Grail (web browser)

Grail 0.6 running under Python 2.7 on Linux
Original author(s) Guido van Rossum[1][2]
Developer(s) Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI)
Initial release August 1995 (1995-08)
Preview release
0.6 / 1 April 1999 (1999-04-01)
Written in Python
Type Web browser
License Free software license[3]

Grail was a free extensible multi-platform web browser written in the Python programming language. The project was started in August 1995, with its first public release in November of that year.[4] The last official release was version 0.6 in 1999.

One of the major distinguishing features of Grail was the ability to run client-side Python code, in much the same way as mainstream browsers run client-side JavaScript code.[5][6]


  1. Scripting the Web with Python, I wrote Grail version 0.1 in less than two weeks, as a sort of demo; it consisted of under 2000 lines in 14 source files. It was released in August 1995., Guido van Rossum
  2. In the beginning there was the Grail,(Page 519), Programming Python, By Mark Lutz, O'Reilly Media, Inc., 2001
  3. Grail source license
  4. Grail - The Browser For The Rest Of Us (DRAFT)
  5. 18.5.1. A Simple Grail Applet Example, Thinking about Programming Python, 3rd Edition - Advanced Internet Topics - Grail A Python Based Web Browser, CodeIdol
  6. Henricksen, Karen (15 October 1999). Indulska, Jadwiga (supervisor). "5.2 Grail architecture" (PDF). Adaptive Applications in Mobile Environments: 47. Retrieved 16 December 2016.

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