Hallingmål-Valdris

Hallingmål-Valdris
Region Hallingdal, Valdres
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog None
Administrative map of Hallingdal and Valdres

Hallingmål-Valdris (also known by the individual names Halling, Hallingdøl, or Valdresmål) is a group of Norwegian dialects traditionally spoken in the traditional districts Hallingdal, Buskerud and Valdres, Oppland.[lower-alpha 1]

Phonology

Consonants

  • /rn/ is usually realized as a prestopped nasal [dn̩], while the allophone [ɳ] only occurs in words like baren ([bɑːɳ])[3] "the bar".[4][lower-alpha 2]
  • /rl/ also has a prestopped realization [dl].[4]
  • The phoneme which is commonly called thick L (written /ɽ/ in IPA), exists in words that had either l or in Old Norse. In Vang, /ɽ/ occurs only in the first case.[6]
  • The consonant clusters sk, skj, and sj were not pronounced as [ʂ], only -rs- was.[7] Sørbygdi in Flå pronounces sj as [ʂ], while Gulsvik pronounces it as [ʂj].[8]
  • The consonant clusters sl and tl were mostly assimilated to [sl]. Hol and Ål assimilated these to [l̥],[9][10] and Sørbygdi in Flå assimilated sl to [ʂl].[8]
  • The clusters -ld, -nd and -mb are pronounced as spelled.[11][12][13]
  • The Old Norse cluster -fn is pronounced as assimilated [bdn] or [bn].[12]

Vowels

  • The back vowels [ʊ, uː] and [ɔ, oː] in older Hallingmål-Valdris were pronounced as in Old Norse, without the vowel shift to, respectively, [ʉ, ʉː] and [ʊ, uː] that is found in most other Norwegian dialects.[14][15]
  • The short Old Norse vowels o and ö are pronounced as central [ɞ] almost everywhere, except for Ål (but not Torpo), where these are back [ɔ].[6][16][17] In Valdres (except for Vang), the schwa /ə/ can also be realized as [ɞ].[6]
  • Traditionally, /æ, æː/ were pronounced as open-mid [ɛ, ɛː].[18]
  • The words pronounced [e(ː)] and [ɛ(ː)] mean "I" and "am", respectively.[18]
  • Itacism is found in southern Hallingdal (Flå, Nes and some in Gol), making the vowel /yː/ to be unrounded to [].[19]
  • The Old Norse diphthongs ei, ey and au are traditionally pronounced as [aɪ̯], [ɔʏ̯] ([eɪ̯] in southern Hallingdal)[19] and [aʊ̯]. This is occurs today especially in upper Valdres and Hol and Ål.[6][7]

