Gagea

Gagea
Gagea lutea
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Liliales
Family: Liliaceae
Subfamily: Lilioideae
Genus: Gagea
Salisb.
Synonyms[1]
  • Upoxis Adans.
  • Rhabdocrinum Rchb.
  • Ornithoxanthum Link
  • Lloydia Salisb. ex Rchb. 1830 not Delile 1844 (Poaceae)
  • Nectarobothrium Ledeb.
  • Cronyxium Raf.
  • Hemierium Raf.
  • Hornungia Bernh. [1840], illegitimate homonym not Rchb. [1837] (Brassicaceae)
  • Reggeria Raf.
  • Bulbillaria Zucc.
  • Plecostigma Turcz.
  • Boissiera Haens. ex Willk. [1846], illegitimate homonym not Hochst. ex Steud. [1840] (syn of Bromus in Poaceae) nor Hochst. ex Griseb. [1852] (Poaceae)
  • Solenarium Dulac
  • Szechenyia Kanitz
  • Giraldiella Dammer

Gagea is a large genus of spring flowers in the lily family.[2] It is found primarily in Eurasia with a few species extending into North Africa and North America.[1][3][4][5][6][7]

The genus is named after the English naturalist Sir Thomas Gage (1791-1820). They were originally described as species of Ornithogalum, which, together with the usual yellow colour of the flowers, explains the English name yellow star-of-Bethlehem for the common European species, Gagea lutea.[8][1]

Species

As of January 2014, the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families recognizes over 200 species, including those previously assigned to Lloydia.[9]

