|Hindustani classical music|
In Hindustani music, a gharānā is a system of social organization linking musicians or dancers by lineage or apprenticeship, and by adherence to a particular musical style. A gharana also indicates a comprehensive musicological ideology. This ideology sometimes changes substantially from one gharana to another. It directly affects the thinking, teaching, performance and appreciation of music.
The word gharana comes from the Hindi word 'ghar' which is derived from Sanskrit for Griha, which means 'house'. It typically refers to the place where the musical ideology originated; for example, some of the gharanas well known for singing khyals are: Agra, Gwalior, Indore, Jaipur, Kirana, and Patiala.
The gharana system in khyal was rooted in the guru-shishya tradition and was similar to the Dhrupad Bani system. The gharana system was greatly influenced by the gradual fall of the Mughal Empire, which forced musicians to move from Delhi to princely states such as Gwalior, Lucknow, Hyderabad, Patiala and Rampur.
The gharanas have distinct styles of presenting the khyal — how much to emphasize and how to enunciate the words of the composition, when to sing the sthayi and antara, whether to sing an unmetered alap in the beginning, what kinds of improvisations to use, how much importance to give to the rhythmic aspect, and so on. However, an individual performer from a gharana may choose to borrow appealing stylistic aspects of another gharana in his or her gayaki. There are exactly ten prominent khyal gharanas, and they are:
|Gharana||Founding Artists||Approximate founding date||Famous Exponents||Features|
|Gwalior Gharana||Nathan Pir Baksh, Hassu Khan, Haddu Khan, Nathu Khan||Mid-16th Century||Vishnu Digambar Paluskar, Omkarnath Thakur, Ghulam Hassan Shaggan, Malini Rajurkar, Veena Sahasrabuddhe||Bol-baant, bol-taan, no sargam, wide range in taans, alankarik taans, descending sapaat taans, roughly similar emphasis on melody and rhythm, preference for simple (as opposed to compound) ragas, repertoire of bandishes, variety of taans|
|Agra Gharana||Ghagge Khudabaksh||Mid-19th century||Faiyaz Khan, Jitendra Abhisheki||Closer to dhrupad with nom-tom type alap and other elements, rhythmic play, frequent use of tisra jati in teentaal, emphasis on voice culture to achieve wide range and powerful throw of voice, bol-baant, bol-taan, rare use of sargam, slower taans, use of jabda taan, repertoire of traditional and self-composed bandishes|
|Kirana Gharana||Abdul Karim Khan, Abdul Wahid Khan||Late 17th century||Sawai Gandharva, Bhimsen Joshi, Prabha Atre, Hirabai Barodekar, Gangubai Hangal||Slow-tempo raga development, emphasis on melody, long and sustained pitches, usually traditional ragas, use of sargam, very little bol-baant, clarity of text pronunciation, use of some Carnatic ragas and raga features, emphasis on vocal as opposed to instrumental form|
|Bhendi Bazaar Gharana||Chhajju Khan, Nazeer Khan, Khadim Hussain Khan||Late 19th century||Aman Ali Khan, Anjanibai Malpekar||Emphasis on breath control to be able to sing long passages in a single breath, use of merukhand for extended alaps, use of gamak taan and sargam, use of some Carnatic ragas|
|Jaipur-Atrauli Gharana||Alladiya Khan||Late 19th century||Kishori Amonkar, Ashwini Bhide-Deshpande, Mallikarjun Mansur||Repertoire of rare and complex ragas, based on Agra gharana, use of aakaar for badhat, heavy use of teentaal, rupak, jhaptaal and ada-chautaal, rhythmic play, use of bol-baant and bol-taan, rippling taans, heavy emphasis on taans|
|Patiala Gharana||Bade Fateh Ali Khan, Ali Baksh Khan||Late 19th century||Bade Ghulam Ali Khan, Vasantrao Deshpande||Emphasis on voice development, roughly similar emphasis on melody and rhythm, bol-baant-like sargam with occasional tonic transpositions, occasional use of bol-taan, variety of taans, fast sargam and taan patterns, may or may not include antara, influence of tappa style|
|Rampur-Sahaswan Gharana||Inayat Hussain Khan||Mid 19th century||Rashid Khan (musician), Ghulam Mustafa Khan (singer)||Emphasis on melody, bol-taans, sargam taans, sapaat taans|
|Indore Gharana||Amir Khan||Mid 20th century||Slow-tempo and leisurely raga development, improvisation mostly in lower and middle octaves, tendency towards serious and expansive ragas, emphasis on melody, judicious use of pause between improvisations, bol alap and sargam using merukhand patterns, sparing application of murki, use of kan swaras in all parts of performance, controlled use of embellishments to preserve introspective quality, rare use of tihai, careful enunciation of text, may or may not include antara, multiple laya jatis in a single taan, mixture of taan types in a single taan, known for ruba'idar tarana (considered similar to chhota khyal)|
|Mewati Gharana||Ghagge Nazir Khan||Mid 19th century||Jasraj, Kala Ramnath, Sanjeev Abhyankar||Emphasis on melody, known for bhajans, sapaat taans and gamak taans, use of sargam|
|Sham Chaurasia Gharana||Miyan Chand Khan, Miyan Suraj Khan||Late 16th century||Salamat Ali and Nazakat Ali Khan||Emphasis on layakari using bol-taan and tihai, fast sargam and taan patterns|
In the Benares Thumri Gharana, the words in the text of a song are musically embellished to bring out their meaning, while the Lucknow gharana presents intricately embellished and delicate thumris that are explicit in their eroticism. The principal feature of the thumri of the Patiala gharana is its incorporation of the tappa from the Punjab region. It is with this tappa element that the Patiala gharana makes its impact, departing from the khyal-dominated Benaras thumris and the dance-oriented Lucknow thumris. The Benares gharana was founded by Kirtankars in the 13th century and revived by Siddheshwari Devi, Rasoolan Bai, Badi Moti Bai, Mahadev Mishra, and Girija Devi (mid-20th century).
