Haplogroup J-M172

Haplogroup J-M172
Possible time of origin 15000-22000 ybp[1](TMRCA 19-24000ybp[2])
Possible place of origin Western Asia[3]
Ancestor J-P209
Defining mutations M172
Highest frequencies Ingush 88.8% (Balanovsky 2011), Chechens 55.2% (Balanovsky 2011), Georgians 21% (Wells 2001)-72%, Azeris 24% (Di Giacomo 2004)-48% (Wells 2001), Iraqis 24%(Al-Zahery 2011)-25% Al-Zahery 2003 and Sanchez 2005, Uyghurs 34% (Shou 2010),[4] Yaghnobis 32% (Wells 2001), Uzbeks 30.4% (Shou 2010), Greeks 10%-48%(Martinez 2007), Muslim Kurds 28.4%(Nebel 2001), Lebanese 30% (Semino 2004) (Wells 2001), Ashkenazi Jews 24%(Nebel 2001)-29% (Semino 2004), Turks 24% (Cinnioglu 2004)-40% (Semino 2000), Hazara 26.6% (Haber et al, 2012),[5] Kuwaiti 26% (Qassemi 2009) and (Wells 2001), Cypriots 12.9% (El-Sibai 2009)-37% (Capelli 2005),[6] Abkhaz 25% (Nasidze 2004), Iranians 22.5%(Grugni 2012)-24%,[7] Balkars 24% (Battaglia 2008), Italians 9%-36%(Capelli 2007) and (Semino 2000), Armenians 21%(Wells 2001)-24% (Nasidze 2004), Mordvins 15.3%,[8] Kazan Tatars 15.1%,[8] Chuvash 14%,[8] Sephardi Jews 15% (Shen 2004)-29% (Nebel 2001), Ossetians 16%(Balanovsky 2011)-24%(Nasidze 2004), Circassians 21.8% (Balanovsky 2011), Maltese 21% (Capelli 2005), North Indian Shia Muslims 18% (Eaaswarkhanth 2009), Palestinians 17% (Nebel 2001)-35%, Albanians 16% (Battaglia 2008)-23.5%, Syrians 14% (Di Giacomo 2004)-29%, and Kalash people 9.1%.[9]

In human genetics, Haplogroup J-M172 or J2[Phylogenetics 1] is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subclade (branch) of haplogroup J-P209.[Phylogenetics 2] Haplogroup J-M172 is common in modern populations in Western Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, Europe and North Africa. It is thought that J-M172 may have originated between the Caucasus Mountains, Mesopotamia and the Levant.[10][11]

It is further divided into two complementary clades, J-M410 and J-M12 (M12, M102, M221, M314).

Origins

The date of origin for haplogroup J-M172 was estimated by Batini et al in 2015 as between 19,000 and 24,000 years before present (BP).[2] Samino et al in 2004 dated the origin of the parent haplogroup, J-P209, to between 18,900 and 44,500 YBP.[12]

It is likely that J2 men had settled over most of Anatolia, the South Caucasus and Iran by the end of the Last Glaciation 12,000 years ago.[13]

Zalloua and Wells 2004 and al-Zaheri 2003 uncovered the earliest known migration of J2, from Sumeria to Canaan.[10][11] In 2001, Nebel et al. found that, "According to Underhill et al. (2000), Eu 9 (H58) evolved from Eu 10 (H71) through a T→G transversion at M172 (emphasis added)," and that in today's populations, Eu 9 (the post-mutation form of M172) is strongest in the Caucasus, Asia Minor and the Levant, whilst Eu 10 becomes stronger and replaces the frequency of Eu 9 as one moves south into the Arabian Peninsula,[14] so that people from the Caucasus met with Arabs near and between Mesopotamia (formerly Sumeria) and the Negev Desert, as "Arabisation" spread from Arabia to the Levant and Turkey, as well as many peoples (e.g. Jews, Armenians, Lebanese) having returned from diasporas.

