French conquest of Morocco
|French conquest of Morocco|
Map showing the area conquered by period.
Zaian War (1914–21)
Rif War (1920–26)
Middle Atlas campaign (1932–34)
Anti-Atlas campaign (20 February – 10 March 1934)
Varying other Berber tribes
|Commanders and leaders|
Paul Prosper Henrys
Abdel-Salam Mohammed Abdel-Karim
Mhamadi Bojabbar Mohamed
Mouha ou Hammou Zayani
Moha ou Said
|Casualties and losses|
The French conquest of Morocco took place in 1911 in the aftermath of the Agadir Crisis, when Moroccan forces besieged the French-occupied city of Fez. On 30 March 1912, Sultan Abdelhafid signed the Treaty of Fez, formally ceding Moroccan sovereignty to France, transforming Morocco into a protectorate of France. However, many regions remained in revolt until 1934, when Morocco was declared to be pacified, but in several regions French authority was maintained by cooperation with local chiefs and not military strength.
On 17 April 1912, Moroccan infantrymen mutinied in the French garrison in Fez. The Moroccans were unable to take the city and were defeated by a French relief force. In late May 1912, Moroccan forces unsuccessfully attacked the enhanced French garrison at Fez. The last aftermath of the conquest of Morocco occurred in 1933–34, the pacification of Morocco took over 22 years.
- Gershovich, Moshe (2012). French Military Rule in Morocco: Colonialism and its Consequences. Routledge. ISBN 9781136325878.
- Bradford, James C. (2004-12-01). International Encyclopedia of Military History. Routledge. p. 904. ISBN 9781135950347.
- King Hassan II: Morocco's Messenger of Peace. ProQuest. 2007-01-01. p. 12. ISBN 9780549338512.
- Hart, David M. (2014-05-12). Tribe and Society in Rural Morocco. Routledge. p. 23. ISBN 9781135302542.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to French Morocco.|
- Bidwell, Robin (1973). Morocco under Colonial Rule: French Administration of Tribal Areas 1912–1956. London: Cass. ISBN 0-7146-2877-8.
- Burke, E. (1972). "Pan-Islam and Moroccan resistance to French colonial penetration, 1900–1912". The Journal of African History. 13 (1): 97–118. doi:10.1017/S0021853700000281.