Gardner–Salinas braille codes

The Gardner–Salinas braille codes are a method of encoding mathematical and scientific notation linearly using braille cells for tactile reading by the visually impaired. The most common form of Gardner–Salinas braille is the 8-cell variety, commonly called GS8. There is also a corresponding 6-cell form called GS6.[1]

The codes were developed as a replacement for Nemeth Braille by John A. Gardner, a physicist at Oregon State University, and Norberto Salinas, an Argentinian mathematician.

The Gardner–Salinas braille codes are an example of a compact human-readable markup language. The syntax is based on the LaTeX system for scientific typesetting.

Table of Gardner–Salinas 8-dot (GS8) braille

The set of lower-case letters, the period, comma, semicolon, colon, exclamation mark, apostrophe, and opening and closing double quotes are the same as in Grade-2 English Braille.[1]

Digits

Symbol0123456789
Braille

Apart from 0, this is the same as the Antoine notation used in French and Luxembourgish Braille.

Upper-case letters

GS8 upper-case letters are indicated by the same cell as standard English braille (and GS8) lower-case letters, with dot #7 added.

SymbolABCDEFGHIJKLM
Braille
SymbolNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
Braille

Compare Luxembourgish Braille.

Greek letters

Dot 8 is added to the letter forms of International Greek Braille to derive Greek letters:

Symbolαβγδεζηθικλμ
Braille
Symbolνξοπρστυφχψω
Braille
SymbolΓΔΘΛΞΠΣΥΦΨΩ
Braille

Characters differing from English Braille

SymbolParenthesesBracketssingle quote
opencloseopencloseopenclose?
Braille

ASCII symbols and mathematical operators

Symbol"\$&@\^_`{}~
Braille
Symbol#%*+/<=>×·÷
Braille

Braille

Math and science symbols

Symbol|x| (abs. value)line ∫closed ∫
Braille
Symbol...
Braille

Markup

SymbolSuperscriptSubscriptLeft-superscriptLeft-subscriptBegin fractionDenominatorEnd fractionOver *
Braille

* Encodes the fraction-slash for the single adjacent digits/letters as numerator and denominator.

OpenCloseOpenCloseOpenCloseOpenClose
Braille

* Used for any > 1 digit radicand.

** Used for markup to represent inkprint text.

SymbolArray
BeginEndEnd elementEnd linevert. stackhoriz. combosuperposition
Braille
SymbolMisc. Symbol *  Modifiers
BeginEndQuantityMarkup indicatorInvertedStroke/NotVariantLarge
Braille

Typeface indicators

SymbolScriptBoldItalicUnderlineDefinable font 1FracturRomanUnderline
Braille

Shape symbols

SymbolOpen Square
Braille

Symbol
Braille

References

1. "Index of Topics in Braille Section". Oregon State University Science Access Project Braille topics. Archived from the original on 2012-04-20. Retrieved 2012-04-29.