Per research by Di Giacomo 2004, J-M172 haplogroup spread into Southern Europe" from either the Levant or Anatolia, likely parallel to the development of agriculture.[15] As to the timing of its spread into Europe, Di Giacomo points to events which post-date the Neolithic, in particular the demographic floruit associated with the rise of the Ancient Greek world. Semino et al. derived older age estimates for overall J2 (having used the Zhivotovsky method c.f. Di Giacomo), postulating its initial spread with Neolithic farmers from the Near East. However, its subclade distribution, showing localized peaks in the Southern Balkans, southern Italy, north/central Italy and the Caucasus, does not conform to a single 'wave-of-advance' scenario, betraying a number of still poorly understood post-Neolithic processes which created its current pattern. Like Di Giacomo, the Bronze Age southern Balkans was suggested by Semino 2004 to have been an important vector of spread.[12]

Distribution

Haplogroup J-M172 is found mainly in the Fertile Crescent, the Caucasus (Nasidze 2003), Anatolia, Italy, the Mediterranean littoral, and the Iranian plateau(Semino 2004).

The highest reported frequency of J-M172 ever was 87.4%, among Ingush in Malgobek (Balanovsky 2011).

More specifically it is found in Iraq (Al-Zahery 2003), Kuwait (Qassemi 2009), Syria (Luis 2004), Lebanon (Zalloua 2008l), Turkey (Cinnioglu 2004), Georgia (Nasidze 2003), Azerbaijan (Di Giacomo 2004), North Caucasus (Nasidze 2004), Armenia (Wells 2001), Iran (Nasidze 2004), Israel (Semino 2004), Palestine (Semino 2004), Cyprus (Capelli 2005), Greece (Martinez 2007), Albania (Semino 2000), Italy (Capelli 2007), and Spain (Di Giacomo 2003), and more frequently in Iraqis 24%Al-Zahery 2011, Chechens 51.0%-58.0% (Balanovsky 2011), Georgians 21% (Wells 2001)-72% (Wells 2001), Lebanese 30%(Semino 2004), Ossetians 24%(Nasidze 2004), Balkars 24% (Battaglia 2008), Syrians 23% (Luis 2004), Turks 13% (Cinnioglu 2004)-40% (Semino 2000), Cypriots 12.9% (El-Sibai 2009)-37%(Capelli 2005), Armenians 21% (Wells 2001)-24% (Nasidze 2004), Circassians 21.8%,(Balanovsky 2011) Iranians 10% (Nasidze 2004)-25%, (Wells 2001) Albanians 16% (Battaglia 2008)-24%, (Semino 2000) Italians 9%-36% (Capelli 2007), Sephardi Jews 15%(Nebel 2001)-29%, (Semino 2004) Maltese 21%(Capelli 2005), Palestinians 17%(Semino 2004), Saudis 14% (Abu-Amero 2009), Jordanians 14%, Omanis 10%-15% (Di Giacomo 2004) and (Luis 2004), and North Indian Shia Muslim 18% (Eaaswarkhanth 2009).

North Africa

Country/Region Sampling N J-M172 Study
TunisiaTunisia628El-Sibai 2009
TunisiaSousse2208.2Fadhlaoui-Zid 2014
AlgeriaOran1024.9Robino 2008
Egypt1247.6El-Sibai 2009
Egypt14712.0Abu-Amero 2009
Morocco2214.1Fregel 2009
North AfricaAlgeria, Tunisia2023.5Fregel 2009

Central Asia

Country/Region Sampling N J-M172 Study
AfghanistanHazara6026.6Haber 2012
AfghanistanUzbeks12616Di Cristofaro 2013
BukharaUzbeks5816Wells 2001
DushanbeTajiks1631Wells 2001
Xinjiang, ChinaUyghurs5034Shou 2010
Xinjiang, ChinaUzbeks2330.4Shou 2010
Xinjiang, ChinaTajiks3116.1Shou 2010
KazakhstanKazakhs3013.3Karafet 2001
KazakhstanUyghurs4120Wells 2001
SamarkandUzbeks4516Wells 2001
SamarkandTajiks4020Wells 2001
SurkhandaryaUzbeks6816Wells 2001
TajikistanYaghnobis3132Wells 2001
TajikistanTajiks3818.4Wells 2001
TurkmenistanTurkmens3017Wells 2001
UzbekistanUzbeks36613.4Wells 2001

J-M172 is found at moderate frequencies among Central Asian people such as Uyghurs, Uzbeks, Turkmens, Tajiks, Kazakhs, and Yaghnobis. According to the genetic study in Northwest China by Shou et al. (2010), a notable high frequency of J-M172 is observed particularly in Uyghurs 34% and Uzbeks 30.4% in Xinjiang, China.