  • Gagea afghanica A.Terracc. – Iran, Afghanistan, Central Asia
  • Gagea aipetriensis Levichev – Crimea
  • Gagea alashanica Y.Z.Zhao & L.Q.Zhao – Inner Mongolia
  • Gagea alberti Regel – Xinjiang, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
  • Gagea alexeenkoana Miscz. – Turkey, Iran, Caucasus
  • Gagea alexejana Kamelin ex Levichev – Tajikistan
  • Gagea alexii Ali & Levichev – Tajikistan, Iran, Pakistan
  • Gagea algeriensis (Chabert) Chabert ex Batt. – Spain, Morocco, Algeria
  • Gagea alii Levichev – Pakistan
  • Gagea altaica Schischk. & Sumnev. – Xinjiang, Kazakhstan, Siberia
  • Gagea amblyopetala Boiss. & Heldr. – southeastern Europe
  • Gagea ancestralis Levichev – Altay Krai
  • Gagea angelae Levichev & Schnittler – Xinjiang
  • Gagea angrenica Levichev – Tajikistan
  • Gagea anisopoda Popov – Turkmenistan
  • Gagea artemczukii Krasnova – Ukraine, Russia (incl Crimea, North Caucasus)
  • Gagea azutavica Kotukhov – Altay Krai
  • Gagea baluchistanica Levichev & Ali – Pakistan
  • Gagea baschkyzylsaica Levichev – Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan
  • Gagea bashoensis Ali – Pakistan, Kashmir
  • Gagea bergii Litv. – Iran, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan
  • Gagea bezengiensis Levichev – North Caucasus
  • Gagea bithynica Pascher – Turkey
  • Gagea bohemica (Zauschn.) Schult. & Schult.f. (syn. G. fistulosa) – Early Star-of-Bethlehem, Radnor Lily – Europe, Mediterranean
  • Gagea bornmuelleriana Pascher – Iran
  • Gagea bowes-lyonii Levichev – Pakistan, Kashmir
  • Gagea brevistolonifera Levichev – Kyrgyzstan
  • Gagea bulbifera (Pall.) Salisb. – Eurasia from Romania to Xinjiang
  • Gagea caelestis Levichev – Kyrgyzstan
  • Gagea calantha Levichev – Uzbekistan
  • Gagea calcicola Zarrei & Wilkin – Iran
  • Gagea calyptrifolia Levichev – Kyrgyzstan
  • Gagea capillifolia Vved. – Iran, Afghanistan, Central Asia
  • Gagea capusii A.Terracc. – Afghanistan, Central Asia
  • Gagea caroli-kochii Grossh. – Iran, South Caucasus
  • Gagea chabertii A.Terracc. – Algeria, Tunisia
  • Gagea chanae Grossh. – Iran, Turkey, Caucasus
  • Gagea charadzeae Davlian. – Caucasus
  • Gagea chinensis Y.Z.Zhao & L.Q.Zhao – Inner Mongolia
  • Gagea chitralensis S.Dasgupta & D.B.Deb – Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Pakistan
  • Gagea chlorantha (M.Bieb.) Schult. & Schult.f. – Middle East, Turkmenistan, Caucasus
  • Gagea chloroneura Rech.f. – Afghanistan
  • Gagea chomutovae (Pascher) Pascher – Turkey, Caucasus, Iran, Afghanistan, Central Asia
  • Gagea chrysantha (Jan) Schult. & Schult.f. – Italy incl Sicily
  • Gagea circumplexa Vved. – Middle East, Central Asia
  • Gagea commutata K.Koch – Caucasus, Iran
  • Gagea confusa A.Terracc. – Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Caucasus, Turkmenistan
  • Gagea cuneata Levichev & Murtaz. – North Caucasus
  • Gagea czatkalica Levichev – Uzbekistan
  • Gagea daghestanica Levichev & Murtaz. – North Caucasus
  • Gagea daqingshanensis L.Q.Zhao & Jie Yang – Inner Mongolia
  • Gagea davlianidzeae Levichev Kyrgyzstan
  • Gagea dayana Chodat & Beauverd – Middle East
  • Gagea delicatula Vved. – Uzbekistan, Tajikistan
  • Gagea deserticola Levichev – Uzbekistan
  • Gagea divaricata Regel – Xinjiang, Central Asia
  • Gagea drummondii Levichev & Ali – Pakistan, Kashmir
  • Gagea dschungarica Regel – Xinjiang, Central Asia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran
  • Gagea dubia A.Terracc. – Mediterranean, Iran
  • Gagea durieui Parl. ex Trab. – Morocco, Algeria, Spain incl Balearic Islands
  • Gagea eleonorae Levichev – Turkey, Caucasus
  • Gagea elliptica (A.Terracc.) Prain – Spain, Portugal, Morocco
  • Gagea exilis Vved. – Iran, Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan
  • Gagea extremadurensis M.Gut. & F.M.Vázquez – Spain
  • Gagea fedtschenkoana Pascher – Mongolia, Xinjiang, Kazakhstan, Siberia
  • Gagea ferganica Levichev – Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan
  • Gagea fibrosa (Desf.) Schult. & Schult.f. – North Africa
  • Gagea filiformis (Ledeb.) Kar. & Kir. – Altay Krai, Central Asia, Xinjiang, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Pakistan
  • Gagea flavonutans (H.Hara) Zarrei & Wilkin – Tibet, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, Assam
  • Gagea foliosa (C.Presl) Schult. & Schult.f. – France, Italy, Algeria
  • Gagea gageoides (Zucc.) Vved. – Caucasus, Middle East, Central Asia
  • Gagea germainae Grossh. – Caucasus
  • Gagea glacialis K.Koch – Caucasus, Turkey
  • Gagea glaucescens Levichev – Kyrgyzstan
  • Gagea goljakovii Levichev – Altay Krai
  • Gagea gracillima Pamp. – Kashmir
  • Gagea graeca (L.) Irmsch. – Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Israel
  • Gagea graminifolia Vved. – Iran, Afghanistan, Central Asia
  • Gagea granatellii (Parl.) Parl. – Mediterranean, Black Sea regions
  • Gagea granulosa Turcz. – Russia, Kazakhstan, Xinjiang, Mongolia
  • Gagea grey-wilsonii Rech.f. – Iran
  • Gagea gymnopoda Vved. – Tajikistan, Uzbekistan
  • Gagea gypsacea Levichev – Tajikistan
  • Gagea helenae Grossh. – Turkey, Caucasus
  • Gagea hiensis Pascher – Russia, China, Korea, Mongolia
  • Gagea hissarica Lipsky – Afghanistan, Central Asia
  • Gagea humicola Levichev – Uzbekistan
  • Gagea huochengensis Levichev – Xinjiang
  • Gagea ignota Levichev – Uzbekistan
  • Gagea incrustata Vved. – Uzbekistan, Tajikistan
  • Gagea intercedens Pascher – Iran
  • Gagea iranica Zarrei & Zarre – Iran
  • Gagea jaeschkei Pascher – Xinjiang, Central Asia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Western Himalayas
  • Gagea japonica Pascher – Japan
  • Gagea jensii Levichev & Schnittler – Xinjiang
  • Gagea jispensis Ali & Levichev – Western Himalayas
  • Gagea joannis Grossh. – Turkey, Cacasus
  • Gagea juliae Pascher – Turkey, Cyprus
  • Gagea kamelinii Levichev – Uzbekistan
  • Gagea kneissea J.Thiébaut – Syria
  • Gagea kopetdagensis Vved. – Turkmenistan
  • Gagea kunawurensis (Royle) Greuter – central + southwest Asia