Grammar

Declension of nouns[20][21][lower-alpha 3]
Gender Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Dative Indefinite Definite Dative
Feminine Strong
(with i-
declension)
[suːɽ][suːɽɛ][suːɳ][ˈsuːˈɽɛ],[lower-alpha 4]
[ˈsuːˈɽi][lower-alpha 5]
[ˈsuːɽˈidn̩][ˈsuːˈɽu]
Strong
(with a-decl.)
[jaɪ̯t][ˈjaɪ̯ˈtɛ][ˈjaɪ̯ˈtn̩][jaɪ̯ta][ˈjaɪ̯ˈtadn̩][ˈjaɪ̯ˈtu]
Weak
(with u-decl.)
[ˈjɛnˈtɛ][ˈjɛnˈta][ˈjɛnˈtʉn][ˈjɛnˈtʉ][ˈjɛnˈtʉdn̩][ˈjɛnˈtu]
Masculine Strong
(with a-decl.)
[gʉːt][gʉːtn̩][gʉːta][ˈgʉːˈta][ˈgʉːˈtadn̩][ˈgʉːˈtu]
Strong
(with i-decl.)
[griːs][griːsn̩][ˈgriːˈsɛ][ˈgriːˈsɛ],[lower-alpha 4]
[ˈgriːˈsi][lower-alpha 5]
[ˈgriːˈsidn̩][griːsu]
Weak
(with a-decl.)
[ˈbakˈkɛ][ˈbakˈkin][ˈbakˈka][ˈbakˈka][ˈbakˈkadn̩][ˈbakˈku]
Neutrum Strong [hʉːs][hʉːsɛ][ˈhʉːˈsɛ][hʉːs][hʉːsɛ]
Weak [aʊ̯ga][aʊ̯ga(ə)][aʊ̯gaɛ][aʊ̯gʉ],[lower-alpha 6] [aʊ̯gu][lower-alpha 4][aʊ̯gu],[lower-alpha 6]
[aʊ̯gʉdn̩][lower-alpha 4]
[aʊ̯gu]
Personal pronouns[22][23][lower-alpha 3]
Person Subjective
case
Objective
case
Dative
case
Possessive
Feminine Masculine Neuter
Subj./Obj. Dative Subj./Obj. Dative Subj./Obj. Dative
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
1st p. sg. [eː][meː][meː][miː][ˈmiːˈnə][ˈmiːˈnə][miː][mɪn][ˈmiːˈnə][ˈmiːˈnə][miː][mɪt][ˈmiːˈnə][ˈmiːˈnə][miː]
2nd person sg. [dʉː][deː][deː][diː][ˈdiːˈnə][ˈdiːˈnə][diː][dɪn][ˈdiːˈnə][ˈdiːˈnə][diː][dɪt][ˈdiːˈnə][ˈdiːˈnə][diː]
3rd p. sg. f. [huː],
[ˈhuːˈna]
[huː],
[ˈhuːˈna]
[ˈhɛnˈnɛ],
[n]
[ˈhɛnˈnɛ(r)] ([ˈhɛnˈnar]),[lower-alpha 7] [ˈhɛnˈnɛs][lower-alpha 8]
3rd p. sg. m. [han], [n][han], [n][huːnu], [u][has]
3rd p. sg. n. [dɛ][dɛ][di][siː][ˈsiːˈnə][ˈsiːˈnə][siː][sɪn][ˈsiːˈnə][ˈsiːˈnə][siː][sɪt][ˈsiːˈnə][ˈsiːˈnə][siː]
1st p. pl. [meː], [mɞː][lower-alpha 9][ʉs], [ɞs][lower-alpha 10][ʉs], [ɞs][lower-alpha 10][voːr][voʈ][ˈvoːˈre][lower-alpha 11][ˈvoːˈru]
2nd p. pl. [deː], [dɞː][lower-alpha 9][ˈdikˈka(n)],
[ˈdikˈku(n)][lower-alpha 12]
[ˈdikˈka(n)],
[ˈdikˈku(n)][lower-alpha 12]
[ˈdikˈka(n)], [ˈdikˈku(n)][lower-alpha 12]
3rd p. pl [daɪ̯][daɪ̯][daɪ̯][ˈdaɪ̯ˈris], [ˈdeːˈris], [ˈdeːˈres][lower-alpha 10]

Citations

Notes

  1. The southern villages Begnadalen and Hedalen in Sør-Aurdal, Valdres don't speak Valdris,[1] as their dialect is closer to the Ringerike dialect.[2]
  2. It may also be realized as [tn̩] in Hemsedal, Gol and the southern villages in Valdres, although this only occurs in plural definite form.[5][4]
  3. 1 2 The IPA used here is with the traditional diphthongs, and the vowel shift.
  4. 1 2 3 4 Only used in Valdres.[21]
  5. 1 2 Only used in Hallingdal and the southern villages in Valdres.[21]
  6. 1 2 Only used in Hallingdal.[21]
  7. These forms are used interchangeably,[24] though Hallingdal only uses the first, without the r.[25]
  8. Only used in Aurdal and Etnedal.[24]
  9. 1 2 Only used in Valdres, except for Vang.[24]
  10. 1 2 3 Only used in Sør-Aurdal.[24]
  11. In the older dialects of Vang and Slidre, [ˈvoːˈra] has been used for feminine, but is not used today.[26]
  12. 1 2 3 Only used in Hol and Ål.[27]

References

  1. Kvåle 1999, p. 7.
  2. Jahr 1990, p. 57.
  3. Kvåle 1999, p. 12.
  4. 1 2 3 Skjekkeland 1997, p. 116.
  5. Kvåle 1999, p. 19, 21.
  6. 1 2 3 4 Jahr 1990, p. 58.
  7. 1 2 Kvåle 1999, p. 17.
  8. 1 2 Venås 1977, p. 36.
  9. Ross 1907, p. 20.
  10. Venås 1977, p. 16.
  11. Kvåle 1999, p. 18.
  12. 1 2 Skjekkeland 1997, p. 216.
  13. Venås 1977, p. 48.
  14. Kvåle 1999, p. 15.
  15. Skjekkeland 1997, p. 47.
  16. Kvåle 1999, p. 16.
  17. Venås, Kjell. "dialekter i Hallingdal". snl.no. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  18. 1 2 Kvåle 1997, p. 15.
  19. 1 2 Jahr 1990, p. 56.
  20. Kvåle 1999, p. 20-25.
  21. 1 2 3 4 Ross 1907, p. 22.
  22. Kvåle 1999, p. 32-34.
  23. Venås 1977, p. 127-133.
  24. 1 2 3 4 Kvåle 1999, p. 32.
  25. Venås 1977, p. 127-128.
  26. Kvåle 1997, p. 34.
  27. Venås 1977, p. 129.

Literature


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