Ghe with upturn
|Cyrillic letter |
Ghe with upturn
|The Cyrillic script|
Ghe with upturn (Ґ ґ; italics: Ґ ґ ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. It is part of the Ukrainian alphabet, the Pannonian Rusyn alphabet and both the Carpathian Rusyn alphabets, and also some variants of Urum and Belarusian (i.e. Taraškievica) alphabets. In these alphabets it is usually called "Ge", while the letter it follows — ‹Г г› (which in its turn is also called "Ge" in Russian and many other languages) — is called "He". In Unicode this letter is called "Ghe with upturn".
It represents the voiced velar plosive /ɡ/, like the pronunciation of ‹g› in "go".
Ghe with upturn is romanized using the Latin letter G (but with an additional grave accent in ISO 9).
The common Slavic voiced velar plosive [ɡ] is represented in most Cyrillic orthographies by ‹Г›, called ге ghe in most languages. In Ukrainian, however, around the early 13th century, the sound lenited to the voiced velar fricative [ɣ] (except in the cluster *zg), and around the 16th century, debuccalized to the voiced glottal fricative [ɦ] (like the pronunciation of ‹h› in behind). The phoneme continued to be represented by ‹Г›, called ге he in Ukrainian.
Within a century after this sound change began, [ɡ] was re-introduced from Western European loanwords. Since then, it has been represented by several different notations in writing.
In early Belarusian and Ukrainian orthographies, Latin ‹g› or the Cyrillic digraph ‹кг› (kh) were sometimes used for the sound of Latin ‹g› in assimilated words. The first text to consequently employ the letter ‹ґ› was the 16th-century Peresopnytsia Gospel. The use of the letter was not confined to the Old- and Middle-Ukrainian-speaking territory, and there was a fully-fledged use in the 16th-century printer Pyotr Mstislavets's edition of The Four Gospels. Later, distinguishing of the sound and using the digraph gradually disappeared from Belarusian orthography.
As far as linguistic studies are concerned, the letter ‹ґ› was first introduced into the Slavic alphabet in 1619 by Meletius Smotrytsky in his "Slavic Grammar" (Грамматіки славєнскиѧ правилноє Сѵнтаґма). Later, for an identical purpose, it was saved in the new orthography of Ukrainian.
The letter ‹ґ› was officially eliminated from the Ukrainian alphabet in the Soviet orthographic reforms of 1933, its function being subsumed into that of the letter ‹г›, pronounced in Ukrainian as [ɦ]. However, ‹ґ› continued to be used by Ukrainians in Galicia (part of Poland until 1939) and in the Ukrainian diaspora worldwide. It was reintroduced to Soviet Ukraine in a 1990 orthographic reform under glasnost.
In Belarusian, the plosive realization of the Proto-Slavic voiced velar plosive has been preserved root-internally in the consonant clusters ‹зг›, ‹жг›, ‹дзг›, and ‹джг› (in words such as мазгі [mazˈɡi], вэдзгаць [ˈvɛdzɡatsʲ] or джгаць [ˈʤɡatsʲ] but not on a morphological boundary, as in згадаць [zɣaˈdatsʲ], in which /z/ is a prefix). It is present in common loanwords such as ганак [ˈɡanak], гузік [ˈɡuzʲik], or гандаль [ˈɡandalʲ]. In the 20th century, some Belarusian linguists, notably Jan Stankievič, promoted both the reintroduction of the practice of pronouncing Latin ‹g›, at least in newly assimilated words, and the adoption of the letter ‹ґ› to represent it. However, consensus on this has never been reached, and the letter has never been part of standard Belarusian alphabet and saw only sporadic periods of use. For example, a code of alternative Belarusian orthography rules, based on the proposal of Vincuk Viačorka and published in 2005, has the optional letter ‹ґ› included in the alphabet, but it is optional and can be replaced by ‹г›.
Regular (non-cursive) uppercase and lowercase forms of this letter look similarly corresponding regular (non-cursive) uppercase and lowercase forms of the "Гг" letter, but with additional upturn. Handwritten (cursive) uppercase and lowercase forms of this letter are displayed at the image to the left.
Related letters and other similar characters
|Unicode name||CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER|
GHE WITH UPTURN
|CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER|
GHE WITH UPTURN
|UTF-8||210 144||D2 90||210 145||D2 91|
|Numeric character reference||Ґ||Ґ||ґ||ґ|
- "Cyrillic: Range: 0400–04FF" (PDF). The Unicode Standard, Version 6.0. Unicode Inc. 2010. p. 42. Retrieved 2011-10-13.
- Shevelov (1977:145)
- Shevelov (1977:148)
- Мелетій Смотрицький. Граматика слов'янська (1619). Підготовка факсимільного видання В. В. Німчука. Київ. «Наукова думка» (Пам'ятки української мови) 1979
- Ukrainian Orthography (2012). — § 15. The letter ‹ґ›.
- Bušlakoŭ et al. (2005: 13)
- Bušlakoŭ, Juraś, Vincuk Viačorka, Źmicier Sańko, Źmicier Saŭka. 2005. Klasyčny pravapis. Zbor praviłaŭ: Sučasnaja narmalizacyja [Classical orthography. Set of rules: Contemporary normalization]. (PDF.) Vilnia—Miensk: Audra.
- Лёсік, Язэп. 1927. “Да рэформы беларускай азбукі”, у: Працы акадэмічнае конфэрэнцыі па рэформе беларускага правапісу і азбукі. Менск: Інстытут Беларускае Культуры.
- Shevelov, George Y. 1977. “On the Chronology of H and the New G in Ukrainian”, in: Harvard Ukrainian Studies, vol 1, no 2 (June 1977), pp. 137–52. Cambridge: Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute.
- Станкевіч, Ян. 2002. “Гук «ґ» у беларускай мове” [The G sound in Belarusian], у: Ян Станкевіч, Збор твораў у двух тамах. Т. 2. - Менск: Энцыклапедыкс. ISBN 985-6599-46-6