- Delhi gharana is the oldest of the Tabla Gharanas.
- Ajrara gharana is an offshoot of and closely associated with the Delhi Gharana.
- Lucknow gharana has rhythmic development through Kathak.
- Benares gharana
- Punjab gharana, popularized by Alla Rakha and Zakir Hussain, developed through its original Pakhavaj repertoire
- Farukhabad gharana is the youngest accepted Tabla Gharana, and an offshoot of all of the Gharanas, featuring their main concepts
|Gharana||Founding artists||Approximate founding date||Founding location||Famous exponents|
|Delhi Gharana||Siddhar Khan||Early 18th century||Delhi||Ghami Khan, Imam Ali Khan, Munnu Khan, Latif Ahmed Khan, Shafaat Ahmed Khan|
|Ajrara gharana||Kallu Khan, Miru Khan||Early 19th century||Meerut||Habibuddin Khan, Mehboob Hussain Khan, Sudhirkumar Saxena, Manju Khan, Yusuf Khan, Babu Ram Parvesh Singh, Ramjan Khan, Sarwar Sabri, Akram Khan|
|Lucknow gharana||Miyan Bakshu||19th century||Lucknow||Ilmas Hussain Khan, Timir Roy Chowdhury, Achchan Maharaj, Anil Bhattacharjee, Biswajit Bhattacharjee, Santosh Biswas, Swapan Chaudhuri, Faiyaz Khan, Nibedita Bhattacharjee|
|Benares gharana||Ram Sahai||Late 18th century||Benaras||Ram Sahai, Kanthe Maharaj, Anokhelal Mishra, Shamta Prasad, Kishen Maharaj, Mahapurush Mishra, Ashutosh Bhattacharya, Nandan Mehta, Kumar Bose, Ananda Gopal Bandopadhyay, Samar Saha, Sharda Sahai, Manikrao Popatkar, Sukhwinder Singh Namdhari, Sanju Sahai, Ramkumar Mishra, Sandeep Das, Arvind Kumar Azad, Shubh Maharaj, Prabhash Maharaj|
|Farukhabad gharana||Haji Vilayat Ali Khan||19th century||Farukhabad||Masit Khan, Ahmedjan Thirakwa, Jnan Prakash Ghosh, Keramatullah Khan, Kanai Dutta, Shyamal Bose, Shankar Ghosh, Anindo Chatterjee, Abhijit Banerjee, Sabir Khan, Nayan Ghosh, Amir Hussain Khan, Pandharinath Nageshkar, Bickram Ghosh, Somnath Mukherjee|
|Punjab gharana||Miyan Qader Baksh||19th century||Punjab||Qadeer Buksh, Shaukat Hussein Khan, Abdul Sattar Tari Khan, Alla Rakha Khan, Zakir Hussain, Yogesh Samsi|
Wind and string instruments
In Kathak performers today generally draw their lineage from three major schools of Kathak: the Jaipur gharana, the Lucknow gharana and the Banaras gharana (born in the courts of the Kachwaha Rajput kings, the Nawab of Oudh, and Varanasi respectively); there is also a less prominent (and later) Raigarh gharana which amalgamated technique from all three preceding gharanas but became famous for its own distinctive compositions.
The Lucknow gharana remains the most popular throughout the country. However, in recent times the Jaipur gharana has caught up and today most performers throughout India perform techniques belonging to both styles. With amalgamation of the techniques and poses from other dance forms, the purity of the movements and gestures may be diluted or modified along with the contemporary trends.