.

For most of the Marlins' tenure at the stadium, it was the hottest stadium in the major leagues. The Marlins played nearly all of their home games from late May through mid-September at night due to South Florida's often oppressive heat and humidity. They also got waivers from MLB and ESPN to play on Sunday nights.

The stadium was the venue where Mark McGwire hit his NL-record 57th home run to best Hack Wilson's 68-year-old record of 56 in 1998. Ken Griffey Jr. hit his 600th career home run off Mark Hendrickson of the Marlins on June 9, 2008; and where Roy Halladay of the Philadelphia Phillies pitched the 20th perfect game in Major League Baseball history on May 29, 2010, against the Marlins.


Date Performer(s) Opening act(s) Tour/Event Attendance Revenue Notes
July 3, 1988Rod Stewart
Hall & Oates
John Day and Full CircleHappy Birthday America '8840,000
July 30, 1989The WhoThe Who Tour 198954,339 / 54,339$1,222,628
April 14, 1990Paul McCartneyThe Paul McCartney World Tour95,410 / 95,410$2,862,300
April 15, 1990
August 12, 1990New Kids on the BlockThe Magic Summer Tour60,000 / 60,000
December 31, 1991Guns N' RosesUse Your Illusion Tour
May 16, 1992GenesisWe Can't Dance Tour
July 4, 1992Chicago
September 26, 1992Crosby, Stills & Nash
October 3, 1992U2Big Audio Dynamite II
Public Enemy
Zoo TV Tour45,244 / 46,000$1,289,454
March 30, 1994Pink FloydThe Division Bell Tour54,738 / 54,738$1,975,665
November 25, 1994The Rolling StonesBryan Adams
Blind Melon
Lenny Kravitz
Voodoo Lounge Tour55,935 / 55,935$2,574,810Special Guest Michael Hutchence.
April 13, 1995Billy Joel
Elton John
Face to Face 1995103,694 / 103,694$4,385,725
April 14, 1995
March 8, 1997The Three TenorsThe Three Tenors World Tour
November 14, 1997U2Smash MouthPopMart Tour42,778 / 44,500$2,158,988
July 10, 2007The PoliceMaroon 5
Fiction Plane
The Police Reunion Tour46,105 / 46,105$5,094,870
November 26, 2008[31]MadonnaPaul OakenfoldSticky & Sweet Tour47,998 / 47,998$6,137,030Timbaland and Pharrell Williams were the special guests onstage.
April 3, 2010[32]Paul McCartneyUp and Coming Tour35,784 / 35,784$4,325,859
June 29, 2011[33]U2Florence and the MachineU2 360° Tour72,569 / 72,569$6,799,670The concert was originally scheduled to take place on July 9, 2010, but then it was postponed due to Bono's back surgery.
November 23, 2011The Black Eyed PeasSean Kingston
Jason Derulo
CeeLo Green
Queen Latifah
The Beginning
August 16, 2013[34]Justin Timberlake
DJ CassidyLegends of the Summer46,366 / 46,366$5,350,175
June 25, 2014Beyoncé
On the Run Tour49,980 / 49,980$5,450,026
October 5, 2014One Direction5 Seconds of SummerWhere We Are Tour53,914 / 53,914$4,303,749
June 11, 2017U2OneRepublicThe Joshua Tree Tour 201748,494 / 48,494$5,923,665
July 7, 2017MetallicaAvenged Sevenfold
WorldWired Tour32,168 / 45,433$3,163,523
August 28, 2017ColdplayAlunaGeorge
Izzy Bizu
A Head Full of Dreams Tour47,866 / 47,866$6,446,966
August 18, 2018Taylor SwiftCamila Cabello
Charli XCX
Taylor Swift's Reputation Stadium Tour47,818 / 47,818$7,072,164Highest grossing concert in the stadium to date.
August 31, 2018Beyoncé
Chloe X Halle and DJ KhaledOn the Run II TourTBATBA


A number of soccer matches have been held in the stadium, including a number of international friendlies featuring Central or South American sides. (This is due to South Florida being home to one of the largest populations of Central and South Americans in the United States.)

