German federal election, November 1932

German federal election, November 1932

6 November 1932

All 584 seats in the Reichstag
293 seats needed for a majority
Turnout 80.58% 3.52 pp

  First party Second party Third party
 
Leader Adolf Hitler Otto Wels Ernst Thälmann
Party NSDAP SPD KPD
Leader since 28 July 1921 1919 October 1925
Last election 230 seats, 37.27% 133 seats, 21.58% 89 seats, 14.32%
Seats won 196 121 100
Seat change 34 12 11
Popular vote 11,737,395 7,251,690 5,980,614
Percentage 33.09% 20.43% 16.86%
Swing 4.18% 1.15% 2.54%

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
 
Leader Ludwig Kaas Alfred Hugenberg Heinrich Held
Party Centre DNVP BVP
Leader since September 1928 1928 27 June 1924
Last election 75 seats, 12.44% 37 seats, 5.91% 22 seats, 3.23%
Seats won 70 52 20
Seat change 5 15 2
Popular vote 4,230,545 3,792,563 1,206,247
Percentage 11.93% 8.34% 3.09%
Swing 0.51% 2.43% 0.14%

Composition of the Reichstag after the election.

Chancellor before election

Franz von Papen
Non-partisan

Elected Chancellor

None (Schleicher appointed shortly afterward)

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Germany
Foreign relations

Federal elections were held in Germany on 6 November 1932.[1] They saw a significant drop in votes for the Nazi Party and increases for the Communists and the national conservative DNVP. It was the last free and fair all-German election before the Nazi seizure of power on 30 January 1933, as the following elections of March 1933 were already accompanied by massive suppression, especially against Communist and Social Democratic politicians. The next free election was not held until August 1949 in West Germany; the next free all-German elections took place in December 1990 after reunification.

The results of the November 1932 election were a great disappointment for the Nazis. Although they emerged once more as the largest party by far, they had fewer seats than before, and failed to form a government coalition in the Reichstag parliament. So far Chancellor Franz von Papen, a former member of the Catholic Centre Party, had governed without parliamentary support relying on legislative decrees promulgated by Reich President Paul von Hindenburg according to Article 48 of the Weimar Constitution. However, on 12 September 1932 Papen had to ask Hindenburg to dissolve the parliament in order to preempt a motion of no confidence tabled by the Communist Party, which was expected to pass (since the Nazis were expected to vote in favour, as they also desired new elections). Thus, the election of November 1932 was held following this dissolution of parliament in September. The DNVP, which had backed Papen, gained 15 seats as a result.

After the election, Chancellor Papen urged Hindenburg to continue to govern by emergency decrees. Nevertheless, on 3 December he was superseded by his Defence Minister Kurt von Schleicher who in talks with the left wing of the Nazi Party led by Gregor Strasser tried to build up a Third Position (Querfront) strategy. These plans failed when in turn Hitler disempowered Strasser and approached Papen for coalition talks. Papen obtained Hindenburg's consent to form the Hitler Cabinet on 30 January 1933.

Results

Party Votes % Seats +/–
National Socialist German Workers Party11,737,02133.09196–34
Social Democratic Party of Germany7,247,90120.43121–12
Communist Party of Germany5,980,23916.86100+11
Centre Party4,230,54511.9370–5
German National People's Party2,959,0538.3451+14
Bavarian People's Party1,094,5973.0920–2
German People's Party660,8891.8611+4
Christian Social People's Service403,6661.145+2
German State Party336,4470.952–2
German Farmers' Party149,0260.423+1
Agricultural League105,2200.3020
Reich Party of the German Middle Class110,3090.311–1
German-Hanoverian Party63,9660.181+1
Radical Middle Class60,2460.1700
Thuringian Agricultural League60,0620.171New
Christian-National Peasants' and Farmers' Party46,3820.130–1
People's Justice Party46,2020.130–1
Socialist Workers' Party of Germany45,2010.1300
Poland List32,9880.0900
For Hindenberg and Pope27,7520.080New
Kleinrentner, Inflationsgeschädigte und Vorkriegsgeldbesitzer15,7270.0400
Free Economy Party of Germany11,0020.0300
Schicksalsgemeinschaft deutscher Erwerbslosen, Kleinhandel und Gewerbe9,2500.030New
Social Republican Party of Germany8,3950.020New
Handwerker, Handel- und Gewerbetreibende5,1890.0100
Radical Democratic Party3,7890.010New
Kampfgemeinschaft der Arbeiter und Bauern3,3080.0100
National Social Party of the Middle Class3,0520.010New
Enteigneter Mittelstand2,7370.0100
National Freedom Party of Germany1,8100.0100
Schleswig Home1,6940.0000
Greater Germany People's Party1,3110.0000
Interessengemeinschaft der Kleinrentner und Inflationsgeschädigten1,0860.0000
Nationalist Party5880.000New
People's Socialists5180.000New
Haus- und Landwirtepartei4610.000New
National Communist Party of Germany3810.000New
German Social Monarchist Party3550.0000
German Reform Party3520.0000
German Workers Party3080.0000
Unitarianist Union of Germany2900.0000
Greater German Middle Class Party for Middle Class Dictatorship2860.000New
Gerechtigkeits-Bewegung-Meißner2800.000New
German National Citizen Bloc1920.000New
Party for the Unemployed for Work and Bread1400.0000
National German Catholic Reich Party1370.000New
German Socialist Struggle Movement1010.0000
German Reich against Interest Rate Movement970.000New
Freiheitsbewegung Schwarz-Weiß-Rot920.000New
Middle Class Party850.000New
Kampfbund der Lohn- und Gehaltsabgebauten630.000New
Invalid/blank votes287,471
Total35,758,259100584–24
Registered voters/turnout44,374,08580.58
Source: Gonschior.de
Popular Vote
NSDAP
33.09%
SPD
20.43%
KPD
16.86%
Zentrum
11.93%
DNVP
8.34%
BVP
3.09%
DVP
1.86%
CSVD
1.14%
DStP
0.95%
Other
2.31%
Reichstag seats
NSDAP
33.56%
SPD
20.72%
KPD
17.12%
Zentrum
11.99%
DNVP
8.73%
BVP
3.42%
DVP
1.88%
CSVD
0.86%
DStP
0.34%
Other
1.37%

References

  1. Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p762 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
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