Ge (Cyrillic)

Cyrillic letter Ghe
Numeric value: 3
Phonetic usage: [g], [ɦ]
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
АБВГҐДЂ
ЃЕЀЁЄЖЗ
З́ЅИЍІЇЙ
ЈКЛЉМНЊ
ОПРСС́ТЋ
ЌУЎФХЦЧ
ЏШЩЪЫЬЭ
ЮЯ
Non-Slavic letters
А́А̀ӐА̄А̊А̃Ӓ
Ӓ̄В̌ӘӘ́Ә̃ӚӔ
ҒГ̧Г̑Г̄Г̣Г̌Ҕ
ӺҒ̌ӶԀԂ
Д̆Д̣ԪԬД̆Ӗ
Е̄Е̃Ё̄Є̈ӁҖ
ӜԄҘӞЗ̌З̱З̣
ԐԐ̈ӠԆӢИ̃Ҋ
ӤИ́ҚӃҠҞҜ
ԞК̣ԚӅԮԒԠ
ԈԔӍӉҢԨӇ
ҤԢԊО́О̀О̆О̂
О̃О̄ӦӦ̄ӨӨ̄Ө́
Ө̆ӪҨԤҦР̌Ҏ
ԖҪС̣С̱ԌТ̌Т̣
ҬԎУ̃Ӯ
ӰӰ́ӲҮҮ́ҰХ̣
Х̱Х̮Х̑ҲӼӾҺ
Һ̈ԦҴҶӴ
ӋҸҼҾ
Ы̆Ы̄ӸҌЭ̆Э̄Э̇
ӬӬ́Ӭ̄Ю̆Ю̈Ю̈́Ю̄
Я̆Я̄Я̈ԘԜӀ
Archaic letters
ҀѺ
ѸѠѼѾ
ѢѤѦ
ѪѨѬѮ
ѰѲѴѶ

Ge or Ghe г; italics: Г г) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. It is also known in some languages as He. It commonly represents the voiced velar plosive /ɡ/, like g in "go".

It is generally romanized using the Latin letter G, but to romanize Belarusian, Ukrainian and Rusyn, the Latin letter H is used.

History

The Cyrillic letter Ghe was derived directly from the Greek letter Gamma (Γ) in uncial script.

In the Early Cyrillic alphabet, its name was глаголи (glagoli), meaning "speak".

In the Cyrillic numeral system, it had a numerical value of 3.

The character was also attached to the Mario series villain, and Luigi's rival, Waluigi.

Usage in Slavic languages

South Slavic

In standard Serbian, Bulgarian, Macedonian the letter Ghe represents a voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ but is devoiced to [k] word-finally or before a voiceless consonant.

Russian

In standard Russian, Ghe represents the voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ but is devoiced to [k] word-finally or before a voiceless consonant. It represents /ɡʲ/ before a palatalizing vowel. In the Southern Russian dialect, the sound becomes the velar fricative /ɣ/. Sometimes, the sound is the glottal fricative /ɦ/ in the regions bordering Belarus and Ukraine.

It is acceptable, for some people, to pronounce certain Russian words with [ɣ] (sometimes referred to as Ukrainian Ge): Бог, богатый, благо, Господь (Bog, bogatyj, blago, Gospod’). The sound is normally considered nonstandard or dialectal in Russian and is avoided by educated Russian speakers. Бог (Bog, "God") is always pronounced [box] in the nominative case.[1]

In the Russian nominal genitive ending -ого, -его, Ghe represents [v], including in the word сегодня ("today", from сего дня).

It represents a voiceless [x] (not [k]) in front of Ka in two Russian words, namely, мягкий and лёгкий, and their derivatives.

The Latin letter H of words of Latin, Greek, English or German origin is usually transliterated into Russian with Ghe rather than Kha: heroгерой, hamburgerгамбургер, HaydnГайдн. That can occasionally cause ambiguity, as for example English Harry and Gary/Garry would be spelled the same in Russian, eg. Гарри Поттер). The reasons for using Ghe to write h include the fact that Ghe is used for h in Ukrainian, Belarusian and some Russian dialects, along with the perception that Kha sounds too harsh. Nevertheless, in newer loanwords (especially from English), Kha is often used.

Belarusian and Ukrainian

In Ukrainian, it represents a voiced glottal fricative [ɦ],[1] a breathy voiced counterpart of the English [h].

In Belarusian (like in Southern Russian), the letter corresponds to the velar fricative /ɣ/[1] and its soft counterpart /ɣʲ/.

In both languages, the letter is called He and transliterated with H rather than with G.

In Ukrainian and Belarusian, a voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ is written with the Cyrillic letter Ghe with upturn ґ) in Ukrainian (transliterated with G) and with the digraph кг in Belarusian (also ґ in Taraškievica).

Usage in non-Slavic languages

In many non-Slavic languages it can represent both /g/ and /ʁ~ɣ/ (the latter mostly in Turkic and some Finno-Ugric languages).

In Ossetian, an Indo-Iranian language spoken in the Caucasus, ⟨г⟩ represents the voiced velar stop /g/. However, the digraph ⟨гъ⟩ represents the voiced uvular fricative /ʁ/.

Computing codes

CharacterГг
Unicode nameCYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER GHECYRILLIC SMALL LETTER GHE
Encodingsdecimalhexdecimalhex
Unicode1043U+04131075U+0433
UTF-8208 147D0 93208 179D0 B3
Numeric character referenceГГгг
KOI8-R and KOI8-U231E7199C7
CP 855173AD172AC
Windows-1251195C3227E3
ISO-8859-5179B3211D3
Mac Cyrillic13183227E3

References

  1. 1 2 3 Звуки на месте буквы г [Sounds in place of the letter г]. Scholarly Dialectical Atlas (in Russian). map 14.
  • The dictionary definition of Г at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of г at Wiktionary
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.