The haplogroup has an ancient presence in Central Asia and seems to have preceded the spread of Islam (Shou 2010). In addition, the immediate ancestor of J-M172, namely J* (J-M304*, a.k.a. J-P209*, J-12f2.1*) is also found among Xibo, Kazakh, Dongxiang and Uzbek people in Northwest China.

In 2015, two ancient samples belonging to J-M172 or J-M410 (J2a) were found at two different archaeological sites in Altai, eastern Russia: Kytmanovo and Sary-bel kurgan. Both of the ancient samples are related to Iron Age cultures in Altai. Sary-bel J2/J2a is dated to 50 BC whereas Kytmanovo sample is dated to 721-889 AD. Genetic admixture analysis of these samples also suggests that the individuals were more closely related to West Eurasians than other Altaians from the same period, although they also seem to be related to present-day Turkic peoples of the region.[16][17][18]

Europe

Country/Region Sampling N J-M172 Study
Albania5519.9Battaglia 2009
Bosnia-HerzegovinaSerbs818.7Battaglia 2009
Cyprus16412.9El-Sibai 2009
GreeceCrete14335El-Sibai 2009
Iberia6557Fregel 2009
Iberia11407.7Adams 2008
ItalySicily21222.6El-Sibai 2009
ItalyMainland69920Capelli 2007
ItalyCentral Marche5935.6Capelli 2007
ItalyWest Calabria5735.1Capelli 2007
ItalyVal Badia348.8Capelli 2007
Malta9021.1El-Sibai 2009
PortugalNorth, Center, South3036.9El-Sibai 2009
PortugalTras-os-Montes (Jews)5724.5Nogueiro 2010
Sardinia819.9El-Sibai 2009
SpainMallorca628.1El-Sibai 2009
SpainSevilla1557.8El-Sibai 2009
SpainLeon605El-Sibai 2009
SpainIbiza543.7El-Sibai 2009
SpainCantabria702.9El-Sibai 2009
SpainGalicia29213Brion 2004
SpainCanary Islands65210.5Fregel 2009

In Europe, the frequency of Haplogroup J-M172 drops as one moves northward away from the Mediterranean. In Italy, J-M172 is found with regional frequencies ranging between 9% and 36% (Capelli 2007). In Greece, it is found with regional frequencies ranging between 10% and 48%. Approximately 24% of Turkish men are J-M172 according to a recent study, (Cinnioglu 2004) with regional frequencies ranging between 13% and 40% (Semino 2000). Combined with J-M267, up to half of the Turkish population belongs to Haplogroup J-P209.

It has been proposed that haplogroup subclade J-M410 was linked to populations on ancient Crete by examining the relationship between Anatolian, Cretan, and Greek populations from around early Neolithic sites in Crete. Haplogroup J-M12 was associated with Neolithic Greece (ca. 8500 - 4300 BCE) and was reported to be found in modern Crete (3.1%) and mainland Greece (Macedonia 7.0%, Thessaly 8.8%, Argolis 1.8%) (King 2008).

North Caucasus

Country/Region Sampling N J-M172 Study
CaucasusAbkhaz5813.8Balanovsky 2011
CaucasusAvar1156Balanovsky 2011
CaucasusChechen33057Balanovsky 2011
CaucasusCircassians14221.8Balanovsky 2011
CaucasusDargins1011Balanovsky 2011
CaucasusIngush14388.8Balanovsky 2011
CaucasusKaitak333Balanovsky 2011
CaucasusKumyks7321Yunusbayev 2011
CaucasusKubachi650Balanovsky 2011
CaucasusLezghins812.5Balanovsky 2011
CaucasusOssets35716Balanovsky 2011
CaucasusShapsug1006Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus152528.1Balanovsky 2011

J-M172 is found at very high frequencies in certain peoples of the Caucasus: among the Ingush 87.4% (Balanovsky 2011), Chechens 55.2% (Balanovsky 2011), Georgians 21%-72%, (Wells 2001), Azeris 24% (Di Giacomo 2004)-48%, (Wells 2001) Abkhaz 25%, (Nasidze 2004) Balkars 24% (Battaglia 2008), Ossetians 24% (Nasidze 2004), Armenians 21% (Wells 2001)-24% (Nasidze 2004), Circassians 21.8% (Balanovsky 2011), and other groups ( Nasidze 2004 and Nasidze 2003).

