French conquest of Morocco

French conquest of Morocco

Map showing the area conquered by period.
Zaian War (1914–21)
Rif War (1920–26)
Middle Atlas campaign (1932–34)
Anti-Atlas campaign (20 February – 10 March 1934)
Date1911 (1911)–1934 (1934)
LocationNorth Africa
Result French victory
Belligerents

France


Zaian Confederation
Varying other Berber tribes
Commanders and leaders
Louis-Hubert Lyautey
Paul Prosper Henrys
Joseph-François Poeymirau
Philippe Pétain

Abdel-Salam Mohammed Abdel-Karim
Mhamadi Bojabbar Mohamed
Mouha ou Hammou Zayani
Moha ou Said
Ali Amhaouch
Assou Oubasslam
Casualties and losses
  • 9,445 French regulars (622 officers) killed
  • 11,254 natives killed
  • 15,000 wounded[1]
Unknown

The French conquest of Morocco took place in 1911 in the aftermath of the Agadir Crisis, when Moroccan forces besieged the French-occupied city of Fez. On 30 March 1912, Sultan Abdelhafid signed the Treaty of Fez, formally ceding Moroccan sovereignty to France, transforming Morocco into a protectorate of France. However, many regions remained in revolt until 1934, when Morocco was declared to be pacified, but in several regions French authority was maintained by cooperation with local chiefs and not military strength.[2]

On 17 April 1912, Moroccan infantrymen mutinied in the French garrison in Fez. The Moroccans were unable to take the city and were defeated by a French relief force. In late May 1912, Moroccan forces unsuccessfully attacked the enhanced French garrison at Fez. The last aftermath of the conquest of Morocco occurred in 1933–34, the pacification of Morocco took over 22 years.[3][4]

See also

References

  1. Gershovich, Moshe (2012). French Military Rule in Morocco: Colonialism and its Consequences. Routledge. ISBN 9781136325878.
  2. Bradford, James C. (2004-12-01). International Encyclopedia of Military History. Routledge. p. 904. ISBN 9781135950347.
  3. King Hassan II: Morocco's Messenger of Peace. ProQuest. 2007-01-01. p. 12. ISBN 9780549338512.
  4. Hart, David M. (2014-05-12). Tribe and Society in Rural Morocco. Routledge. p. 23. ISBN 9781135302542.

Further reading

  • Bidwell, Robin (1973). Morocco under Colonial Rule: French Administration of Tribal Areas 1912–1956. London: Cass. ISBN 0-7146-2877-8. 
  • Burke, E. (1972). "Pan-Islam and Moroccan resistance to French colonial penetration, 1900–1912". The Journal of African History. 13 (1): 97–118. doi:10.1017/S0021853700000281. 


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