Geresh (׳ in Hebrew: גֶּרֶשׁ or גֵּרֶשׁ [ˈɡeʁeʃ], or medieval [ˈɡeːɾeːʃ]) is a sign in Hebrew writing. It has two meanings.
- An apostrophe-like sign (also known colloquially as a chupchik) placed after a letter:
- A note of cantillation in the reading of the Torah and other Biblical books, taking the form of a curved diagonal stroke placed above a letter.
As a diacritic, the Geresh is written immediately after (left of) the letter it modifies. It indicates three sounds native to speakers of modern Hebrew that are common in loan words and slang: [dʒ] as in judge, [ʒ] as in measure and [tʃ] as in church. In transliteration of Arabic, it indicates Arabic phonemes which are usually allophones in modern Hebrew: [ɣ] is distinguished from [r] and [ħ] is distinguished from [χ]. Finally, it indicates other sounds foreign to the phonology modern Hebrew speakers and used exclusively for the transliteration of foreign words: [ð] as in then, [θ] as in thin, [sˤ]; and, in some transliteration systems, also [tˤ], [dˤ] and [ðˤ].
Loanwords, slang, foreign names and transliterations
Transliteration of foreign names
- * ^ Both double-vav and vav with geresh are non-standard and so inconsistently used.
Some words or suffixes with Yiddish origin or pronunciation are marked with a geresh, e.g. the diminutive suffix "לֶ׳ה" – "le", e.g. "יענקל׳ה" – "Yankale" (as in Yankale Bodo), or the words "חבר׳ה" – [ˈχevre], "guys" (which is the Yiddish pronunciation of Hebrew "חברה" [χevˈra] "company"), or "תכל׳ס" – [ˈtaχles], "down-to-earth".
The geresh is used as a punctuation mark in initialisms and to denote numerals.
In initialisms, the Geresh is written after the last letter of the initialism. For example: the title גְּבֶרֶת (literally "lady") is abbreviated גב׳, equivalent to English "Mrs" and "Ms".
Denoting a numeral
A Geresh can be appended after (left of) a single letter to indicate that the letter represents a Hebrew numeral. For example: ק׳ represents 100. A multi-digit Hebrew numeral is indicated by the Gershayim ⟨״⟩.
As a note of cantillation in the reading of the Torah, the Geresh is printed above the accented letter: ב֜. The Geresh Muqdam (lit. "a Geresh made earlier"), a variant cantillation mark, is also printed above the accented letter, but slightly before (i.e. more to the right of) the position of the normal Geresh: ב֝. As a cantillation mark it is also called Ṭères (טֶרֶס).
Most keyboards do not have a key for the geresh. As a result, an apostrophe ( ', Unicode U+0027) is often substituted for it.
||HEBREW PUNCTUATION GERESH|
||HEBREW ACCENT GERESH|
||HEBREW ACCENT GERESH MUQDAM|
- 1 2 Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, §15f
- ↑ Even-Shoshan Dictionary, 2003; Shoshana Bahat and Mordechay Mishor, Dictionary of Contemporary Hebrew, 2007.
- ↑ Kordova, Shoshana (3 Mar 2013). "Word of the Day / Chupchik צ'וּפְּצִ'יק". Haaretz. Haaretz Daily Newspaper Ltd. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
- ↑ Rules for the transcription of %5b%5bArabic language|Arabic%5d%5d into %5b%5bHebrew language|Hebrew%5d%5d, pp. 5–6 "(Academy of the Hebrew Language)".
- ↑ "(Academy of the Hebrew Language)" (PDF). Archived from Rules for the transcription of foreign names into %5b%5bHebrew language|Hebrew%5d%5d, pp. 5–6 the original on 2008-09-10.
- ↑ Transliteration Rules Archived 2008-02-28 at the Wayback Machine. issued by the Academy of the Hebrew Language state that both [v] and [w] be indistinguishably represented in Hebrew using the letter Vav. Sometimes the Vav is indeed doubled, however not to denote [w] as opposed to [v] but rather, when spelling without niqqud, to denote the phoneme /v/ at a non-initial and non-final position in the word, whereas a single Vav at a non-initial and non-final position in the word in spelling without niqqud denotes one of the phonemes /u/ or /o/. To pronounce foreign words and loanwords containing the sound [w], Hebrew readers must therefore rely on former knowledge and context, see also pronunciation of Hebrew Vav.
- ↑ Hebrew Punctuation "(Academy of the Hebrew Language)".