|Greater Khingan Range|
The Yalu river in the Greater Khingan range
|Elevation||2,035 m (6,677 ft)|
|Coordinates||49°22′57″N 123°09′24″E / 49.3823728°N 123.1567383°ECoordinates: 49°22′57″N 123°09′24″E / 49.3823728°N 123.1567383°E|
|Mountain type||Tilted block faulting|
The Greater Khingan Range (simplified Chinese: 大兴安岭; traditional Chinese: 大興安嶺; pinyin: Dà Xīng'ān Lǐng; IPA: [tâ ɕíŋ.án.lìŋ]; Mongolian: Их Хянганы нуруу, Ih Hyangani’ nurū; Manchu: Amba Hinggan), is a volcanic mountain range in northeast China. The range extends roughly 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) from northeast to southwest.
The area has an elevation of 1,200 to 1,300 metres (3,900 to 4,300 ft), and the highest peak Huanggangliang reaches 2,035 metres (6,677 ft). The range is much broader in the north, at 306 kilometres (190 mi), than it is in the south, at 97 kilometres (60 mi). It was formed during the Jurassic Period (roughly 200 to 145 million years ago), and is essentially a tilted fault block; its ancient fault line forms its eastern edge, facing the Northeast China Plain. The ranges are markedly asymmetrical, with a sharp eastern face and a more gentle western slope down to the Mongolian Plateau at an elevation of 790 to 1,000 metres (2,590 to 3,280 ft). The eastern slopes are more heavily dissected by the numerous tributaries of the Nen and Songhua rivers, but generally the mountains are rounded with flat peaks. The ranges are composed largely of igneous rocks (i.e., formed through the solidification of magma).
Its slopes are a relatively rich grazing area. The Khitan people lived on the eastern slopes before establishing the Liao Dynasty in the tenth century. On the western slopes lived the nomadic people, who raised sheep and camels and used the Mongolian plateau for their pastoralist economy.