The stadium hosted a match between FC Barcelona and C.D. Guadalajara on August 3, 2011, as part of the 2011 World Football Challenge. Guadalajara won the match, 4–1, in front of 70,080 attendees.[35]

Colombia beat Mexico, 2–0, in a friendly international in front of 51,615 spectators at the stadium on February 29, 2012. A year later they beat Guatemala, 4–1.

A.C. Milan and Chelsea faced each other at the stadium on July 28, 2012. A.C. Milan won the match, 1–0, in front of 57,748 fans.[36]

Brazil beat Honduras, 5–0, in a friendly match in front of 71,124 spectators on November 16, 2013. The attendance was the highest for a soccer match at the stadium.[37]

England played Ecuador and Honduras at the New Miami Stadium on June 4 and 7, 2014, respectively.[38]

South Korea played against Ghana on June 9, 2014.

On September 5, 2014, two months after a heavy defeat to Germany in the World Cup, Brazil beat Colombia, 1–0, in front of an announced attendance of 73,429 fans, a new attendance record for a soccer match at the stadium.

The 2014 International Champions Cup preseason final was held at New Miami Stadium with Manchester United defeating Liverpool 3–1 on August 4, 2014 to claim the tournament's second title.

Two 2017 International Champions Cup preseason matches were played at the Hard Rock, one of them the El Clásico between Barcelona and Real Madrid. Barcelona won 3–2 in the second El Clásico to take place outside of Spain. 66,014 people, above current capacity, attended the match.[39]

On March 23, 2018 the international friendly PeruCroatia was played at the stadium, which Peru won 2–0.[40]

Date Team (Visitor) Goals Team (Home) Goals Spectators
August 3, 2011FC Barcelona1Guadalajara470,080
February 29, 2012 Colombia2 Mexico051,615
July 28, 2012A.C. Milan1Chelsea057,748
August 6, 2013Juventus1Inter Milan138,513
November 16, 2013 Brazil5 Honduras071,124
June 4, 2014 England2 Ecuador221,534
June 9, 2014 Ghana4 South Korea05,000
August 4, 2014Manchester United3Liverpool151,014
September 5, 2014 Brazil1 Colombia073,429
July 26, 2017Paris Saint-Germain2Juventus344,444
July 29, 2017FC Barcelona3Real Madrid266,014
March 23, 2018 Peru2 Croatia060,000
July 28, 2018Bayern Munich2Manchester City329,195
July 31, 2018Manchester United2Real Madrid164,141
September 7, 2018 Colombia VenezuelaTBD
October 12, 2018 Peru ChileTBD

Monster Jam

The monster truck touring series Monster Jam used to go to the stadium every year. The last show performed there was in 2015, and in 2018 the shows moved to Marlins Park. In 2012, the show was filmed and shown on SPEED Channel.

Year Date Racing Winner Freestyle Winner
2002 January 26 Gunslinger El Toro Loco
2003 January 25 El Toro Loco Grave Digger
2004 January 24 MADUSA Grave Digger
2005 February 5 Grave Digger El Toro Loco/Grave Digger (tie)
2006 February 4 Gunslinger Blue Thunder
2007 February 17 El Toro Loco Grave Digger
2008 February 2 Blue Thunder Grave Digger
2009 January 31 Stone Crusher Grave Digger
2010 February 20 Gunslinger Maximum Destruction
2011 February 12 Mohawk Warrior Grave Digger
2012 February 11 Bounty Hunter Advance Auto Parts Grinder
2013 February 9 Bounty Hunter Grave Digger
2014 February 8 Grave Digger The Legend El Toro Loco
2015 January 3 Grave Digger The Legend Grave Digger The Legend
2016 No Show (Stadium Renovations)
2017 No Show (Unknown Reasoning)
2018 No Show (Moved to Marlins Park)

In film

Movies have also been shot there, most notably Ace Ventura: Pet Detective, which starred Jim Carrey and featured Dolphins great Dan Marino as himself; Marley and Me, starring Owen Wilson and Jennifer Aniston; and the Oliver Stone-directed Any Given Sunday, starring Al Pacino.

