Gardner–Salinas braille codes

The Gardner–Salinas braille codes are a method of encoding mathematical and scientific notation linearly using braille cells for tactile reading by the visually impaired. The most common form of Gardner–Salinas braille is the 8-cell variety, commonly called GS8. There is also a corresponding 6-cell form called GS6.[1]

The codes were developed as a replacement for Nemeth Braille by John A. Gardner, a physicist at Oregon State University, and Norberto Salinas, an Argentinian mathematician.

The Gardner–Salinas braille codes are an example of a compact human-readable markup language. The syntax is based on the LaTeX system for scientific typesetting.

Table of Gardner–Salinas 8-dot (GS8) braille

The set of lower-case letters, the period, comma, semicolon, colon, exclamation mark, apostrophe, and opening and closing double quotes are the same as in Grade-2 English Braille.[1]

Digits

Symbol0123456789
Braille

Apart from 0, this is the same as the Antoine notation used in French and Luxembourgish Braille.

Upper-case letters

GS8 upper-case letters are indicated by the same cell as standard English braille (and GS8) lower-case letters, with dot #7 added.

SymbolABCDEFGHIJKLM
Braille
SymbolNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
Braille

Compare Luxembourgish Braille.

Greek letters

Dot 8 is added to the letter forms of International Greek Braille to derive Greek letters:

Symbolαβγδεζηθικλμ
Braille
Symbolνξοπρστυφχψω
Braille
SymbolΓΔΘΛΞΠΣΥΦΨΩ
Braille

Characters differing from English Braille

SymbolParenthesesBracketssingle quote 
opencloseopencloseopenclose?
Braille

ASCII symbols and mathematical operators

Symbol"$&@\^_`{}~
Braille
Symbol#%*+/<=>×·÷
Braille

Text symbols

Symbol©£
Braille

Math and science symbols

Symbol|x| (abs. value)line ∫closed ∫
Braille
Symbol...
Braille

Markup

SymbolSuperscriptSubscriptLeft-superscriptLeft-subscriptBegin fractionDenominatorEnd fractionOver *
Braille

* Encodes the fraction-slash for the single adjacent digits/letters as numerator and denominator.

Symbolcomplex radicand *displayed equation **math expressions **hyperlink **
OpenCloseOpenCloseOpenCloseOpenClose
Braille

* Used for any > 1 digit radicand.

** Used for markup to represent inkprint text.

SymbolArray   
BeginEndEnd elementEnd linevert. stackhoriz. combosuperposition
Braille
SymbolMisc. Symbol *  Modifiers
BeginEndQuantityMarkup indicatorInvertedStroke/NotVariantLarge
Braille

Typeface indicators

SymbolScriptBoldItalicUnderlineDefinable font 1FracturRomanUnderline
Braille

Shape symbols

SymbolOpen Square
Braille

Set theory

Symbol
Braille


References

  1. 1 2 "Index of Topics in Braille Section". Oregon State University Science Access Project Braille topics. Archived from the original on 2012-04-20. Retrieved 2012-04-29.
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