West Asia

Country/Region Sampling N J-M172 Study
JewishAshkenazim Jewish44219Behar 2004
Iran9225El-Sibai 2009
Iraq15424Al-Zahery 2011[19]
IsraelAkka10118.6El-Sibai 2009
Jordan27314.6El-Sibai 2009
Lebanon95129.4El-Sibai 2009
Oman12110.0Abu-Amero 2009
Pakistan17611.9Abu-Amero 2009
PakistanChitral DistrictFirasat 2007
Qatar728.3El-Sibai 2009
Saudi Arabia15714Abu-Amero 2009[20]
SyriaSyria55420.8El-Sibai 2009
Turkey52324.2El-Sibai 2009
UAE16410.3El-Sibai 2009
Yemen629.6El-Sibai 2009

Sephardi Jews have about 15% (Nebel 2001)-29% (Semino 2004), of haplogroup J-M172, and Ashkenazi Jews have 15% (Shen 2004)-23% (Semino 2004). It was reported in an early study which tested only four STR markers (Malaspina 2001) that a small sample of Italian Cohens belonged to Network 1.2, an early designation for the overall clade now known as J-L26, defined by the deletion at DYS413. However, a large number of all Jewish Cohens in the world belong to haplogroup J-M267 (see Cohen modal haplotype).

Haplogroup J-M172 has been shown to have a more northern distribution in the Middle East, although it exists in significant amounts in the southern middle-east regions, a lesser amount of it was found when compared to its brother haplogroup, J-M267, which has a high frequency southerly distribution. It was believed that the source population of J-M172 originated from the Levant/Syria (Syrid-J-M172), and that its occurrence among modern populations of Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia was a sign of the neolithic agriculturalists. However, as stated it is now more likely to have originated in regions farther to the north, with the first metallurgists of the Middle East.

South Asia

J2-M172 was found to be significantly higher among Dravidian castes at 19% than among Indo-European castes at 11%. J2-M172 and J-M410 is found 21% among Dravidian middle castes, followed by upper castes, 18.6%, and lower castes 14%.[21] Among caste groups, the highest frequency of J2-M172 was observed among Tamil Vellalars of South India, at 38.7%.[22] J2 is present in Indian tribals too and has a frequency of 11% in Austro-Asiatic tribals. Among the Austro-Asiatic tribals, the predominant J2 occurs in the Asur tribe (77.5%) albeit with a sample size of 40[23] and in the Lodha (35%) of West Bengal.[24] J2 is also present in the South Indian hill tribe Toda at 38.46% albeit with a sample size of only 26,[25] in the Andh tribe of Telangana at 35.19%,[26] in the Narikuravar tribe at 57.9%[23] and in the Kol tribe of Uttar Pradesh at a frequency of 33.34%.[27] Haplogroup J-P209 was found to be more common in India's Shia Muslims, of which 28.7% belong to haplogroup J, with 13.7% in J-M410, 10.6% in J-M267 and 4.4% in J2b (Eaaswarkhanth 2009).

In Pakistan, the highest frequencies of J2-M172 were observed among the Parsis at 38.89%, the Dravidian speaking Brahui's at 28.18% and the Makrani Balochs at 24%.[28] It also occurs at 18.18% in Makrani Siddis and at 3% in Karnataka Siddis.[28][29]

J2-M172 is found at an overall frequency of 16.1% in the people of Sri Lanka.[30] In Maldives, 22% of Maldivian population were found to be haplogroup J2 positive.[31] Subclades of M172 such as M67 and M92 were not found in either Indian or Pakistani samples which also might hint at a partial common origin.[21]

Subclade distribution

Haplogroup J-M172 is subdivided into two complementary sub-haplogroups: J-M410, defined by the M410 genetic marker, and J-M12, defined by the M12 genetic marker.

J-M172

J-M172 is typical of populations of the Near East, Southern Europe, Southwest Asia and the Caucasus, with a moderate distribution through much of Central Asia, South Asia, and North Africa.

J-M410

J-M410 is found in Georgia, North Ossetia.

J-M47

J-M47 is found with low frequency in Georgia, (Battaglia 2008) southern Iran (Regueiro 2006), Qatar (Cadenas 2008) Saudi Arabia (AbuAmero 2009), Syria (Di Giacomo 2004), Tunisia (Arredi 2004), Turkey (Di Giacomo 2004 and Cinnioglu 2004), the UAE, (Cadenas 2008), and Central Asia/Siberia (Underhill 2000).