  • Gagea kuraiensis Levichev – Altay Krai
  • Gagea kuraminica Levichev – Tajikiistan
  • Gagea lacaitae A.Terracc. – France, Spain, Italy, Algeria, Morocco
  • Gagea leosii Ali & Levichev – Western Himalayas
  • Gagea libanotica (Hochst.) Greuter. – Syria, Lebanon, Israel
  • Gagea liotardii (Sternb.) Schult. & Schult.f. – Eurasia from Spain to Mongolia
  • Gagea lojaconoi Peruzzi – Sicily, Sardinia, Turkey
  • Gagea longiscapa Grossh. – Siberia, Prinorye
  • Gagea ludmilae Levichev – Uzbekistan
  • Gagea lusitanica A.Terracc. – Spain, Portugal
  • Gagea lutea (L.) Ker Gawl. – Yellow Star-of-Bethlehem – Eurasia from Spain to Japan
  • Gagea luteoides Stapf – Caucasus, Middle East
  • Gagea maeotica Artemczuk – Ukraine, Russia incl North Caucasus
  • Gagea marchica Henker – Germany
  • Gagea mauritanica Durieu – France, Italy, Balearic Islands, Algeria
  • Gagea menitskyi Levichev – Iran, South Caucasus
  • Gagea mergalahensis Ali & Levichev – Western Himalayas, Pakistan
  • Gagea michaelis Golosk. – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
  • Gagea micrantha (Boiss.) Pascher – Lebanon, Syria
  • Gagea minima (L.) Ker Gawl. – Europe, Caucasus
  • Gagea minutiflora Regel – Central Asia
  • Gagea minutissima Vved. – Tajikiistan
  • Gagea multipedunculifera Levichev – Kyrgyzstan
  • Gagea nabievii Levichev – Uzbekistan
  • Gagea nakaiana Kitag. – eastern + central Asia, Himalayas
  • Gagea neopopovii Golosk. – Kazakhstan, Xinjiang
  • Gagea nevadensis Boiss. – Spain, Morocco
  • Gagea noltiei Peruzzi. syn Lloydia delicatula – Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan
  • Gagea novoascanica Klokov – Ukraine
  • Gagea olgae Regel – Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Central Asia, Xinjiang
  • Gagea paedophila Vved. – Tajikiistan, Afghanistan
  • Gagea pakistanica Levichev & Ali – Western Himalayas, Pakistan
  • Gagea paniculata Levichev – Uzbekistan
  • Gagea pauciflora (Turcz. ex Trautv.) Ledeb. – Asiatic Russia, China, Mongolia
  • Gagea pedata Levichev – Kyrgyzstan
  • Gagea peduncularis (C.Presl) Pascher – Mediterranean
  • Gagea podolica Schult. & Schult.f. – Russia, Ukraine
  • Gagea polymorpha Boiss. – Spain
  • Gagea popovii Vved. – Central Asia
  • Gagea praemixta Vved. – Uzbekistan
  • Gagea pratensis (Pers.) Dumort. – Meadow Gagea – Europe, Morocco, Turkey
  • Gagea pseudominutiflora Levichev – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
  • Gagea punjabica Levichev & Ali – Western Himalayas, Pakistan
  • Gagea pusilla (F.W.Schmidt) Sweet – Europe, Kazakhstan
  • Gagea quasitenuifolia Levichev – Caucasus, Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan
  • Gagea quettica Levichev & Ali – Pakistan
  • Gagea ramulosa A.Terracc. – eastern Mediterranean, Black Sea region
  • Gagea rawalpindica Levichev & Ali – Pakistan
  • Gagea reinhardii Levichev – Uzbekistan
  • Gagea reticulata (Pall.) Schult. & Schult.f. SE Europe, N Africa, SW Asia
  • Gagea reverchonii Degen – Spain
  • Gagea rigida Boiss. & Spruner – Middle East, eastern Mediterranean
  • Gagea robusta Zarrei & Wilkin – Iran, Afghanistan
  • Gagea rubicunda Meinsh. – Russia, Baltic Republics
  • Gagea rubinae Ali – Pakistan
  • Gagea rufidula Levichev – Kyrgyzstan
  • Gagea rupicola Levichev – Uzbekistan
  • Gagea sarmentosa K.Koch – Caucasus, Iran
  • Gagea sarysuensis Murz. – Kazakhstan
  • Gagea schachimardanica Levichev – Uzbekistan
  • Gagea schugnanica Levichev & Navruzsh. – Tajikistan
  • Gagea scythica Artemczuk – Russia, Ukraine
  • Gagea serotina (L.) Ker Gawl. – Arctic + Subarctic Eurasia + North America
  • Gagea setifolia Baker – Caucasus, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Himalayas, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan
  • Gagea shmakoviana Levichev – Altay Krai
  • Gagea sicula Lojac. – Sicily
  • Gagea siphonantha Rech.f. – Afghanistan
  • Gagea sivasica Hamzaoglu – Turkey
  • Gagea soleirolii F.W.Schultz – Spain, France, Portugal, Sardinia
  • Gagea spathacea (Hayne) Salisb. – Europe
  • Gagea spumosa Levichev – Pakistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan
  • Gagea staintonii Rech.f. – Afghanistan, Pakistan
  • Gagea stepposa L.Z.Shue – Xinjiang
  • Gagea subtilis Vved. – Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan
  • Gagea subtrigona J.-M.Tison – Spain, Morocco
  • Gagea sulfurea Miscz. – Turkey, Caucasus
  • Gagea tadshikistanica Levichev – Tajikistan
  • Gagea takhtajanii Levichev – Uzbekistan
  • Gagea talassica Levichev – Kyrgyzstan
  • Gagea taschkentica Levichev – Uzbekistan
  • Gagea taurica Steven – Crimea, North Caucasus
  • Gagea tenera Pascher – central + southwest Asia, Xinjiang, Himalayas
  • Gagea tenuissima Miscz. – Caucasus, Turkey
  • Gagea tesquicola Krasnova – Ukraine
  • Gagea tisoniana Peruzzi – Italy
  • Gagea toktogulii Levichev – Kyrgyzstan
  • Gagea toppinii S.Dasgupta & D.B.Deb – Pakistan
  • Gagea transversalis (Pall.) Steven – eastern Europe
  • Gagea triflora (Ledeb.) Schult. & Schult.f. – Russian Far East, Korea, Japan, northeastern China
  • Gagea trinervia (Viv.) Greuter – Sicily, Libya
  • Gagea turanica Levichev – South Caucasus, Iran, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
  • Gagea ucrainica Klokov – Ukraine, Russia, Xinjiang, Mongolia
  • Gagea ugamica Pavlov – Kazakhstan
  • Gagea ulazsaica Levichev – Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan
  • Gagea uliginosa Siehe & Pascher – Iran, Iraq, Turkey
  • Gagea utriculosa Levichev – Himachal Pradesh
  • Gagea vaginata Pascher – Kuril Islands, Hokkaido
  • Gagea vegeta Vved. – Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Caucasus
  • Gagea villosa (M.Bieb.) Sweet – Field Gagea – Europe, Mediterranean, Middle East
  • Gagea villosula Vved. – Tajikistan
  • Gagea vvedenskyi Grossh. – Central Asia, Afghanistan, Pakistan
  • Gagea wallichii Levichev & Ali – Western Himalaya
  • Gagea wendelboi Rech.f. – Iran
  • Gagea xiphoidea Levichev – Altay Krai

