German federal election, 1994

German federal election, 1994

16 October 1994 (1994-10-16)

All 672 seats in the Bundestag
337 seats were needed for a majority
Turnout 79.0% (voting eligible)[1]

  First party Second party Third party
 
Leader Helmut Kohl Rudolf Scharping Antje Vollmer
Party CDU/CSU SPD Green
Leader since 1973 1993
Last election 319 seats 239 seats 8 seats
Seats won 294 252 49
Seat change 25 13 41
Popular vote 19,517,156 17,140,354 3,424,315
Percentage 41.4% 36.4% 7.3%
Swing 2.4% 2.9% 2.3%

  Fourth party Fifth party
 
Leader Klaus Kinkel Gregor Gysi
Party FDP PDS
Leader since 1993 1990
Last election 79 seats 17 seats
Seats won 47 30
Seat change 32 13
Popular vote 3,258,407 2,066,176
Percentage 6.9% 4.4%
Swing 4.1% 2.0%

Party list election results by state: dark blue denotes states where CSU had the absolute majority of the votes; lighter blue denotes states where CDU had the plurality of votes; and pink denotes states where the SPD had the plurality of votes

Chancellor before election

Helmut Kohl
CDU/CSU

Elected Chancellor

Helmut Kohl
CDU/CSU

Federal elections were held in Germany on 16 October 1994 to elect the members of the 13th Bundestag. The CDU/CSU alliance led by Helmut Kohl remained the largest faction in parliament, with Kohl remaining Chancellor. This elected Bundestag was largest in history until 2017, numbering 672 members.

Issues and campaign

The SPD let its members elect a candidate for Chancellor against Helmut Kohl. Rudolf Scharping, Minister-President of Rhineland-Palatinate, beat Gerhard Schröder and Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul in the SPD's internal election. Tension between Scharping and other SPD leaders such as Oskar Lafontaine and Gerhard Schröder hampered his campaign.

For the first time the Green party seemed to be willing to actually join a government in the event that a centre-left SPD – Green coalition had the majority.

Results

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Germany
Foreign relations

 Summary of 16 October 1994 German Bundestag election results
Parties Constituency Party list Total seats
Votes % +/− Seats +/− Votes % +/− Seats +/− Seats +/− %
Social Democratic Party (SPD) 17,966,813 38.3 +3.1 103 +12 17,140,354 36.4 +2.9 149 +1 252 +13 37.5
Christian Democratic Union (CDU) 17,473,325 37.2 −1.1 177 −15 16,089,960 34.2 −2.5 67 −9 244 −24 36.3
Christian Social Union (CSU) 3,657,627 7.8 +0.4 44 +1 3,427,196 7.3 +0.2 6 −2 50 −1 7.4
Alliance '90/The Greens 3,037,902 6.5 +0.9 0 ±0 3,424,315 7.3 +2.3 49 +41 49 +41 7.3
Free Democratic Party (FDP) 1,558,185 3.3 −4.5 0 −1 3,258,407 6.9 −4.1 47 −31 47 −32 7.0
Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS) 1,920,420 4.1 +1.8 4 +3 2,066,176 4.4 +2.0 26 +10 30 +13 4.5
The Republicans (REP) 787,757 1.7 ±0 0 ±0 875,239 1.9 −0.2 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
The Grays – Gray Panthers (GRAUE) 178,450 0.4 −0.1 0 ±0 238,642 0.5 −0.3 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Ecological Democratic Party (ÖDP) 200,138 0.4 −0.1 0 ±0 183,715 0.4 ±0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Natural Law Party (Naturgesetz) 59,087 0.1 +0.1 0 ±0 73,193 0.2 +0.2 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Animal Protection Party 71,643 0.2 +0.2 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Party of Bible-abiding Christians (PBC) 26,864 0.1 +0.1 0 ±0 65,651 0.1 +0.1 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Statt Party (STATT) 7,927 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 63,354 0.1 +0.1 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Bavaria Party (BP) 3,324 0.0 ±0 0 ±0 42,491 0.1 ±0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Car-drivers' and Citizens' Interests Party (APD) 1,654 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 21,533 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Christian Centre (CM) 3,559 0.0 ±0 0 ±0 19,887 0.0 −0.1 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Party of the Willing to Work and Socially Vulnerable (PASS) 489 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 15,040 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Marxist-Leninist Party of Germany (MLPD) 4,932 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 10,038 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Solidarity (BüSo) 8,032 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 8,103 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Christian League (Liga) 3,788 0.0 ±0 0 ±0 5,195 0.0 −0.1 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Centre Party (Zentrum) 1,489 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 3,757 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Federation of Socialist Workers (BSA) 1,285 0.0 ±0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Free Citizens' Union (FBU) 8,193 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
German Social Union (DSU) 2,395 0.0 −0.3 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
German Communist Party (DKP) 693 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
DVP 606 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Free Social Union (FSU) 467 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Communist Party of Germany (KPD) 426 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Independent Workers' Party (UAP) 302 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Liberal Democrats (LD) 221 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Federation for a Complete Germany (BGD) 107 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Democrats (DEMOKRATEN) 104 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Electoral groups and independents 34,080 0.1 ±0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Invalid/blank votes 788,643 632,825
Totals 47,737,999 100 ±0.0 328 ±0 47,737,999 100 ±0.0 344 +10 672 +10 ±0
Registered voters/turnout 60,452,009 79.0 60,452,009 79.0
Source: Federal Returning Officer
^† — totals for the Greens reflect the merger of the Western and Eastern Green parties.
294 47 252 49 30
CDU/CSU FDP SPD Grüne PDS
Popular Vote
CDU/CSU
41.43%
SPD
36.39%
B'90/GRÜNE
7.27%
F.D.P.
6.92%
PDS
4.39%
REP
1.86%
Other
1.75%
Bundestag seats
CDU/CSU
43.75%
SPD
37.50%
B'90/GRÜNE
7.29%
F.D.P.
6.99%
PDS
4.46%

Post-election

The coalition between the CDU/CSU and the FDP was able to continue in power with Helmut Kohl as chancellor.

The PDS won four constituency seats in its power base of the former East Berlin, qualifying it for proportional representation even though the party won 4.4 percent of the vote, just short of the 5% electoral threshold required for full parliamentary status. Under a longstanding electoral law intended to benefit regional parties, any party that wins at least three constituency seats is entitled to its share of proportionally-elected seats, regardless of vote share.[2]

This was the first time in the history of the Federal Republic that the FDP was not the third largest party in the chamber.

References

  1. "Voter turnout by election year". Website of the Federal Returning Officer's Office. The Federal Returning Officer. Archived from the original on 7 November 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
  2. Dan Hough; Michael Koß; Jonathan Olsen (2007). The Left Party in Contemporary German Politics. Springer. ISBN 0230592147.

Sources

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