J-M67

J-M67 (Called J2f in older papers) has its highest frequencies associated with Nakh peoples. Found at very high (majority) frequencies among Ingush in Malgobek (87.4%), Chechens in Dagestan (58%), Chechens in Chechnya (56.8%) and Chechens in Malgobek, Ingushetia (50.9%) (Balanovsky 2011). In the Caucasus, it is found at significant frequencies among Georgians (13.3%) (Semino 2004), Iron Ossetes (11.3%), South Caucasian Balkars (6.3%) (Semino 2004), Digor Ossetes (5.5%), Abkhaz (6.9%), and Cherkess (5.6%) (Balanovsky 2011). It is also found at notable frequencies in the Mediterranean and Middle East, including Cretans (10.2%), North-central Italians (9.6%), Southern Italians (4.2%; only 0.8% among N. Italians), Anatolian Turks (2.7-5.4%), Greeks (4-4.3%), Albanians (3.6%), Ashkenazi Jews (4.9%), Sephardis (2.4%), Catalans (3.9%), Andalusians (3.2%), Calabrians (3.3%), Albanian Calabrians (8.9%) (see Di Giacomo 2004 and Semino 2004).

J-M319

J-M319 is found with low to moderate frequency in Cretan Greeks (Martinez 2007 and King 2008), Iraqi Jews (Shen 2004), and Moroccan Jews (Shen 2004).

J-M158

J-M158 (location under L24 uncertain) J-M158 is found with low frequency in Turkey (Cinnioglu 2004), South Asia (Sengupta 2006 and Underhill 2000), Indochina (Underhill 2000), and Iberian Peninsula.

Phylogenetics

In Y-chromosome phylogenetics, subclades are the branches of haplogroups. These subclades are also defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or unique event polymorphisms (UEPs).

Phylogenetic history

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012
J-12f2a9VIMed23Eu10H4BJ*JJJ------J
J-M629VIMed23Eu10H4BJ1J1aJ1aJ1a------Private
J-M1729VIMed24Eu9H4BJ2*J2J2J2------J2
J-M479VIMed24Eu9H4BJ2aJ2aJ2a1J2a4a------J2a1a
J-M689VIMed24Eu9H4BJ2bJ2bJ2a3J2a4c------J2a1c
J-M1379VIMed24Eu9H4BJ2cJ2cJ2a4J2a4h2a1------J2a1h2a1a
J-M1589VIMed24Eu9H4BJ2dJ2dJ2a5J2a4h1------J2a1h1
J-M129VIMed24Eu9H4BJ2e*J2eJ2bJ2b------J2b
J-M1029VIMed24Eu9H4BJ2e1*J2e1J2bJ2b------J2b
J-M999VIMed24Eu9H4BJ2e1aJ2e1aJ2b2aJ2b2a------Private
J-M679VIMed24Eu9H4BJ2f*J2fJ2a2J2a4b------J2a1b
J-M929VIMed24Eu9H4BJ2f1J2f1J2a2aJ2a4b1------J2a1b1
J-M1639VIMed24Eu9H4BJ2f2J2f2J2a2bJ2a4b2------Private

Research publications

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.

Phylogenetic trees

There are several confirmed and proposed phylogenetic trees available for haplogroup J-M172. The scientifically accepted one is the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC) one published in Karafet 2008 and subsequently updated. A draft tree that shows emerging science is provided by Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center in Houston, Texas. The International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) also provides an amateur tree.[Phylogenetics 3][Phylogenetics 4]

The Genomic Research Center draft tree

This is Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center's draft tree Proposed Tree for haplogroup J-M172 (Krahn & FTDNA 2013). For brevity, only the first three levels of subclades are shown.

  • M172, L228
    • M410, L152, L212, L505, L532, L559
      • M289
      • L26, L27, L927
        • M47, M322
        • M67, L558
        • M319
        • M339
        • M419
        • P81
        • L24, L207.1
        • L88.2, L198
        • L250.2, L251.2
        • L267
        • P329.2
      • L581
    • M12, M102, M221, M314, L282
      • M205
      • M241
        • M99
        • M280
        • M321
        • P84
        • L283

The Y-Chromosome Consortium tree

This is the official scientific tree produced by the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). The last major update was in 2008 (Karafet 2008). Subsequent updates have been quarterly and biannual. The current version is a revision of the 2010 update.[32]

The ISOGG tree

Below are the subclades of Haplogroup J-M172 with their defining mutation, according to the ISOGG tree (as of February 2018). Note that the descent-based identifiers may be subject to change, as new SNPs are discovered that augment and further refine the tree. For brevity, only the first three levels of subclades are shown.