References

  1. 1 2 3 "Lloydia". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2014-01-09.
  2. Salisbury, Richard Anthony. 1806" Annals of Botany 2: 555
  3. Zarrei, M.; Zarre, S.; Wilkin, P.; Rix, M. (2007). "Systematic revision of the genus Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) in Iran". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 154: 559–588. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2007.00678.x.
  4. Tison, J.M. (2009). An update of the genus Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) in the Iberian peninsula. Lagascalia 29: 7-22
  5. Altervista Flora Italiana, genere Gagea
  6. Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 117 顶冰花属 ding bing hua shu Gagea Salisbury, Ann. Bot. (Oxford). 2: 555. 1806.
  7. Flora of China, Vol. 24 Page 121 洼瓣花属 wa ban hua shu Lloydia Reichenbach, Fl. Germ. Excurs. 102. 1830.
  8. Tutin, T.G.; Heywood, V.H.; Burges, N.A.; Moore, D.M.; Valentine, D.H.; Walters, S.M. & Webb, D.A., eds. (1980). Flora Europaea. 5. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-20108-7. p. 25.
  9. "Gagea". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2014-01-09.

Bibliography

  • Peterson, Angela; Levichev, Igor G.; Peterson, Jens (February 2008). "Systematics of Gagea and Lloydia (Liliaceae) and infrageneric classification of Gagea based on molecular and morphological data". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 46 (2): 446–465. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.11.016. PMID 18180173. 
  • Tison, Jean-Marc; Peterson, Angela; Harpke, Dörte; Peruzzi, Lorenzo (28 November 2012). "Reticulate evolution of the critical Mediterranean Gagea sect. Didymobulbos (Liliaceae) and its taxonomic implications". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 299 (2): 413–438. doi:10.1007/s00606-012-0731-4. 
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