Other events

Other events held at the stadium have included international soccer games, Hoop-It-Up Basketball, RV and boat shows, the UniverSoul Circus, Australian rules football exhibition matches (including two Victorian Football League (VFL) post-season exhibitions) and numerous trade shows. It has also hosted religious gatherings.

In 2006, it hosted the High School State Football Championships, sanctioned by the Florida High School Athletic Association (FHSAA).

Naming rights

The stadium has gone through many name changes, bringing up a question of the value of corporate naming rights.[41]

During the planning and building phase of the stadium, the stadium was referred to as Dolphin Stadium. The stadium was named after Joe Robbie, the original and then-owner of the Miami Dolphins and stadium in 1987, when it opened. In the early 1990s, Wayne Huizenga gained control of the stadium. Huizenga first sold the naming rights to Pro Player, the sports apparel division of Fruit of the Loom, and Joe Robbie Stadium became Pro Player Park on August 26, 1996. After the Dolphins opened the 1996 season at Pro Player Park, the stadium was renamed again to Pro Player Stadium before the Dolphins returned home in Week 3. The Marlins’ 1996 season was played under three different names, having started the year under the Joe Robbie name.

Fruit of the Loom filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in 1999, and the Pro Player brand was ultimately liquidated in 2001, but the stadium name held for several more years. In January 2005, the Pro Player name was replaced with Dolphins Stadium, coinciding with a renovation of the stadium. Dolphins was changed to Dolphin in April 2006, in an update of graphics and logos.[42]

From February 2008 through January 2009, Stephen M. Ross gradually acquired 95% of the stadium and surrounding land. He then partnered with Jimmy Buffett to change the name once more, this time to Land Shark Stadium after a beer brewed for Buffett's Margaritaville restaurant chain. The renaming was announced on May 8, 2009, but would last less than a year as the deal did not include rights for the upcoming 2010 Pro Bowl and Super Bowl XLIV.[43]

On January 20, 2010, Canadian-based financial services company Sun Life Financial announced that it had acquired the naming rights.[44] Sun Life Financial announced in 2012, that it will be exiting the U.S. annuity business and focusing on its employee benefits business in the U.S.[45] On August 14, 2015, the Dolphins told the Miami Herald that Sun Life's deal would expire in January 2016 and that the team had no plans to renew, wanting to position their renovated stadium as a brand new entity. The team also stated that they would remove Sun Life's signage upon expiration of the deal, regardless of their ability to find a replacement sponsor before then. During renovations, it was known as the New Miami Stadium.[46]

On August 17, 2016, the Dolphins announced that the naming rights had been sold to Hard Rock Cafe International, and that the stadium would be renamed Hard Rock Stadium.[47][48][49] The new name was notably ridiculed by fans of the Florida State Seminoles, as the Seminole Tribe of Florida are the owners of the Hard Rock Cafe chain, but the stadium is the home field of their rivals, the University of Miami Hurricanes.[50]

Name Duration
Joe Robbie Stadium August 16, 1987 – August 25, 1996
Pro Player Park August 26, 1996 – September 9, 1996
Pro Player Stadium September 10, 1996 – January 9, 2005
Dolphins Stadium January 10, 2005 – April 7, 2006
Dolphin Stadium April 8, 2006 – May 7, 2009
Land Shark Stadium May 8, 2009 – January 5, 2010
Dolphin Stadium January 6, 2010 – January 19, 2010
Sun Life Stadium January 20, 2010 – January 31, 2016
New Miami Stadium February 1, 2016 – August 16, 2016
Hard Rock Stadium August 17, 2016–present