  • J2 M172/Page28/PF4908, L228/PF4895/S321
    • J2a M410, L152, L212/PF4988, L559/PF4986
      • J2a1 DYS413≤18, L26/Page55/PF5110/S57, F4326/L27/PF5111/S396
        • J2a1a M47, M322
        • J2a1b M67/PF5137/S51
        • J2a1c M68
        • J2a1d M319
        • J2a1e M339
        • J2a1f M419
        • J2a1g P81/PF4275
        • J2a1h L24/S286, L207.1
        • J2a1i L88.2, L198
      • J2a2 L581/PF5026/S398
        • J2a2a P279/PF5065
    • J2b L282, M12, M102, M221, M314/PF4939
      • J2b1 M205
      • J2b2 M241
        • J2b2a L283

See also

Genetics

Y-DNA J Subclades

Y-DNA Backbone Tree

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ K
I   J     LT [χ 5]       K2 [χ 6]
L     T    K2a [χ 7]        K2b [χ 8]     K2c     K2d K2e [χ 9]  
K-M2313 [χ 10]     K2b1 [χ 11] P [χ 12]
NO   S [χ 13]  M [χ 14]    P1     P2
N O Q R

References

  1. Semino O, Magri C, Benuzzi G, et al. (May 2004). "Origin, diffusion, and differentiation of Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J: inferences on the neolithization of Europe and later migratory events in the Mediterranean area". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 74 (5): 1023–34. doi:10.1086/386295. PMC 1181965. PMID 15069642.
  2. 1 2 "TMRCAs of major haplogroups in Europe estimated using two methods. : Large-scale recent expansion of European patrilineages shown by population resequencing : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group". www.nature.com. Retrieved 2015-05-20.
  3. The extent of differentiation of Hg J, observed both with the biallelic and microsatellite markers, points to the Middle East as its likely homeland. In this area, J-M172 and J-M267 are equally represented and show the highest degree of internal variation, indicating that it is most likely that these subclades also arose in the Middle East. (Di Giacomo 2004)
  4. Shou et al (2010), Y-chromosome distributions among populations in Northwest China identify significant contribution from Central Asian pastoralists and lesser influence of western Eurasians, Journal of Human Genetics 55, 314-322 (May 2010) | doi:10.1038/jhg.2010.30, Link to the table of haplogroup distribution and Y-chromosome diversity in 14 northwestern populations, Quote: "Uygurs, J2-M172 17/50=34%"
  5. Haber M, Platt DE, Ashrafian Bonab M, Youhanna SC, Soria-Hernanz DF, Martínez-Cruz B, Douaihy B, Ghassibe-Sabbagh M, Rafatpanah H, Ghanbari M, Whale J, Balanovsky O, Wells RS, Comas D, Tyler-Smith C, Zalloua PA (2011). Kayser M, ed. "Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events". PLOS ONE. 7 (3): e34288. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...734288H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034288. PMC 3314501. PMID 22470552.
  6. C. Capelli, N. Redhead, V. Romano et al., "Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective," Annals of Human Genetics (2005)
  7. Y haplogroup J in Iran by Alfred A. Aburto Jr.
  8. 1 2 3 Трофимова Наталья Вадимовна, ИЗМЕНЧИВОСТЬ МИТОХОНДРИАЛЬНОЙ ДНК И Y-ХРОМОСОМЫВ ПОПУЛЯЦИЯХ ВОЛГО-УРАЛЬСКОГО РЕГИОНА, 03.02.07
  9. A genetic study published led by Firasat (2007) on Kalash individuals found high and diverse frequencies.
  10. 1 2 Zalloua & Wells: National Geographic Magazine, October 2004. and .
  11. 1 2 "N. Al-Zahery et al. "Y-chromosome and mtDNA polymorphisms in Iraq, a crossroad of the early human dispersal and of post-Neolithic migrations" (2003)" (PDF). Family Tree DNA. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
  12. 1 2 Semino O, Magri C, Benuzzi G, Lin AA, Al-Zahery N, Battaglia V, Maccioni L, Triantaphyllidis C, Shen P, Oefner PJ, Zhivotovsky LA, King R, Torroni A, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill PA, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS (May 2004). "Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area". AJHG. 74 (5): 1023–34. doi:10.1086/386295. PMC 1181965. PMID 15069642.
  13. "Haplogroup J2 Origins". www.eupedia.com. Retrieved 2016-01-20.
  14. Nebel A, Filon D, Brinkmann B, Majumder PP, Faerman M, Oppenheim A (Nov 2001). "The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East". AJHG. 69 (5): 1095–1112. doi:10.1086/324070. PMC 1274378. PMID 11573163. See especially Figure Six. Semino 2000 is a source which also states that Eu 9 descends from Eu 10 (Eu 10 is a different subclade of Haplogroup J (mtDNA)).
  15. Di Giacomo F, Luca F, Popa LO, Akar N, Anagnou N, Banyko J, Brdicka R, Barbujani G, Papola F, Ciavarella G, Cucci F, Di Stasi L, Gavrila L, Kerimova MG, Kovatchev D, Kozlov AI, Loutradis A, Mandarino V, Mammi' C, Michalodimitrakis EN, Paoli G, Pappa KI, Pedicini G, Terrenato L, Tofanelli S, Malaspina P, Novelletto A (2004). "Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe". Human Genetics. 115 (5): 357–71. doi:10.1007/s00439-004-1168-9. PMID 15322918.
