French North Africa
|French conquests in North Africa|
Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia in the 19th century
|Casualties and losses|
9,445 dead (1911–34)
500,000–1,000,000 dead (1830–75)
100,000 dead (1911–34)
The origins of French North Africa lay in the decline of the Ottoman Empire, which had loosely controlled the area since the 16th century. In 1830, the French captured Algiers; and, from 1848 until independence in 1962, Algeria was treated as an integral part of France. Seeking to expand their influence beyond Algeria, the French established protectorates to the east and west of it. The French protectorate of Tunisia was established in 1881, following a military invasion, the French protectorate in Morocco in 1912. These lasted until 1955, in the case of Morocco, and 1956, when full Tunisian independence arrived.
- The Making of Contemporary Algeria, 1830-1987.
- Phases of Terrorism in the Age of Globalization: From Christopher Columbus to Osama bin Laden.
- Gershovich, Moshe (2012). French Military Rule in Morocco: Colonialism and its Consequences. Routledge. p. 74. ISBN 9781136325878.
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- Thomas, Martin, French Empire Between the Wars (2005)
- Wallerstein, Immanuel M., Africa: The Politics of Independence and Unity (1961)