See also


  1. "Ross said the agreement to change the name from Dolphin Stadium is for this season only and expires before the stadium plays host to the Super Bowl in February." "Dolphins' home renamed Land Shark Stadium in deal with singer Buffett". National Football League. Associated Press. May 10, 2009. Retrieved May 11, 2009.
  2. Ross' percentage is approximate. Small stakes are also known to be owned by the following sports and entertainment celebrities: Marc Anthony, Jennifer Lopez, Jimmy Buffett, Gloria and Emilio Estefan, Fergie, Serena Williams, Venus Williams
  3. "FAQs". Miami Dolphins. Retrieved April 7, 2016.
  4. Akopyan, Manouk (January 18, 2015). "Dolphins unveil $400M renovation plan for Sun Life Stadium". National Football League. Retrieved April 7, 2016. Sun Life Stadium's capacity will decrease from 76,018 to approximately 64,767 seats in 2017.
  5. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
  6. Cosco, Joseph (August 2, 1985). "Head Of Dolphin Stadium Project Quietly Resigns". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved December 3, 2011.
  7. Ballparks.com – Sun Life Stadium. Football.ballparks.com. Retrieved on June 19, 2012.
  8. "2010 Pro Bowl moving to Miami, will be played before Super Bowl". Retrieved December 30, 2008.
  9. Adam Stites (May 20, 2015). "The South will host 2019, 2020 Super Bowls". SB Nation. Retrieved August 28, 2015.
  10. Charlotte Carroll (November 1, 2017). "College Football Playoff Announces Site for 2021-2024 National Championship Games". si.com. Retrieved November 14, 2017.
  11. Miami Gardens: Demographics Archived October 10, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
  12. 1 2 "Sun Life Stadium: Fast Facts". Archived from the original on July 22, 2012.
  13. "Plans Unveiled for Dolphin Stadium Renovation". January 8, 2010. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012.
  14. "Stadium renovations underway". January 6, 2015. Archived from the original on January 13, 2015.
  15. "Miami Dolphins show off Sun Life Stadium renovations". January 14, 2015.
  16. "New pricing plan set for Miami Dolphins seats at Sun Life Stadium". February 5, 2015.
  17. "Dolphins making fans feel at home". February 5, 2015.
  18. 1 2 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 26, 2015. Retrieved November 2, 2014.
  19. Thompson, Edgar (January 7, 2010). "Miami Dolphins Propose Partial Roof for Stadium in Effort to Attract Future Super Bowls". The Palm Beach Post. Retrieved January 7, 2010.
  20. Vikings among teams facing major stadium issues Archived July 4, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.. Fox Sports. Retrieved June 19, 2012.
  21. "Orange Bowl Committee – Sun Life Stadium". Retrieved January 11, 2012.
  22. "Single Game Attendance Report". Retrieved January 8, 2013.
  23. 1 2 Varsallone, Jim (February 9, 2011). "WrestleMania 28 headed to Sun Life Stadium". The Miami Herald. Archived from the original on February 22, 2011. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
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Preceded by
Orange Bowl
Home of the
Miami Dolphins

1987 – present
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Orange Bowl
Home of the
Miami Hurricanes

2008 – present
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Orange Bowl
Orange Bowl
Host of the Orange Bowl
1996 – 1998
2000 – present
Succeeded by
Orange Bowl
Preceded by
first ballpark
Home of the
Florida Marlins

Succeeded by
Marlins Park
Preceded by
first stadium
Host of the Champs Sports Bowl
Succeeded by
Citrus Bowl
Preceded by
Jack Murphy Stadium
Georgia Dome
Qualcomm Stadium
Ford Field
Raymond James Stadium
Mercedes-Benz Stadium
Host of the Super Bowl
XXIII 1989
XXIX 1995
XLI 2007
XLIV 2010
LIV 2020
Succeeded by
Louisiana Superdome
Sun Devil Stadium
Georgia Dome
University of Phoenix Stadium
Cowboys Stadium
Raymond James Stadium
Preceded by
Louisiana Superdome
Louisiana Superdome
Louisiana Superdome
Mercedes-Benz Superdome
Host of the BCS National Championship Game
Succeeded by
Rose Bowl
Rose Bowl
Rose Bowl
Rose Bowl
Preceded by
Rich Stadium
Host of AFC Championship Game
Succeeded by
Rich Stadium
Preceded by
Aloha Stadium
Host of the Pro Bowl
Succeeded by
Aloha Stadium
Preceded by
Georgia Dome
Host of WrestleMania XXVIII
Succeeded by
MetLife Stadium
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