  16. Allentoft, et al. (2015). "Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia". Nature. 522 (7555): 167–172. Bibcode:2015Natur.522..167A. doi:10.1038/nature14507. PMID 26062507.
  17. C. Rоttensteiner, J2a2-PH3085, SK1403: Ancient Altai, modern Uygur and Turkish, J2-M172 Haplogroup Research.
  18. F. Immanuel, Codes for Gedmatch Results, Ancient DNA page, F999962 for RISE504, Kytmanovo sample, and F999965 for RISE602, Sary-bel sample.
  19. Al-Zahery et al, 2011, Additional file 3. Absolute frequencies of Y-chromosome haplogroups and sub-haplogroups in the 48 populations included in the PCA. Note: Only 37 of 154 samples (24%) are J2 in Iraq according to the list of Al-Zahery 2011. 43.6% is the frequency of J2 among all J haplogroup Iraqis, not all haplogroups.
  20. Abu-Amero (2009), Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions, Quote: The most abundant haplogroups in Saudi Arabia, J1-M267 (42%), J2-M172 (14%), E1-M2 (8%), R1-M17 (5%) and K2-M184 (5%) are also well represented in other Arabian populations (Table (Table1).1).
  21. 1 2 Sengupta S, Zhivotovsky LA, King R, et al. (February 2006). "Polarity and temporality of high-resolution y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of Central Asian pastoralists". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 78 (2): 202–21. doi:10.1086/499411. PMC 1380230. PMID 16400607.
  22. Sengupta S, Zhivotovsky LA, King R, et al. (February 2006). "Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 78 (2): 202–21. doi:10.1086/499411. PMC 1380230. PMID 16400607.
  23. 1 2 Sakshi Singh, Ashish Singh, Raja Rajkumar, et al. (2016). "Dissecting the influence of Neolithic demic diffusion on Indian Y-chromosome pool through J2-M172 haplogroup". Scientific Reports. 6: 19157. Bibcode:2016NatSR...619157S. doi:10.1038/srep19157. PMC 4709632. PMID 26754573.
  24. Sengupta S, Zhivotovsky LA, King R, et al. (February 2006). "Polarity and temporality of high-resolution y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of Central Asian pastoralists". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 78 (2): 202–21. doi:10.1086/499411. PMC 1380230. PMID 16400607.
  25. Arunkumar G, Soria-Hernanz DF, Kavitha VJ, Arun VS, Syama A, Ashokan KS, Gandhirajan KT, Vijayakumar K, Narayanan M, Jayalakshmi M, Ziegle JS, Royyuru AK, Parida L, Wells RS, Renfrew C, Schurr TG, Smith CT, Platt DE, Pitchappan R (2012). "Population Differentiation of Southern Indian Male Lineages Correlates with Agricultural Expansions Predating the Caste System". PLoS ONE. 7 (11): e50269. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...750269A. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050269. PMC 3508930. PMID 23209694.
  26. Thanseem, Ismail; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Singh, Vijay Kumar; Bhaskar, Lakkakula VKS; Reddy, B Mohan; Reddy, Alla G; Singh, Lalji (7 August 2006). "Genetic affinities among the lower castes and tribal groups of India: inference from Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA". BMC Genetics. 7: 42. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-7-42. ISSN 1471-2156. PMC 1569435. PMID 16893451.
  27. Sharma S, Rai E, Sharma P, et al. (January 2009). "The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1* substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system". J. Hum. Genet. 54 (1): 47–55. doi:10.1038/jhg.2008.2. PMID 19158816.
  28. 1 2 Qamar R, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, et al. (May 2002). "Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in Pakistan". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 70 (5): 1107–24. doi:10.1086/339929. PMC 447589. PMID 11898125.
  29. Shah AM, Tamang R, Moorjani P, Rani DS, Govindaraj P, Kulkarni G, Bhattacharya T, Mustak MS, Bhaskar LV, Reddy AG, Gadhvi D, Gai PB, Chaubey G, Patterson N, Reich D, Tyler-Smith C, Singh L, Thangaraj K (2011). "Indian Siddis: African Descendants with Indian Admixture". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 89 (1): 154–61. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.05.030. PMC 3135801. PMID 21741027.
  30. "The Genetics of Language and Farming Spread in India" (PDF).
  31. Ancestry of Maldives People in Light of Population Genetics: Maldivian Ancestry in light of Genetics
  32. "Y-DNA Haplotree". Family Tree DNA uses the Y-Chromosome Consortium tree and posts it on their website.

Bibliography

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Nebel A, Filon D, Brinkmann B, Majumder PP, Faerman M, Oppenheim A (2001). "The Y chromosome pool of Jews as part of the genetic landscape of the Middle East". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 69 (5): 1095–112. doi:10.1086/324070. PMC 1274378. PMID 11573163. 
  3. ^ Malaspina P, Tsopanomichalou M, Duman T, Stefan M, Silvestri A, Rinaldi B, Garcia O, Giparaki M, Plata E, Kozlov AI, Barbujani G, Vernesi C, Papola F, Ciavarella G, Kovatchev D, Kerimova MG, Anagnou N, Gavrila L, Veneziano L, Akar N, Loutradis A, Michalodimitrakis EN, Terrenato L, Novelletto A (2001). "A multistep process for the dispersal of a Y chromosomal lineage in the Mediterranean area". Ann. Hum. Genet. 65 (Pt 4): 339–49. doi:10.1046/j.1469-1809.2001.6540339.x. PMID 11592923. 

Further reading

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ K
I   J     LT [χ 5]       K2 [χ 6]
L     T    K2a [χ 7]        K2b [χ 8]     K2c     K2d K2e [χ 9]  
K-M2313 [χ 10]     K2b1 [χ 11] P [χ 12]
NO   S [χ 13]  M [χ 14]    P1     P2
N O Q R

Phylogenetic notes

  1. This table shows the historic names for J-M172 in published peer reviewed literature. Note that in Semino 2000 Eu09 is a subclade of Eu10 and in Karafet 2001 24 is a subclade of 23.
    YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) J-M172
    Jobling and Tyler-Smith 20009
    Underhill 2000VI
    Hammer 2001Med
    Karafet 200124
    Semino 2000Eu9
    Su 1999H4
    Capelli 2001B
    YCC 2002 (Longhand)J2*
    YCC 2005 (Longhand)J2
    YCC 2008 (Longhand)J2
    YCC 2010r (Longhand)J2
  2. This table shows the historic names for J-P209 (AKA J-12f2.1 or J-M304) in published peer reviewed literature. Note that in Semino 2000 Eu09 is a subclade of Eu10 and in Karafet 2001 24 is a subclade of 23.
    YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) J-P209
    (AKA J-12f2.1 or J-M304)
    Jobling and Tyler-Smith 20009
    Underhill 2000VI
    Hammer 2001Med
    Karafet 200123
    Semino 2000Eu10
    Su 1999H4
    Capelli 2001B
    YCC 2002 (Longhand)J*
    YCC 2005 (Longhand)J
    YCC 2008 (Longhand)J
    YCC 2010r (Longhand)J
  3. http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpJ.html
  4. http://thegeneticatlas.com/J2_Y-DNA.htm
  1. Renfrew AC (1998). Archaeology and language: the puzzle of Indo-European origins (Pimlico ed.). London: Pimlico. ISBN 978-0-7126-6612-1.
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